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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 822-828, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904300

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Funisitis, inflammation of the umbilical cord, is considered a strong risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes; however, a clinical definition of funisitis has not been established. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of funisitis in twin neonates with spontaneous preterm birth. @*Materials and Methods@#The study included preterm twin neonates (<35 weeks) delivered after spontaneous preterm labor and/ or preterm premature rupture of amniotic membranes. The presence of funisitis was examined in the umbilical cord of each twin.We analyzed the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes according to the presence and absence of funisitis. Adverse neonatal outcomes were defined as the occurrence of neonatal mortality, significant morbidity, or both. @*Results@#Among 474 preterm neonates (237 twin pairs) included in this study, the frequency of funisitis was 6.5% (31 cases). Funisitis was significantly associated with neonatal mortality and adverse neonatal outcomes after adjustment for confounding variables [neonatal mortality, odds ratio (OR) 9.043, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.620–31.204; adverse neonatal outcome, OR 2.445, 95% CI 1.017–5.875]. The concordance rate of funisitis between the twins was 10.7%, and in the absence of funisitis in one twin, the risk of neonatal mortality or adverse neonatal outcome was not influenced by the presence of funisitis in the other twin. @*Conclusion@#The presence of funisitis appears to be associated with an increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes in twin neonates with spontaneous preterm birth.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903714

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because ankylosing spondylitis (AS) mainly affects sacroiliac joints, special attention should be given to normal labour and pregnancy outcomes. Here, we investigate pregnancy outcomes in Korean women with AS. @*Methods@#Based on data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database since July 2007, maternal complications were compared between women with AS and 1:10 matched general population by maternal age and year of delivery. Additionally, the 27 deliveries from 21 patients with AS who were seen at a tertiary hospital were retrospectively evaluated using 1:4 matched control group by maternal and gestational age. @*Results@#In the population-based cohort, there were 1,293 deliveries in 996 patients with AS. Higher maternal age and more comorbidities were reported than in the general population. However, compared to age and delivery-year matched population, only the rate of Caesarean section (CS) was higher in women with AS (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 1.70). Incidence of other maternal complications was comparable between women with AS and control subjects. In the hospital-based cohort, the CS rate was higher in women with AS (44.4% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.002). Causes of CS was not different in both groups, including previous uterine surgery. There were no significant differences in foetal outcomes, including growth restriction, foetal malformations and Apgar score. @*Conclusions@#CS deliveries were performed more often in women with AS. However, other maternal complications and offspring complications were similar between women with AS and healthy control subjects.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874775

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), is associated with increased risk of thrombosis and obstetric complications, including preterm delivery and recurrent pregnancy losses. APS shows diverse clinical manifestations and the risk of complications varies among clinical subtypes. Although these patients are usually treated with aspirin and anticoagulants, the optimal treatment in various clinical settings is unclear, as the risk of complications vary among clinical subtypes and the management strategy depends on whether the patient is pregnant or not. Also, there are unmet needs for the evidence-based, pregnancyrelated treatment of asymptomatic women positive for aPL. This review focuses on the management of positive aPL or APS in pregnant and postpartum women, and in women attempting to become pregnant. For asymptomatic aPL positive women, no treatment, low dose aspirin (LDA) or LDA plus anticoagulants can be considered during antepartum and postpartum. In obstetric APS patients, preconceptional LDA is recommended. LDA plus low molecular weight heparin is administered after confirmation of pregnancy. Vascular APS patients should take frequent pregnancy test and receive heparin instead of warfarin after confirmation of pregnancy. During pregnancy, heparin plus LDA is recommended. Warfarin can be restarted 4 to 6 hours after vaginal delivery and 6 to 12 hours after cesarean delivery.Most importantly, a tailored approach and patient-oriented treatment are mandatory.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 822-828, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896596

