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1.
Intestinal Research ; : 353-362, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000579

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Infectious complications are major concerns when treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study evaluated clinical differences across countries/regions in the management of infectious diseases in patients with IBD. @*Methods@#A multinational online questionnaire survey was administered to participants at the 8th meeting of the Asian Organization for Crohn’s and Colitis. The questionnaire included questions regarding surveillance, diagnosis, management, and prevention of infection in patients with IBD. @*Results@#A total of 384 physicians responded to the questionnaire. The majority of Korean (n=70, 63.6%) and Chinese (n=51, 51.5%) physicians preferred vancomycin to metronidazole in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, whereas more than half of the Japanese physicians (n=62, 66.7%) preferred metronidazole. Physicians in Korea (n=88, 80.0%) and China (n=46, 46.5%) preferred a 3-month course of isoniazid and rifampin to treat latent tuberculosis infection, whereas most physicians in Japan (n=71, 76.3%) favored a 9-month course of isoniazid. Most Korean physicians (n=89, 80.9%) recommended hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in patients lacking HBV surface antigen, whereas more than half of Japanese physicians (n=53, 57.0%) did not consider vaccination. @*Conclusions@#Differences in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of infections in patients with IBD across countries/regions reflect different prevalence rates of infectious diseases. This survey may broaden understanding of the real-world clinical settings across Asian countries/regions and provide information for establishing practical guidelines to manage patients with IBD.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 581-590, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000373

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Owing to the low prevalence of small-bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), data on the impact of Crohn’s disease (CD) on the survival of patients with SBA are lacking. Therefore, we investigated this issue in this study. @*Methods@#In this bicenter cohort study, patients with histologically confirmed SBA were retrospectively enrolled and classified into two groups: sporadic SBA and CD-associated SBA. Patients with duodenal SBA were excluded. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and factors associated with survival were analyzed. @*Results@#Of 128 patients with SBA, 115 had sporadic SBA and 13 had CD-associated SBA. Ileal involvement and poorly differentiated tumors were more common in the CD-associated SBA group than in the sporadic SBA group (ileal involvement, 53.8% vs 22.6%; poor differentiation, 46.2% vs 14.8%; both p<0.05). In survival analysis, overall survival showed no statistical difference between the sporadic SBA and CD-associated SBA groups (p=0.370). However, when stratified by stage, the adjusted overall survival of the CD-associated SBA group was lower in patients with an advanced disease stage (p=0.029). Disease-free survival showed the same tendency, albeit without clinical significance (p=0.097). CD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.308; p=0.047), older age (≥65 yr) at SBA diagnosis (HR, 2.766; p=0.001), and stage III/IV disease (HR, 3.151; p<0.001) were factors associated with mortality. @*Conclusions@#The overall survival of patients with CD-associated SBA did not differ from that of patients with sporadic SBA. However, as CD is an independent risk factor for mortality, vigilant surveillance in high-risk patients may be crucial.

3.
Intestinal Research ; : 244-251, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976812

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) often. However, the disease course of patients with both IBD and AS is not well understood. This study aims to evaluate the effect of concomitant AS on IBD outcomes. @*Methods@#Among the 4,722 patients with IBD who were treated in 3 academic hospitals from 2004 to 2021, 55 were also diagnosed with AS (IBD-AS group). Based on patients’ electronic medical records, the outcomes of IBD in IBD-AS group and IBD group without AS (IBD-only group) were appraised. @*Results@#The proportion of patients treated with biologics or small molecule therapies was significantly higher in IBD-AS group than the proportion in IBD-only group (27.3% vs. 12.7%, P= 0.036). Patients with both ulcerative colitis and AS had a significantly higher risk of biologics or small molecule therapies than patients with only ulcerative colitis (P< 0.001). For univariable logistic regression, biologics or small molecule therapies were associated with concomitant AS (odds ratio, 4.099; 95% confidence interval, 1.863–9.021; P< 0.001) and Crohn’s disease (odds ratio, 3.552; 95% confidence interval, 1.590–7.934; P= 0.002). @*Conclusions@#Concomitant AS is associated with the high possibility of biologics or small molecule therapies for IBD. IBD patients who also had AS may need more careful examination and active treatment to alleviate the severity of IBD.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e24-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915548

