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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762462

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: JL1, a CD43 epitope and mucin family cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on leukemic cells. An anti-JL1 antibody combined with a toxic substance can have targeted therapeutic effects against JL1-positive leukemia; however, JL1 expression on bone marrow (BM) lymphoma cells has not been assessed using flow cytometry. We investigated JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells from patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to assess the potential of JL1 as a therapeutic target. METHODS: Patients with BM involvement of mature B-cell (N=44) or T- and natural killer (NK)-cell (N=4) lymphomas were enrolled from May 2015 to September 2016. JL1 expression on BM lymphoma cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Clinical, pathological, and cytogenetic characteristics, and treatment responses were compared according to JL1 expression status. RESULTS: Of the patients with NHL and BM involvement, 37.5% (18/48) were JL1-positive. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, 100%, 38.9%, 33.3%, 100%, and 25.0% of Burkitt lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell leukemias, mantle cell leukemias, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, and other B-cell lymphomas, respectively, were JL1-positive. Three mature T- and NK-cell NHLs were JL1-positive. JL1 expression was associated with age (P=0.045), complete response (P=0.004), and BM involvement at follow-up (P=0.017), but not with sex, performance status, the B symptoms, packed marrow pattern, cytogenetic abnormalities, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: JL1 positivity was associated with superior complete response and less BM involvement in NHL following chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Bone Marrow , Burkitt Lymphoma , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Drug Therapy , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, B-Cell , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mucins , Therapeutic Uses , Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831062

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The presentations and geographic incidence of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) differfrom those of adults. This study delineated the characteristics and outcomes of pediatricNHL in East Asia. @*Materials and Methods@#Medical records of 749 pediatric patients with NHL treated at participating institutions inmainland China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan from January 2008 to December 2013 werereviewed. Demographic and clinical features, survival outcomes, and putative prognosticfactors were analyzed. @*Results@#Five hundred thirty patients (71%) were male. The most common pathologic subtypes wereBurkitt lymphoma (BL) (36%). Six hundred seven patients (81%) had advanced diseases atdiagnosis. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 89% and 84%.The 5-year EFS rates of BL, lymphoblastic lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphomawere 88%, 88%, and 89%, and those of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and peripheralT-cell lymphoma (PTCL) were 71% and 56% (p 250 IU/mL), and advanced disease at diagnosis( stage III) were associated with poor outcomes (p < 0.05). ALCL and PTCL relapsedmore frequently than other pathologic subtypes (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#In East Asia, PTCL was more frequent than in Western countries, and bone marrow involvementdid not affect treatment outcome. This international study should motivate future collaborativestudy on NHL in East Asia.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexrazoxane has been used as an effective cardioprotector against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. This study intended to analyze cardioprotective efficacy and secondary malignancy development, and elucidate risk factors for secondary malignancies in dexrazoxane-treated pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected from 15 hospitals in Korea. Patients who received any anthracyclines, and completed treatment without stem cell transplantation were included. For efficacy evaluation, the incidence of cardiac events and cardiac event-free survival rates were compared. Data about risk factors of secondary malignancies were collected. RESULTS: Data of total 1,453 cases were analyzed; dexrazoxane with every anthracyclines group (D group, 1,035 patients) and no dexrazoxane group (non-D group, 418 patients). Incidence of the reported cardiac events was not statistically different between two groups; however, the cardiac event-free survival rate of patients with more than 400 mg/m2 of anthracyclines was significantly higher in D group (91.2% vs. 80.1%, p=0.04). The 6-year cumulative incidence of secondary malignancy was not different between both groups after considering follow-up duration difference (non-D, 0.52%±0.37%; D, 0.60%±0.28%; p=0.55). The most influential risk factor for secondary malignancy was the duration of anthracycline administration according to multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Dexrazoxane had an efficacy in lowering cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with higher cumulative anthracyclines. As a result of multivariate analysis for assessing risk factors of secondary malignancy, the occurrence of secondary malignancy was not related to dexrazoxane administration.