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Funisitis, inflammation of the umbilical cord, is considered a strong risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes; however, a clinical definition of funisitis has not been established. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of funisitis in twin neonates with spontaneous preterm birth. @*Materials and Methods@#The study included preterm twin neonates (<35 weeks) delivered after spontaneous preterm labor and/ or preterm premature rupture of amniotic membranes. The presence of funisitis was examined in the umbilical cord of each twin.We analyzed the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes according to the presence and absence of funisitis. Adverse neonatal outcomes were defined as the occurrence of neonatal mortality, significant morbidity, or both. @*Results@#Among 474 preterm neonates (237 twin pairs) included in this study, the frequency of funisitis was 6.5% (31 cases). Funisitis was significantly associated with neonatal mortality and adverse neonatal outcomes after adjustment for confounding variables [neonatal mortality, odds ratio (OR) 9.043, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.620–31.204; adverse neonatal outcome, OR 2.445, 95% CI 1.017–5.875]. The concordance rate of funisitis between the twins was 10.7%, and in the absence of funisitis in one twin, the risk of neonatal mortality or adverse neonatal outcome was not influenced by the presence of funisitis in the other twin. @*Conclusion@#The presence of funisitis appears to be associated with an increased risk for adverse neonatal outcomes in twin neonates with spontaneous preterm birth.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896010

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Because ankylosing spondylitis (AS) mainly affects sacroiliac joints, special attention should be given to normal labour and pregnancy outcomes. Here, we investigate pregnancy outcomes in Korean women with AS. @*Methods@#Based on data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database since July 2007, maternal complications were compared between women with AS and 1:10 matched general population by maternal age and year of delivery. Additionally, the 27 deliveries from 21 patients with AS who were seen at a tertiary hospital were retrospectively evaluated using 1:4 matched control group by maternal and gestational age. @*Results@#In the population-based cohort, there were 1,293 deliveries in 996 patients with AS. Higher maternal age and more comorbidities were reported than in the general population. However, compared to age and delivery-year matched population, only the rate of Caesarean section (CS) was higher in women with AS (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 1.70). Incidence of other maternal complications was comparable between women with AS and control subjects. In the hospital-based cohort, the CS rate was higher in women with AS (44.4% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.002). Causes of CS was not different in both groups, including previous uterine surgery. There were no significant differences in foetal outcomes, including growth restriction, foetal malformations and Apgar score. @*Conclusions@#CS deliveries were performed more often in women with AS. However, other maternal complications and offspring complications were similar between women with AS and healthy control subjects.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915466

ABSTRACT

Background@#People are generally considered overweight and obese if their body mass index (BMI) is above 25 kg/m 2 and 30.0 kg/m 2 , respectively. The World Health Organization proposed stricter criteria for Asians (≥ 23 kg/m2 : overweight, ≥ 25 kg/m2 : obese). We aimed to verify whether this criteria could predict adverse pregnancy outcomes in Korean women. @*Methods@#We included 7,547 Korean women from 12 institutions enrolled between June 2016 and October 2018. Women with no pre-pregnancy BMI data, not Korean, or lost to followup were excluded, leaving 6,331. The subjects were categorized into underweight, normal, overweight, class I obesity, and class II/III obesity based on a pre-pregnancy BMI of < 18.5, 18.5–22.9, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–29.9, and ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 , respectively. @*Results@#Overall, 13.4%, 63.0%, 11.8%, 9.1%, and 2.6% of women were underweight, normal, and overweight and had class I obesity and class II/III obesity, respectively. In the multivariable analysis adjusted for maternal age, a higher BMI significantly increased the risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery caused by maternal-fetal indications, cesarean section, large for gestational age, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. @*Conclusion@#Adverse pregnancy outcomes started to increase in those with a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m2 after adjusting for maternal age. The modified obesity criteria could help predict adverse pregnancy outcomes in Koreans.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835779

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Duodenal atresia (DA) and atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) are well known ultrasonographic findings associated with Down syndrome. The risk of Down syndrome in fetuses with these anomalies has been reported as 30% to 40%. However, on the basis of our clinical experience, the risk of Down syndrome of DA may be lower in Korean population. To clarify this issue, we compared the risk of Down syndrome between cases with DA and AVSD. @*Materials and Methods@#The study population consisted of neonates who were confirmed as DA or AVSD by postnatal diagnosis. Postnatal diagnosis was made by surgery, postnatal echocardiography, or autopsy. Medical record was reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#A total of 213 neonates with DA or AVSD were included: 67 cases with DA and 146 cases with AVSD. The risk of Down syndrome was 4.5% (3/67) in DA vs. 29.5% (43/146) in AVSD. When confining analysis to those whose karyotyping were not performed during antenatal period, the risk of Down syndrome were 7.9% (3/38) in DA and 35.4% (35/99) in AVSD. @*Conclusion@#The risk of Down syndrome in cases with DA was much lower in Korean population than previously reported risk in the literature. The significance of some antenatal sonographic markers for Down syndrome may be different according to ethnicity.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835777