ABSTRACT

Background@#Attention should be paid to endoscopy-related complications and safety-related accidents that may occur in the endoscopy unit. This study investigated the current status of complications associated with diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy in Korea. @*Methods@#A questionnaire survey on endoscopy-related complications was conducted in a total of 50 tertiary or general hospitals in Korea. The results were compared to the population-level claims data from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA), which analyzed endoscopy procedures conducted in 2017 in Korea. @*Results@#The incidences of bleeding associated with diagnostic and therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and with diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy were 0.224% and 3.155% and 0.198% and 0.356%, respectively, in the 2017 HIRA claims data, compared to 0.012% and 1.857%, and 0.024% and 0.717%, in the 50 hospitals surveyed.The incidences of perforation associated with diagnostic and therapeutic EGD and with diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy were 0.023% and 0.613%, and 0.007% and 0.013%, respectively, in the 2017 HIRA claims data compared to 0.001% and 0.325%, and 0.017% and 0.206%, in the 50 hospitals surveyed. In the HIRA claims data, the incidence of bleeding/perforation after diagnostic colonoscopy in clinics, community hospitals, general hospitals, and tertiary hospitals was 0.129%/0.000%, 0.088%/0.004%, 0.262%/0.009%, and 0.479%/0.030% respectively, and the corresponding incidence of bleeding/perforation after therapeutic colonoscopy was 0.258%/0.004%, 0.401%/0.007%, 0.408%/0.024%, and 0.731%/0.055%. @*Conclusion@#The incidences of complications associated with diagnostic and therapeutic EGD or colonoscopy tended to increase with the hospital volume in Korea.

5.
Intestinal Research ; : 350-360, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937722

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study assessed the efficacy and safety of adalimumab (ADA) and explored predictors of response in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). @*Methods@#A prospective, observational, multicenter study was conducted over 56 weeks in adult patients with moderately to severely active UC who received ADA. Clinical response, remission, and mucosal healing were assessed using the Mayo score. @*Results@#A total of 146 patients were enrolled from 17 academic hospitals. Clinical response rates were 52.1% and 37.7% and clinical remission rates were 24.0% and 22.0% at weeks 8 and 56, respectively. Mucosal healing rates were 39.0% and 30.1% at weeks 8 and 56, respectively. Prior use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) did not affect clinical and endoscopic responses. The ADA drug level was significantly higher in patients with better outcomes at week 8 (P<0.05). In patients with lower endoscopic activity, higher body mass index, and higher serum albumin levels at baseline, the clinical response rate was higher at week 8. In patients with lower Mayo scores and C-reactive protein levels, clinical responses, and mucosal healing at week 8, the clinical response rate was higher at week 56. Serious adverse drug reactions were identified in 2.8% of patients. @*Conclusions@#ADA is effective and safe for induction and maintenance in Korean patients with UC, regardless of prior anti-TNF-α therapy. The ADA drug level is associated with the efficacy of induction therapy. Patients with better short-term outcomes were predictive of those with an improved long-term response.