Subject(s)
Anthracyclines , Cardiotoxicity , Dexrazoxane , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. Alveolar RMS (ARMS) is characterized by FOXO1-related chromosomal translocations that result in a poorer clinical outcome compared with embryonal RMS (ERMS). Because the chromosomal features of RMS have not been comprehensively defined, we analyzed the clinical and laboratory data of childhood RMS patients and determined the clinical significance of chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow. METHODS: Fifty-one Korean patients with RMS < 18 years of age treated between 2001 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. Clinical factors, bone marrow and cytogenetic results, and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 36 patients (70.6%) had ERMS and 15 (29.4%) had ARMS; 80% of the ARMS patients had stage IV disease. The incidences of bone and bone marrow metastases were 21.6% and 19.6%, respectively, and these results were higher than previously reported results. Of the 40 patients who underwent bone marrow cytogenetic investigation, five patients had chromosomal abnormalities associated with the 13q14 rearrangement. Patients with a chromosomal abnormality (15 vs 61 months, P=0.037) and bone marrow involvement (17 vs 61 months, P=0.033) had a significantly shorter median OS than those without such characteristics. Two novel rearrangements associated with the 13q14 locus were detected. One patient with concomitant MYCN amplification and PAX3/FOXO1 fusion showed an aggressive clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive approach involving conventional cytogenetics and FOXO1 FISH of the bone marrow is needed to assess high-risk ARMS patients and identify novel cytogenetic findings.


Subject(s)
Arm , Bone Marrow , Child , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Humans , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rhabdomyosarcoma , Sarcoma , Translocation, Genetic
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) has worse prognosis than B-cell ALL. We aimed to evaluate prognostic variables in pediatric T-ALL. METHODS: Medical records of 36 T-ALL patients (27 males and 9 females; median age at diagnosis, 10.6 years) diagnosed and treated at Asan Medical Center from 2001 to 2017 were reviewed. Six patients (16.7%) had early T-cell precursor ALL (ETP-ALL). Most patients received the Children's Cancer Group-1882 (CCG1882) or Korean multicenter high risk ALL (ALL0601) protocols and prophylactic cranial irradiation. Clinical features at presentation, response to therapy, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The six patients with ETP-ALL and 17 of 30 with non-ETP-ALL received CCG1882 or ALL0601 chemotherapy. Three patients, including two with ETP-ALL, did not achieve complete remission after induction. Rapid early response during induction was achieved by 26 patients. Five year overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) rates were 71.4% and 70.2%, respectively. ETP-ALL and slow early response during induction were significant adverse prognostic factors, while hyperleukocytosis at diagnosis was not. CCG1882/ALL0601 chemotherapy resulted in superior survival (OS: 78.9%, EFS: 73.3%) compared with CCG1901 chemotherapy (OS: 64.3%, EFS: 64.3%), and patients undergoing prophylactic cranial irradiation had superior EFS to non-radiated patients. CONCLUSION: A high risk ALL protocol with intensified post-remission therapy, including prophylactic cranial irradiation, conferred T-ALL survival outcomes comparable with those of Western studies. Further treatment intensification should be considered for patients with ETP-ALL and slow induction responders. Additionally, CNS-directed treatment intensification, without prophylactic cranial irradiation, is needed.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Cranial Irradiation , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, T-Lymphoid , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the overall survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approaches 85-90%, the prognosis of relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL is grave. This study aimed to identify the treatment pattern, treatment response, and overall survival of these patients. METHODS: We reviewed data of 64 patients with R/R ALL whose initial diagnosis of ALL had been made between 1 and 21 years of age. Patients who received clofarabine as part of an induction regimen were excluded. Relapsed patients were limited to those who relapsed after ≥2 prior induction regimens. Treatment patterns, response rates, and overall survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 15.0 years (range, 6.0-25.0) at the diagnosis of R/R ALL. The most frequently used agents other than steroid were vincristine (54.0%), cytarabine (44.6%), and idarubicin (36.5%), while L-asparaginase was used in only one patient. The complete remission (CR) and overall response (OR) rates were 38.1 and 42.9%, respectively. Sixteen patients (25.4%) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The 5-year overall survival was 6.7%. The survival of patients with HSCT was significantly higher compared with those without HSCT (35.2% vs 0%, P=0.0097). Among 14 patients who achieved CR or CR without platelet recovery (CRp) before HSCT, the 3-year survival was 46.9%. CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean patients with R/R childhood ALL was dismal despite a reasonable CR rate, whereas that of those who received HSCT after CR or CRp was excellent. More treatment options are needed to improve the overall outcome of R/R childhood ALL.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cytarabine , Diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Idarubicin , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23103