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common lethal muscular dystrophy and is caused by the genetic variants of DMD gene. Because DMD is X-linked recessive and shows familial aggregates, prenatal diagnosis is an important role in the management of DMD family. We present our experience of prenatal molecular diagnosis and carrier detection based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and linkage analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#During study period, 34 cases of prenatal diagnosis and 21 cases of carrier detection were performed at the Seoul National University Hospital. Multiplex PCR and MLPA was used to detect the exon deletions or duplications. When the DMD pathogenic variant in the affected males is unknown and no DMD pathogenic variant is detected in atrisk females, linkage analysis was used. @*Results@#The prenatal molecular diagnosis was offered to 34 fetuses. Twenty-five fetuses were male and 6 fetuses (24.0%) were affected. Remaining cases had no pathogenic mutation. We had 24 (80.0%) cases of known proband results; exon deletion mutation in 19 (79.2%) cases and duplication in 5 (20.8%) cases. Linkage analysis was performed in 4 cases in which 2 cases (50.0%) were found to be affected. In the carrier testing, among 21 cases including 15 cases of mother and 6 cases of female relative, 9 (42.9%) cases showed positive results and 12 (57.1%) cases showed negative results. @*Conclusion@#Prenatal molecular diagnosis and carrier detection of DMD are effective and feasible. They are useful in genetic counseling for DMD families.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a serious complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies. It results from disproportionate blood supply to each fetus caused by abnormal vascular anastomosis within the placenta. Amniotic fluid (AF) is an indicator reflecting the various conditions of the fetus, and an imbalance in AF volume is essential for the antenatal diagnosis of TTTS by ultrasound. In this study, two different mass spectrometry quantitative approaches were performed to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) within matched pairs of AF samples.METHODS: We characterized the AF proteome in pooled AF samples collected from donor and recipient twin pairs (n = 5 each) with TTTS by a global proteomics profiling approach and then preformed the statistical analysis to determine the DEPs between the two groups. Next, we carried out a targeted proteomic approach (multiple reaction monitoring) with DEPs to achieve high-confident TTTS-associated AF proteins.RESULTS: A total of 103 AF proteins that were significantly altered in their abundances between donor and recipient fetuses. The majority of upregulated proteins identified in the recipient twins (including carbonic anhydrase 1, fibrinogen alpha chain, aminopeptidase N, alpha-fetoprotein, fibrinogen gamma chain, and basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein) have been associated with cardiac or dermatologic disease, which is often seen in recipient twins as a result of volume overload. In contrast, proteins significantly upregulated in AF collected from donor twins (including IgGFc-binding protein, apolipoprotein C-I, complement C1q subcomponent subunit B, apolipoprotein C-III, apolipoprotein A-II, decorin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A-I, and fibronectin) were those previously shown to be associated with inflammation, ischemic cardiovascular complications or renal disease.CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified proteomic biomarkers in AF collected from donor and recipient twins in pregnancies complicated by TTTS that appear to reflect underlying functional and pathophysiological challenges faced by each of the fetuses.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a serious complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies. It results from disproportionate blood supply to each fetus caused by abnormal vascular anastomosis within the placenta. Amniotic fluid (AF) is an indicator reflecting the various conditions of the fetus, and an imbalance in AF volume is essential for the antenatal diagnosis of TTTS by ultrasound. In this study, two different mass spectrometry quantitative approaches were performed to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) within matched pairs of AF samples.@*METHODS@#We characterized the AF proteome in pooled AF samples collected from donor and recipient twin pairs (n = 5 each) with TTTS by a global proteomics profiling approach and then preformed the statistical analysis to determine the DEPs between the two groups. Next, we carried out a targeted proteomic approach (multiple reaction monitoring) with DEPs to achieve high-confident TTTS-associated AF proteins.@*RESULTS@#A total of 103 AF proteins that were significantly altered in their abundances between donor and recipient fetuses. The majority of upregulated proteins identified in the recipient twins (including carbonic anhydrase 1, fibrinogen alpha chain, aminopeptidase N, alpha-fetoprotein, fibrinogen gamma chain, and basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein) have been associated with cardiac or dermatologic disease, which is often seen in recipient twins as a result of volume overload. In contrast, proteins significantly upregulated in AF collected from donor twins (including IgGFc-binding protein, apolipoprotein C-I, complement C1q subcomponent subunit B, apolipoprotein C-III, apolipoprotein A-II, decorin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A-I, and fibronectin) were those previously shown to be associated with inflammation, ischemic cardiovascular complications or renal disease.@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, we identified proteomic biomarkers in AF collected from donor and recipient twins in pregnancies complicated by TTTS that appear to reflect underlying functional and pathophysiological challenges faced by each of the fetuses.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a serious complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies. It results from disproportionate blood supply to each fetus caused by abnormal vascular anastomosis within the placenta. Amniotic fluid (AF) is an indicator reflecting the various conditions of the fetus, and an imbalance in AF volume is essential for the antenatal diagnosis of TTTS by ultrasound. In this study, two different mass spectrometry quantitative approaches were performed to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) within matched pairs of AF samples.@*METHODS@#We characterized the AF proteome in pooled AF samples collected from donor and recipient twin pairs (n = 5 each) with TTTS by a global proteomics profiling approach and then preformed the statistical analysis to determine the DEPs between the two groups. Next, we carried out a targeted proteomic approach (multiple reaction monitoring) with DEPs to achieve high-confident TTTS-associated AF proteins.@*RESULTS@#A total of 103 AF proteins that were significantly altered in their abundances between donor and recipient fetuses. The majority of upregulated proteins identified in the recipient twins (including carbonic anhydrase 1, fibrinogen alpha chain, aminopeptidase N, alpha-fetoprotein, fibrinogen gamma chain, and basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein) have been associated with cardiac or dermatologic disease, which is often seen in recipient twins as a result of volume overload. In contrast, proteins significantly upregulated in AF collected from donor twins (including IgGFc-binding protein, apolipoprotein C-I, complement C1q subcomponent subunit B, apolipoprotein C-III, apolipoprotein A-II, decorin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A-I, and fibronectin) were those previously shown to be associated with inflammation, ischemic cardiovascular complications or renal disease.@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, we identified proteomic biomarkers in AF collected from donor and recipient twins in pregnancies complicated by TTTS that appear to reflect underlying functional and pathophysiological challenges faced by each of the fetuses.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 268-278, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914815

