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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915750

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are essential for clinical decision making, conduction of clinical research, and drug application acquisition in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study is to develop a PRO instrument and to determine the respondents’ perception of the efficacy of therapeutic agents for functional dyspepsia (FD). @*Methods@#A self-evaluation questionnaire for dyspepsia (SEQ-DYSPEPSIA) was developed and validated through a structured process. The 2-week reproducibility was evaluated, and the construct validity was assessed by correlating the scores of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA (including typical and major FD symptom subscales). Finally, the response to medication was assessed by comparing the changes after 4 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#A total of 193 Korean patients (age 48.5 ± 13.6 years, 69.4% women) completed the questionnaire. SEQ-DYSPEPSIA with 11 items had a good internal consistency (alpha = 0.770-0.905) and an acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.733-0.859). The self-evaluation questionnaire (SEQ)-major FD score highly correlated with the postprandial fullness/early satiety domain of the Patient Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (correlation coefficient r = 0.741, P < 0.001), Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version (NDI-K) (r = 0.839, P < 0.001), and NDI-K quality of life (r = −0.275 to −0.344, P < 0.001). After medical treatment, decrease in the SEQ-typical FD and SEQ-major FD was significantly greater in the responder group than in nonresponder group (P= 0.019 and P = 0.009, respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the Korean version of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA has good reliability and validity, and can be a useful PRO measurement tool in patients with FD.

2.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 116-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894535

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause for. It is highly prevalent in the Korean population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogeneous nature of its pathogenesis. We constituted a guidelines development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of FD. @*Methods@#This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta- analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. @*Results@#These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. @*Conclusions@#The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

4.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 116-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902239

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause for. It is highly prevalent in the Korean population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogeneous nature of its pathogenesis. We constituted a guidelines development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of FD. @*Methods@#This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta- analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. @*Results@#These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. @*Conclusions@#The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837298

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most prevalent bacterial pathogen that infects approximately half of the world’s population. It is well known that H. pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. H. pylori can also be associated with other gastrointestinal diseases. Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse correlation between H. pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, the results of H. pylori eradication in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were not consistent with epidemiologic studies. Many studies have reported symptomatic improvement in uninvestigated dyspepsia and functional dyspepsia (FD) following H. pylori eradication, suggesting that H. pylori is the cause of dyspepsia. Therefore, it has been suggested that H. pylori-associated dyspepsia should be considered an entity distinct from FD and only the patients with persistent symptoms following eradication should be considered as having FD. A majority of studies also support an association of H. pylori with colon neoplasms and an inverse correlation with inflammatory bowel disease. However, no association of H. pylori with irritable bowel syndrome has been reported.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833852

ABSTRACT

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause. It is highly prevalent in the World population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogenous nature of its pathogenesis. Therefore, FD represents a heavy medical burden for healthcare systems. We constituted a guideline development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of functional dyspepsia. This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, H. pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738990

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Angiodysplasia , Stomach
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 403-409, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759962

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a prevalent disease with significant morbidity and mortality. It is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation due to excess body fat. Weight homeostasis is maintained through changes in various gastrointestinal hormones caused by dietary intake. However, being overweight or obese breaks the balance of these appetite-related gastrointestinal hormones and creates resistance to the actions of these hormones. The sensitivity of vagal afferent neurons to peripheral signals becomes blunted. Cytokines produced by excessive fat tissue damage our normal immune system, making us vulnerable to infection. In addition, various changes in gastrointestinal motility occur. Therefore, this review focuses on the various changes in gastrointestinal hormones, the immune state, the vagus nerve, and gastrointestinal movement in obese patients.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Cytokines , Gastrointestinal Hormones , Gastrointestinal Motility , Homeostasis , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation , Mortality , Neurons, Afferent , Obesity , Overweight , Physiology , Vagus Nerve
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786620

ABSTRACT

A subepithelial tumor-like esophageal carcinoma is rare. We report a case of an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis presenting as a small subepithelial tumor. A 68-year-old man presented to our hospital complaining of hoarseness since last three months. Endoscopic examination revealed a 1 cm hard and fixed subepithelial tumor with surface erosion in the lower esophagus. A biopsy specimen was obtained using conventional forceps, and histopathological evaluation revealed few atypical squamous epithelial cells. Subsequent EUS demonstrated a homogeneous hypoechoic lesion in the deep mucosal layer. A CT scan of the chest showed a 3 cm mass in the right upper paratracheal area. EUS-guided fine needle biopsy of the lesion led to the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diagnosis , Endosonography , Epithelial Cells , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophagus , Hoarseness , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Surgical Instruments , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Appropriate interval for performing follow-up endoscopy among dyspeptic patients without abnormal findings on previous endoscopy is unclear. We analyzed the multicenter-collected data from the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. METHODS: We collected clinical data of the patients who visited the gastroenterology department and underwent 2 or more sessions of upper endoscopy during 2012–2017 at 6 university hospitals in Korea. Patients with endoscopic interval between 90 days and 760 days were included. For those with multiple endoscopic sessions, only the first 2 were analyzed. Positive outcome was defined as adenoma or cancer in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To identify the point of change and estimate the properties of the stochastic process before and after the change, we used Bayesian regression with Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. RESULTS: There were 1595 patients. Mean age was 58.8 years (standard deviation, 12.8). Median interval of endoscopy was 437 days (standard deviation, 153). On follow-up endoscopy, there were 12 patients (0.75%) who had neoplasia (4 with gastric cancer and 8 with gastric adnoma). As with the prior hypothesis, we presumed the change point (CP) of increase in frequency of organic lesion as 360 days. After random-walk Metropolis-Hastings sampling with Markov-Chain Monte Carlo iterations of 5000, the CP was 560 days (95% credible interval, 139–724). Estimated average of frequency of dysplastic lesions increased by a factor of 4.4 after the estimated CP. CONCLUSION: To rule out dysplastic lesions among dyspeptic patients who had previously normal endoscopy, a 2-year interval could be offered as follow-up interval for repeat upper endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Bayes Theorem , Dyspepsia , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroenterology , Gastroscopy , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , Stomach Neoplasms , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
13.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 157-161, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765689