ABSTRACT

Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is the most common subtype of pediatric acute leukemia, generally has a good prognosis. However, the prognosis also depends on the genetic abnormalities of the leukemic blast. Concurrent MYC and IGH/BCL2 translocations have recently been reported as a “double hit” in adult patients, but non-immunoglobulin (non-IG)/MYC translocation has rarely been reported. In this paper, we report a case of pediatric precursor B-cell ALL associated with translocations (14;18)(q32;q21) and (8;9)(q24;p13). The patient was a previously healthy 13-year-old boy. Complete remission was not achieved after first-line four-drug induction chemotherapy; thus, intensive salvage regimen, including high-dose cytarabine and L-asparaginase, were administered, which resulted in morphologic remission. However, his disease relapsed during the second cycle of salvage regimen, and he died of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cytarabine , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia , Male , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid , Prognosis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23101

ABSTRACT

Isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a very rare disease in childhood. We report a case of a 5-month-old girl with isolated pulmonary LCH, who was transferred due to incidental chest x-ray finding of multiple cystic lesions without any clinical symptoms. Chest computed tomography (CT) finding suggested that pulmonary LCH was likely, but evaluations including lung biopsy were negative. At a follow-up visit three months later, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis and confirmed the presence of CD1a-positive cells, thereby confirming diagnosis of pulmonary LCH. After completing eight months of chemotherapy, yearly follow-up evaluations were performed and there has been no evidence of reactivation of the disease for four years. Based on our case, we suggest that BAL with immunohistochemical staining can be a valuable modality to eliminate the possibility of infection and other infiltrating disorders, and diagnose pulmonary LCH in case of suspicious pulmonary lesions.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell , Humans , Infant , Lung , Rare Diseases , Thorax
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49314

ABSTRACT

This multicenter, prospective trial was conducted to develop an effective and safe reinduction regimen for marrow-relapsed pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by modifying the dose of idarubicin. Between 2006 and 2009, the trial accrued 44 patients, 1 to 21 years old with first marrow-relapsed ALL. The reinduction regimen comprised prednisolone, vincristine, L-asparaginase, and idarubicin (10 mg/m²/week). The idarubicin dose was adjusted according to the degree of myelosuppression. The second complete remission (CR2) rate was 72.7%, obtained by 54.2% of patients with early relapse < 24 months after initial diagnosis and 95.0% of those with late relapse (P = 0.002). Five patients entered remission with extended treatment, resulting in a final CR2 rate of 84.1%. The CR2 rate was not significantly different according to the idarubicin dose. The induction death rate was 2.3% (1/44). The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates were 22.2% ± 6.4% and 27.3% ± 6.7% for all patients, 4.2% ± 4.1% and 8.3% ± 5.6% for early relapsers, and 43.8% ± 11.4% and 50.0% ± 11.2% for late relapsers, respectively. Early relapse and slow response to reinduction chemotherapy were predictors of poor outcomes. In conclusion, a modified dose of idarubicin was effectively incorporated into the reinduction regimen for late marrow-relapsed ALL with a low toxic death rate. However, the CR2 rate for early relapsers was suboptimal, and the second remission was not durable in most patients.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165881

ABSTRACT

Primary airway tumors are rare in children and no literature reviewed their characteristics each location. We evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Korean children with primary airway tumors, from the larynx to bronchi. A retrospective chart review of children with primary tumors of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi at Asan Medical Center from January 2000 to July 2016 was conducted. Nineteen children were diagnosed with primary airway tumors of the larynx (47.4%), trachea (10.5%), and bronchi (42.1%). Median follow-up duration was 2.8 years and there were recurrences in 21.1%. Laryngeal tumors were associated with a younger median age at onset (2 months) and diagnosis (4 months), and most were relatively small (median size = 5.3 mm) and symptomatic. Tracheal and bronchial tumors were found in older children (age at onset and diagnosis > 11 years) and large (> 15.0 mm). Most (75%) patients with bronchial tumors were asymptomatic and all the patients with tracheal tumors were symptomatic. This study suggests that we should consider different the locations in primary airway tumor based on the age at onset and diagnosis, initial symptoms or signs, and size of tumor.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Bronchi , Child , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Larynx , Pediatrics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Trachea
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the overall survival of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approaches 85-90%, the prognosis of relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL is grave. This study aimed to identify the treatment pattern, treatment response, and overall survival of these patients.METHODS: We reviewed data of 64 patients with R/R ALL whose initial diagnosis of ALL had been made between 1 and 21 years of age. Patients who received clofarabine as part of an induction regimen were excluded. Relapsed patients were limited to those who relapsed after ≥2 prior induction regimens. Treatment patterns, response rates, and overall survival were analyzed.RESULTS: Patients' median age was 15.0 years (range, 6.0-25.0) at the diagnosis of R/R ALL. The most frequently used agents other than steroid were vincristine (54.0%), cytarabine (44.6%), and idarubicin (36.5%), while L-asparaginase was used in only one patient. The complete remission (CR) and overall response (OR) rates were 38.1 and 42.9%, respectively. Sixteen patients (25.4%) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The 5-year overall survival was 6.7%. The survival of patients with HSCT was significantly higher compared with those without HSCT (35.2% vs 0%, P=0.0097). Among 14 patients who achieved CR or CR without platelet recovery (CRp) before HSCT, the 3-year survival was 46.9%.CONCLUSION: The survival of Korean patients with R/R childhood ALL was dismal despite a reasonable CR rate, whereas that of those who received HSCT after CR or CRp was excellent. More treatment options are needed to improve the overall outcome of R/R childhood ALL.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cytarabine , Diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Idarubicin , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Vincristine
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788605