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was performed to investigate the effect of the interval between the start of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and the start of chemotherapy on ovarian protection in patients with breast cancer. @*Methods@#This was a prospective observational cohort study that included 136 patients with breast cancer below 40 years who received GnRHa during chemotherapy for fertility preservation. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels were measured before chemotherapy (baseline) and after chemotherapy. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the interval between the start of GnRHa and the start of chemotherapy for analysis: 1–6 days, 7–13 days, and ≥ 14 days. The ratio of the post-chemotherapy AMH value to the baseline AMH (pcAMH) at each time point were compared among the 3 groups.Ranked analysis of covariance was used for statistical analysis, adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), and the existence of polycystic ovaries (PCOs). In addition, recovery of ovarian function (AMH ≥ 1 ng/mL) at 12 months was evaluated. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 32 years. There was no difference in the baseline AMH levels among the 3 groups (mean ± standard error: 5.0 ± 0.4 ng/mL [1–6 days], 5.3 ± 0.7 ng/mL [7–13 days], and 8.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL [≥ 14 days]; p = 0.250). The pcAMH at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were not significantly different among the 3 groups (p-values were 0.332, 0.732, 0.830, 0.148, and 0.393, respectively). In multivariate analysis, young age (p = 0.024), low BMI (p = 0.013), and the existence of PCO (p = 0.015) were predictors for AMH ≥ 1 ng/mL at 12 months. @*Conclusion@#There was no difference in the ovarian protective effect according to the difference in the timing of administration of GnRHa.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832383

ABSTRACT

Background@#The definition of the high-risk group for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) defined by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists was changed from the criteria composed of five historic/demographic factors (old criteria) to the criteria consisting of 11 factors (new criteria) in 2017. To compare the predictive performances between these two sets of criteria. @*Methods@#This is a secondary analysis of a large prospective cohort study of non-diabetic Korean women with singleton pregnancies designed to examine the risk of GDM in women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Maternal fasting blood was taken at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation and measured for glucose and lipid parameters. GDM was diagnosed by the two-step approach. @*Results@#Among 820 women, 42 (5.1%) were diagnosed with GDM. Using the old criteria, 29.8% (n=244) of women would have been identified as high risk versus 16.0% (n=131) using the new criteria. Of the 42 women who developed GDM, 45.2% (n=19) would have been mislabeled as not high risk by the old criteria versus 50.0% (n=21) using the new criteria (1-sensitivity, 45.2% vs. 50.0%, P>0.05). Among the 778 patients who did not develop GDM, 28.4% (n=221) would have been identified as high risk using the old criteria versus 14.1% (n=110) using the new criteria (1-specificity, 28.4% vs. 14.1%, P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Compared with the old criteria, use of the new criteria would have decreased the number of patients identified as high risk and thus requiring early GDM screening by half (from 244 [29.8%] to 131 [16.0%]).