ABSTRACT

In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), surgical resection or local ablation therapy is limited because of severe liver dysfunction or tumor location. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has beed used widely as palliative treatment. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is a more recent and effective treatment for early stage HCC. We report a case with small HCC with complete response by TACE combined with SBRT.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Diseases , Palliative Care , Radiosurgery
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223214

ABSTRACT

The first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection comprises triple therapy with the combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin, and clarithromycin. However, the H. pylori eradication rate after PPI-based triple therapy has fallen below 80% in many countries, and even reached 70% in recent Korean studies. The main cause of eradication failure has been attributed to the increased antibiotic resistance of H. pylori. To overcome the limitations of the current eradication therapy, the maintenance of a high gastric pH, which increases the function of the antibiotics, may be a successful strategy. Potassium-competitive acid blockers (PCABs) inhibit H⁺, K⁺-ATPase in a reversible and K⁺-competitive manner and result in an almost complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. However, the clinical development of most PCABs has been discontinued owing to their hepatic toxicity or similar efficacy to PPIs. Vonoprazan has a completely different chemical structure and higher pKa value compared with those of other PCABs and produces more potent and sustained acid inhibition. A recent phase III randomized study reported that vonoprazan was highly effective as a component of first-line or second-line triple therapy. In this study, we reviewed the literature regarding the role of PCAB in the eradication of H. pylori.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Clarithromycin , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Gastric Acid , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Proton Pumps
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an extraesophageal manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic assessment of LPR is needed for convenient diagnosis and documentation of treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the interrater reliability of LPR among endoscopists based on endoscopic laryngeal images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen endoscopists participated in this study. Before the test, they completed an intensive education program by an otorhinolaryngologist on the reflux finding score (RFS), which is a validated laryngoscopic assessment of LPR. A total of 100 endoscopic laryngeal images were used for 3 tests of RFS. Cohen's and Fleiss' kappa coefficients were used to determine the degree of interrater agreement in the diagnosis of LPR. RESULTS: In the first test, the mean of Cohen's kappa coefficients for LPR diagnosis between the otorhinolaryngologist and each of the 19 endoscopists was 0.3. In the second test, after additional education, the mean kappa value was 0.32. Fleiss' kappa coefficients for diagnosis of LPR among the 19 endoscopists in the first and second tests were 0.30 and 0.26, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A short-term education program for endoscopists did not result in an improvement of accuracy in the diagnosis of LPR. Further studies using advanced educational programs for endoscopists are required.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Education , Endoscopy , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 64-68, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67665

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The diagnostic efficacy of current tissue sampling techniques for gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) is limited. Better tissue sampling techniques are needed to improve pathological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new technique, mucosal incision and forceps biopsy, for reliable tissue sampling of gastric SETs. METHODS: This study enrolled 12 consecutive patients who underwent mucosal incision and forceps biopsy of gastric SETs between November 2011 and September 2014 at Gangneung Asan Hospital. The medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. The safety and diagnostic yield of this method were evaluated. RESULTS: By performing mucosal incision and forceps biopsy, we were able to provide a definitive histological diagnosis for 11 out of 12 cases. The pathological diagnoses were leiomyoma (3/11), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST; 2/11), lipoma (2/11), schwannoma (1/11), and ectopic pancreas (3/11). In cases of leiomyoma (n=3) and GIST (n=2), tissue samples were of sufficient size to allow immunohistochemical staining. In addition, the mitotic index was evaluated in two cases of GIST. There were no procedure-related complications. CONCLUSIONS: Mucosal incision and forceps biopsy can be used as one of several methods to obtain adequate tissue samples from gastric SETs.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Gastroscopy , Humans , Leiomyoma , Lipoma , Medical Records , Methods , Mitotic Index , Neurilemmoma , Pancreas , Retrospective Studies , Stomach , Surgical Instruments
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7579

ABSTRACT

Although gastric hyperplastic polyps are recognized as benign lesions, there is concern regarding carcinomatous changes in the polyps, depending on their size. If the polyp size is larger than 1.0~2.0 cm, endoscopic resection is usually recommended. Gastric hyperplastic polyps easily undergo changes in their shape and size over time. However, spontaneous regression of hyperplastic polyps is very rare. We present a recent case wherein gastric hyperplastic polyps disappeared spontaneously. We present the case along with a literature review.


Subject(s)
Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous , Polyps , Stomach
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108394

ABSTRACT

Functional dyspepsia (FD) has a diverse pathophysiology and treatment is difficult. Translational research to understand its pathophysiology is underway. Hormonal factors, including ghrelin, seem promising, offering an understanding of appetite and eating. Functional MRI brain study can expand our knowledge of the brain-gut axis. Finally, immune systems research, including mast cells, can help with comprehensive understanding of FD. The clinical approaches based on these translational research projects are necessary to improve understanding of FD, leading to more effective treatment.


Subject(s)
Appetite , Brain , Dyspepsia , Eating , Ghrelin , Immune System , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mast Cells , Translational Research, Biomedical
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137687

ABSTRACT

This correction is being published to add the following phrase at the footnotes of Table 1.

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