ABSTRACT

Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is the most common subtype of pediatric acute leukemia, generally has a good prognosis. However, the prognosis also depends on the genetic abnormalities of the leukemic blast. Concurrent MYC and IGH/BCL2 translocations have recently been reported as a “double hit” in adult patients, but non-immunoglobulin (non-IG)/MYC translocation has rarely been reported. In this paper, we report a case of pediatric precursor B-cell ALL associated with translocations (14;18)(q32;q21) and (8;9)(q24;p13). The patient was a previously healthy 13-year-old boy. Complete remission was not achieved after first-line four-drug induction chemotherapy; thus, intensive salvage regimen, including high-dose cytarabine and L-asparaginase, were administered, which resulted in morphologic remission. However, his disease relapsed during the second cycle of salvage regimen, and he died of sepsis-induced multiorgan failure.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cytarabine , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia , Male , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid , Prognosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788603

ABSTRACT

Isolated pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a very rare disease in childhood. We report a case of a 5-month-old girl with isolated pulmonary LCH, who was transferred due to incidental chest x-ray finding of multiple cystic lesions without any clinical symptoms. Chest computed tomography (CT) finding suggested that pulmonary LCH was likely, but evaluations including lung biopsy were negative. At a follow-up visit three months later, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis and confirmed the presence of CD1a-positive cells, thereby confirming diagnosis of pulmonary LCH. After completing eight months of chemotherapy, yearly follow-up evaluations were performed and there has been no evidence of reactivation of the disease for four years. Based on our case, we suggest that BAL with immunohistochemical staining can be a valuable modality to eliminate the possibility of infection and other infiltrating disorders, and diagnose pulmonary LCH in case of suspicious pulmonary lesions.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell , Humans , Infant , Lung , Rare Diseases , Thorax
16.
Blood Research ; : 8-16, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23504

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment for children and adolescents with various malignant and non-malignant diseases. While human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor is the preferred choice, matched unrelated volunteer donor is another realistic option for successful HSCT. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to find a HLA-matched donor for patients requiring HSCT, leading to a considerable number of deaths of patients without undergoing transplantation. Alternatively, allogeneic HSCT from haploidentical family members could provide donors for virtually all patients who need HSCT. Although the early attempts at allogeneic HSCT from haploidentical family donor (HFD) were disappointing, recent advances in the effective ex vivo depletion of T cells or unmanipulated in vivo regulation of T cells, better supportive care, and optimal conditioning regimens have significantly improved the outcomes of haploidentical HSCT. The ex vivo techniques used to remove T cells have evolved from the selection of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell progenitors to the depletion of CD3+ cells, and more recently to the depletion of αβ+ T cells. The recent emerging evidence for ex vivo T cell-depleted haploidentical HSCT has provided additional therapeutic options for pediatric patients with diseases curable by HSCT but has not found a suitable related or unrelated donor. This review discusses recent advances in haploidentical HSCT, focusing on transplant using ex vivo T cell-depleted grafts. In addition, our experiences with this novel approach for the treatment of pediatric patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases are described.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Leukocytes , Siblings , T-Lymphocytes , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Unrelated Donors , Volunteers
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphomas, there are 4 major subtypes: Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Understanding of other rare subtypes derives only from small pediatric case series. We report our institutional experience with rare pediatric NHLs. METHODS: Thirty-six cases of rare NHL subtypes diagnosed at the Asan Medical Center from 1995 to 2015 were evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes of these patients, excluding peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS), and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL), on which we have previously reported. RESULTS: There were 23 cases of T-cell lineage (13 PTCL, 6 ENKL, 2 subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, 1 primary cutaneous CD4+2016-11-22 small/medium sized T-cell lymphoma, 1 enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma) and 13 cases of B-cell lineage lymphoma (5 marginal zone lymphoma, 6 primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, 2 immunoblastic and plasmablastic lymphoma). All patients were treated with chemotherapy with or without surgery, except 4 out of 5 patients with marginal zone lymphoma who received surgery only. Two patients died and 6 patients relapsed. One patient with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates of rare pediatric NHL excluding PTCL, NOS, and ENKL was 80.0% and 72.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Children diagnosed with rare pediatric NHL other than PTCL, NOS, and ENKL showed variable incidence and treatment outcomes. Multicenter studies in larger cohorts are needed for better understanding of these rare NHL subtypes in childhood.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Burkitt Lymphoma , Child , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Incidence , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Retrospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97102