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring's atopic dermatitis (AD) development, which is thought to be mediated by the oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate the difference in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker for exposure to oxidative stress, according to the prenatal stress exposure and the later AD development. METHODS: From a birth cohort (the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases) that had displayed a good epidemiologic association between the exposure to prenatal stress and AD development in the offspring, we selected 68 pairs of samples from 4 subject groups based on the level of prenatal maternal stress and later AD development. The LTL was measured from both cord blood and 1-year peripheral blood, and their LTLs were compared between subject groups. Finally, the proportion of AD development was examined in the subject groups that are reclassified based on subjects' exposure to prenatal stress and there LTL. RESULTS: Cord-blood LTL was shorter in prenatally stressed infants than in unstressed ones (P = 0.026), which difference was still significant when subjects became 1 year old (P = 0.008). LTL of cord blood, as well as one of the 1-year peripheral blood, was not different according to later AD development at 1 year (P = 0.915 and 0.174, respectively). Shorter LTL made no increase in the proportion of later AD development in either prenatally high-stressed or low-stressed groups (P = 1.000 and 0.473, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cord-blood LTL may reflect subjects' exposure to maternal prenatal stress. However, the LTL shortening is not a risk factor of increasing AD development until the age of 1, and a longer investigation may be necessary for validation. Currently, the results doubt the role of LTL shortening as a marker for risk assessment tool for the prenatal stress associated with AD development in the offspring.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fetal Blood , Humans , Infant , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Parturition , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological , Telomere Shortening , Telomere
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors that can affect the fetal survival immediate after fetoscopic laser ablation. METHODS: The study population consisted of consecutive twin pregnant women who underwent fetoscopic laser ablation with the diagnosis of twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) from 2011 to 2018 in Seoul National University Hospital. Fetal survival immediate after procedure was defined as survival to 48 hours after procedure and neonatal survival was defined as survival to 28 days of life. Clinical characteristics and ultrasound findings were compared according to the fetal survival immediate after procedure. RESULTS: A total of 57 pregnant women with TTTS were included, and the overall fetal survival immediate after procedure was 71.1% (81/114) after fetoscopic laser ablation. Fetuses who survived immediate after procedure had higher gestational age at procedure and lower frequency of abnormal Doppler studies than those did not survive. However, the frequency of hydrops was not different between cases with fetal survival and those with fetal death. The earlier gestational age at procedure and the presence of abnormal Doppler studies were significant risk factors for fetal death even after adjustment. CONCLUSION: Based on this data, the fetal survival immediate after procedure (fetoscopic laser treatment) in TTTS can be affected by the gestational age at procedure and the presence of abnormal Doppler studies.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Edema , Female , Fetal Death , Fetofetal Transfusion , Fetus , Gestational Age , Humans , Laser Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Risk Factors , Seoul , Twins , Ultrasonography
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is a well-known risk factor for both total preterm birth (PTB) and spontaneous PTB in singleton gestation, whereas this association is not well determined in multiple pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of spontaneous PTB according to the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in twin gestations. METHODS: The association between the risk of PTB and pre-pregnancy BMI was determined in women pregnant with twins between 2004 and 2014. Pre-pregnancy BMI values were divided into three groups (underweight/normal/overweight and obese). PTB was classified as spontaneous PTB (following preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, or cervical insufficiency) or medically indicated PTB (cesarean section or induction of labor because of maternal/fetal indications). RESULTS: A total of 1,959 women were included in the analysis, and the percentages of total PTB and spontaneous PTB were 13.1% and 9.3%. The percentages of total PTB and spontaneous PTB in three groups were 14.1%, 11.9%, 16.3%, respectively, and 11.0%, 8.0%, 12.5% (P < 0.05 between normal and overweight/obese women). The risks of total and spontaneous PTB in overweight/obese women were higher than those in women with normal weight, even after adjustment for prior history of PTB, age, maternal height, parity, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) (odds ratio [OR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–2.03; OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.05–2.36). CONCLUSION: The risks of both total and spontaneous PTB were significantly greater in the overweight/obese group than in the normal BMI group.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Maternal Age , Membranes , Obesity , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Parity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Multiple , Premature Birth , Risk Factors , Rupture , Twins