6.
Intestinal Research ; : 192-202, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925123

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is prevalent in East Asia. However, information on CAM in East Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is scarce. We aimed to profile the prevalence and pattern of CAM use among East Asian IBD patients and to identify factors associated with CAM use. We also compared physicians’ perspectives on CAM. @*Methods@#Patients with IBD from China, Japan, and South Korea were invited to complete questionnaires on CAM use. Patient demographic and clinical data were collected. Logistic regression analysis was applied for predictors of CAM use. Physicians from each country were asked about their opinion on CAM services or products. @*Results@#Overall, 905 patients with IBD participated in this study (China 232, Japan 255, and South Korea 418). Approximately 8.6% of patients with IBD used CAM services for their disease, while 29.7% of patients sought at least 1 kind of CAM product. Current active disease and Chinese or South Korean nationality over Japanese were independent predictors of CAM use. Chinese doctors were more likely to consider CAM helpful for patients with IBD than were Japanese and South Korean doctors. @*Conclusions@#In 8.6% and 29.7% of East Asian patients with IBD used CAM services and products, respectively, which does not differ from the prevalence in their Western counterparts. There is a significant gap regarding CAM usage among different Asian countries, not only from the patients’ perspective but also from the physicians’ point of view.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 396-403, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925029

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Little is known about the clinical course of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients undergoing anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to investigate the clinical course of HBV infection and IBD and to analyze liver dysfunction risks in patients undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy. @*Methods@#This retrospective multinational study involved multiple centers in Korea, China, Tai-wan, and Japan. We enrolled IBD patients with chronic or resolved HBV infection, who received anti-TNF-α therapy. The patients’ medical records were reviewed, and data were collected using a web-based case report form. @*Results@#Overall, 191 patients (77 ulcerative colitis and 114 Crohn’s disease) were included, 28.3% of whom received prophylactic antivirals. During a median follow-up duration of 32.4 months, 7.3% of patients experienced liver dysfunction due to HBV reactivation. Among patients with chronic HBV infection, the proportion experiencing liver dysfunction was significantly higher in the non-prophylaxis group (26% vs 8%, p=0.02). Liver dysfunction occurred in one patient with resolved HBV infection. Antiviral prophylaxis was independently associated with an 84% reduction in liver dysfunction risk in patients with chronic HBV infection (odds ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.66; p=0.01). The clinical course of IBD was not associated with liver dysfunction or the administration of antiviral prophylaxis. @*Conclusions@#Liver dysfunction due to HBV reactivation can occur in HBV-infected IBD patients treated with anti-TNF-α agents. Careful monitoring is needed in these patients, and antivirals should be administered, especially to those with chronic HBV infection.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 216-227, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925011

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The long-term course of Crohn’s disease (CD) has never been evaluated in non-Caucasian population-based cohorts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the longterm prognosis of Korean CD patients in the well-defined population-based Songpa-Kangdong inflammatory bowel disease cohort. @*Methods@#Outcomes of disease and their predictors were evaluated for 418 patients diagnosed with CD between 1986 and 2015. @*Results@#During a median of 123 months, systemic corticosteroids, thiopurines, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were administered to 58.6%, 81.3%, and 37.1% of patients, respectively. Over time, the cumulative probability of starting corticosteroids significantly decreased (p=0.001), whereas that of starting thiopurines and anti-TNFs significantly increased (both p<0.001). The cumulative probability of behavioral progression was 54.5% at 20 years, and it significantly decreased during the anti-TNF era. Intestinal resection was required for 113 patients (27.0%). The cumulative probabilities of intestinal resection at 1, 5, 10, 20, and 25 years after CD diagnosis were 12.7%, 16.5%, 23.8%, 45.1%, and 51.2%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified stricturing behavior at diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 4.71), penetrating behavior at diagnosis (aHR, 11.15; 95% CI, 6.91 to 17.97), and diagnosis of CD during the anti-TNF era (aHR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.76) as independently associated with intestinal resection. The standardized mortality ratio among CD patients was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.59 to 2.68). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of Korean patients with CD is at least as good as that of Western CD patients, as indicated by the low intestinal resection rate. Moreover, behavioral progression and intestinal resection rates have decreased over the past 3 decades.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 269-276, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924995