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may not be considered feasible in a patient with active fungal infection due to transplant-related mortality. We report a case of HSCT performed on a 6-month-old girl, who was diagnosed with very severe aplastic anemia (vSAA) at the age of 2 months, during active invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Despite receiving continuous antifungal treatment and multiple granulocyte infusions, her IPA was aggravated. She underwent allogeneic HSCT from a matched sibling donor using conditioning regimen of fludarabine, reduced dose of cyclophosphamide, and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) during IPA. After neutrophil engraftment, fever subsided and IPA improved. She was continued on voriconazole for 7 months after HSCT. She is alive with normal hematopoiesis 4 years post-transplant. Our report suggests that allogeneic HSCT using conditioning regimen of fludarabine, reduced dose of cyclophosphamide, and ATG can be a feasible option for the patients with vSAA even during active fungal infection.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Antilymphocyte Serum , Cyclophosphamide , Female , Fever , Granulocytes , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Infant , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Mortality , Neutrophils , Siblings , Tissue Donors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphomas, there are 4 major subtypes: Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Understanding of other rare subtypes derives only from small pediatric case series. We report our institutional experience with rare pediatric NHLs.METHODS: Thirty-six cases of rare NHL subtypes diagnosed at the Asan Medical Center from 1995 to 2015 were evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathologic features and outcomes of these patients, excluding peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS), and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL), on which we have previously reported.RESULTS: There were 23 cases of T-cell lineage (13 PTCL, 6 ENKL, 2 subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, 1 primary cutaneous CD4+2016-11-22 small/medium sized T-cell lymphoma, 1 enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma) and 13 cases of B-cell lineage lymphoma (5 marginal zone lymphoma, 6 primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, 2 immunoblastic and plasmablastic lymphoma). All patients were treated with chemotherapy with or without surgery, except 4 out of 5 patients with marginal zone lymphoma who received surgery only. Two patients died and 6 patients relapsed. One patient with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates of rare pediatric NHL excluding PTCL, NOS, and ENKL was 80.0% and 72.0%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Children diagnosed with rare pediatric NHL other than PTCL, NOS, and ENKL showed variable incidence and treatment outcomes. Multicenter studies in larger cohorts are needed for better understanding of these rare NHL subtypes in childhood.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Burkitt Lymphoma , Child , Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Incidence , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Retrospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788565

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may not be considered feasible in a patient with active fungal infection due to transplant-related mortality. We report a case of HSCT performed on a 6-month-old girl, who was diagnosed with very severe aplastic anemia (vSAA) at the age of 2 months, during active invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Despite receiving continuous antifungal treatment and multiple granulocyte infusions, her IPA was aggravated. She underwent allogeneic HSCT from a matched sibling donor using conditioning regimen of fludarabine, reduced dose of cyclophosphamide, and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) during IPA. After neutrophil engraftment, fever subsided and IPA improved. She was continued on voriconazole for 7 months after HSCT. She is alive with normal hematopoiesis 4 years post-transplant. Our report suggests that allogeneic HSCT using conditioning regimen of fludarabine, reduced dose of cyclophosphamide, and ATG can be a feasible option for the patients with vSAA even during active fungal infection.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , Antilymphocyte Serum , Cyclophosphamide , Female , Fever , Granulocytes , Hematopoiesis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Infant , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Mortality , Neutrophils , Siblings , Tissue Donors
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