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the risk of emergency cesarean deliveries (CDs) and adverse neonatal/maternal outcomes according to the planned gestational age at delivery (GAD) for elective CD. METHODS: The study population consisted of term singleton pregnant women who were booked for elective CD and were subsequently delivered at term by CD, after excluding cases with a trial of labor. The relationship between the planned GAD, risk of emergency CD prior to planned date, and adverse neonatal/maternal outcomes were determined. RESULTS: The frequency of emergency CD, adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes were 9.5%, 4.5%, and 5.9%, respectively. The risk of emergency CD prior to the planned delivery date increased significantly according to the planned GAD (5.8% at 37 weeks, 8.2% at 38 weeks, 13.6% at 39 weeks, and 26.7% at 40 weeks or more of planned GAD, P = 0.005). Emergency CD was associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes, whereas the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes did not differ. In the total study population including both cases with elective and emergency CD, the risk of adverse maternal outcomes did not increase according to the planned GAD, and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes decreased significantly according to the planned GAD. CONCLUSION: The risk of emergency CD increased as the planned GAD increased, but the risk of adverse maternal outcomes did not increase and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes decreased significantly according to the planned GAD in the total study population including elective/emergency CD.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnant Women , Trial of Labor
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing is a first-tier test for patients with developmental delay, autism, or congenital anomalies. It increases diagnostic yield for patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability. In some countries, including Korea, CMA testing is not yet implemented in clinical practice. We assessed the diagnostic utility of CMA testing in a large cohort of patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability in Korea. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide microarray analysis of 649 consecutive patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Pathogenicity of detected copy number variations (CNVs) was evaluated by referencing previous reports or parental testing using FISH or quantitative PCR. RESULTS: We found 110 patients to have pathogenic CNVs, which included 100 deletions and 31 duplications of 270 kb to 30 Mb. The diagnostic yield was 16.9%, demonstrating the diagnostic utility of CMA testing in clinic. Parental testing was performed in 66 patients, 86.4% of which carried de novo CNVs. In eight patients, pathogenic CNVs were inherited from healthy parents with a balanced translocation, and genetic counseling was provided to these families. We verified five rarely reported deletions on 2p21p16.3, 3p21.31, 10p11.22, 14q24.2, and 21q22.13. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the clinical utility of CMA testing in the genetic diagnosis of patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability. CMA testing should be included as a clinical diagnostic test for all children with developmental delay or intellectual disability.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Child , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Genetic Counseling , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Korea , Medical Records , Microarray Analysis , Parents , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Virulence
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Iodine is an intrinsic element of thyroid hormone, which is essential for childhood growth and development. The Ideal Breast Milk (IBM) cohort study aims to evaluate the effects of maternal iodine status during pregnancy and lactation on maternal thyroid function, offspring growth and development, and offspring thyroid function. METHODS: The IBM cohort study recruited pregnant women from Seoul National University Hospital between June 2016 and August 2017, followed by enrollment of their offspring after delivery. For the maternal participants, iodine status is evaluated by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and dietary records in the third trimester and at 3 to 4 weeks and 12 to 15 months postpartum. For the child participants, cord blood sampling and UIC measurements are performed at birth. At 3 to 4 weeks of age, UIC and breastmilk iodine concentrations are measured. At 12 to 15 months of age, growth and development are assessed and measurements of UIC, a thyroid function test, and ultrasonography are performed. RESULTS: A total of 198 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited. Their mean age was 35.1±3.5 years, and 78 (39.4%) of them were pregnant with twins. Thirty-three (16.7%) of them had a previous history of thyroid disease. CONCLUSION: Korea is an iodine-replete area. In particular, lactating women in Korea are commonly exposed to excess iodine due to the traditional practice of consuming brown seaweed soup postpartum. The study of the IBM cohort is expected to contribute to developing guidelines for optimal iodine nutrition in pregnant or lactating women.


Subject(s)
Breast , Child , Cohort Studies , Cordocentesis , Diet Records , Female , Growth and Development , Humans , Infant , Iodine , Korea , Lactation , Milk, Human , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Seaweed , Seoul , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Twins , Ultrasonography
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