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The protective effects of vitamin D and calcium on colorectal neoplasms are known. Bone mineral density (BMD) may be a reliable biomarker that reflects the long-term anticancer effect of vitamin D and calcium. This study aimed to evaluate the association between BMD and colorectal adenomas including high-risk adenoma. @*Methods@#A multicenter, cross-sectional, case-control study was conducted among participants with average risk of colorectal cancer who underwent BMD and screening colonoscopy between 2015 and 2019. The main outcome was the detection of colorectal neoplasms. The variable under consideration was low BMD (osteopenia/osteoporosis). The logistic regression model included baseline demographics, components of metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease status, and aspirin and multivitamin use. @*Results@#A total of 2,109 subjects were enrolled. The mean age was 52.1±10.8 years and 42.6% were male. The adenoma detection rate was 43%. Colorectal adenoma and high-risk adenoma were both more prevalent in subjects with low BMD than those with normal BMD (48.2% vs 38.8% and 12.1% vs 9.1%). In the univariate analysis, old age, male sex, smoking, metabolic components, fatty liver, and osteoporosis were significantly associated with the risk of adenoma and high-risk adenoma. In the multivariate analysis, osteoporosis was independently associated with risk of colorectal adenoma (odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 2.46; p=0.014) and high-risk adenoma (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.29; p=0.014). @*Conclusions@#Osteoporosis is an independent risk factor of colorectal adenoma and high-risk adenoma

10.
Intestinal Research ; : 323-331, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891121

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Infliximab (IFX) has proven effective as rescue therapy in steroid-refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), however, the long-term real-world data are scarce. Our study aimed to assess the long-term treatment outcomes of IFX in a real-life cohort. @*Methods@#We established a multicenter retrospective cohort of hospitalized patients with ASUC, who met Truelove and Witt’s criteria and received intravenous corticosteroid (IVCS) or IFX during index hospitalization between 2006 and 2016 in 5 university hospitals in Korea. The cohort was systematically followed up until colectomy, death or last follow-up visit. @*Results@#A total of 296 patients were followed up for a mean of 68.9 ± 44.0 months. During index hospitalization, 49 patients were treated with IFX; as rescue therapy for IVCS failure in 37 and as first-line medical therapy for ASUC in 12. All patients treated with IFX avoided colectomy during index hospitalization. The cumulative rates of rehospitalization and colectomy were 20.4% and 6.1% at 3 months and 39.6% and 18.8% at the end of follow-up, respectively. Patients treated with IFX presented with significantly shorter colectomy-free survival than IVCS responders (P= 0.04, log-rank test). Both cytomegalovirus colitis and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) were the significant predictors of colectomy in the overall study cohort (hazard ratios of 6.57 and 4.61, respectively). There were no fatalities. @*Conclusions@#Our real-world cohort study demonstrated that IFX is an effective therapeutic option in Korean patients with ASUC, irrespective of IFX indication. Aggressive vigilance for cytomegalovirus colitis and CDI is warranted for hospitalized patients with ASUC.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 742-751, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890773

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (EOUC) in Korean patients over a 30-year period using a wellestablished population-based cohort in the Songpa-Kangdong district of Seoul, Korea. @*Methods@#Clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared between two groups: EOUC,defined as UC diagnosed in individuals aged ≥60 years and non-EOUC (N-EOUC), defined asUC diagnosed in individuals aged 18 to 59 years. @*Results@#We identified 99 patients with EOUC (10.3%) and 866 patients with N-EOUC (89.7%) between 1986 and 2015. During the median follow-up of 104.5 months, the overall exposure tomedications was comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (p=0.091 for corticosteroids, p=0.794 for thiopurines, and p=0.095 for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents). The cumula-tive risks of disease outcomes were also comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (22.4% vs 30.4% for proximal disease extension [p=0.351], 11.9% vs 18.1% for hospitalization [p=0.240], and 2.3% vs 1.8% for colectomy [p=0.977]) at 10 years after diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid use at diagnosis was an independent predic-tor of proximal disease extension (hazard ratio [HR], 6.216; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.314 to 28.826) and hospitalization (HR, 11.241; 95% CI, 3.027 to 41.742) in patients with EOUC. @*Conclusions@#In this population-based study from Korea, the pattern of medication use seemed comparable between the EOUC and N-EOUC groups. Moreover, patients with EOUC and those with N-EOUC have a similar disease course in terms of proximal disease extension, hospitaliza-tion, and colectomy.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 752-762, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890771

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Our study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes and risk factors forrelapse after anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cessation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients because they are not well established. @*Methods@#A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted involving patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) from 10 referral hospitals in Korea who discontinued firstline anti-TNF therapy after achieving clinical remission. @*Results@#A total of 109 IBD patients (71 CD and 38 UC) with a median follow-up duration of 56months were analyzed. The cumulative relapse rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 11.3%, 46.7%, and 62.5% for CD patients and 28.9%, 45.3%, and 60.9% for UC patients. Multivariable Coxanalysis revealed that discontinuation owing to the clinician’s decision was associated with lower risk of relapse (vs patient’s preference: hazard ratio [HR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.48; p=0.002) and adalimumab use was associated with higher risk of relapse (vs infliximab: HR, 4.42; 95% CI, 1.24 to 17.74; p=0.022) in CD patients. Mucosal healing was associated with lower risk of relapse (vs nonmucosal healing: HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.83; p=0.031) in UC patients. Anti-TNF re-induction was provided to 52 patients, and a response was obtained in 50 patients. However, 25 of them discontinued retreatment owing to a loss of response (n=15), the patient’s preference (n=6), and other factors (n=4). @*Conclusions@#More than 60% of IBD patients in remission under anti-TNF therapy relapsed within 5 years of treatment cessation. Anti-TNF re-induction was effective. However, half of the patients discontinued anti-TNF therapy, and 50% of these patients discontinued treatment owing to loss of response.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 375-382, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890759

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) enables endoscopic visualization of small bowel (SB) involvement in Crohn’s disease (CD), there is no data on the changes in outcomes over time. We therefore investigated the changes in BAE use on CD patients over different time periods in terms of its role and clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#We used a multicenter enteroscopy database to identify CD patients with SB involvement who underwent BAE (131 procedures, 116 patients). We compared BAE-related factors and outcomes between the first period (70 procedures, 60 patients) and the second period (61procedures, 56 patients). The specific cutoff point for dividing the two periods was 2007, when BAE guidelines were introduced. @*Results@#Initial diagnosis of SB involvement in CD was the most common indication for BAE during each period (50.0% vs 31.1%, p=0.034). The largest change was in the number of BAE uses for stricture evaluation and/or treatment, which increased significantly in the latter period (2.9% vs 21.3%, p=0.002). The diagnostic yield in patients with suspected CD was 90.7% in the first period and 95.0% in the second (p=0.695). More endoscopic interventions were performed in the second period than in the first (5.1% vs 17.6%, p=0.041). Enteroscopic success rates were high throughout (100% in the first period vs 80.0% in the second period, p>0.999). In the first and second periods, therapeutic plans were adjusted in 62.7% and 61.4% of patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The overall clinical indications, outcomes, and effectiveness of BAE were constant over time in CD patients with SB involvement, with the exception that the frequency of enteroscopic intervention increased remarkably.

14.
Intestinal Research ; : 323-331, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898825

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Infliximab (IFX) has proven effective as rescue therapy in steroid-refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), however, the long-term real-world data are scarce. Our study aimed to assess the long-term treatment outcomes of IFX in a real-life cohort. @*Methods@#We established a multicenter retrospective cohort of hospitalized patients with ASUC, who met Truelove and Witt’s criteria and received intravenous corticosteroid (IVCS) or IFX during index hospitalization between 2006 and 2016 in 5 university hospitals in Korea. The cohort was systematically followed up until colectomy, death or last follow-up visit. @*Results@#A total of 296 patients were followed up for a mean of 68.9 ± 44.0 months. During index hospitalization, 49 patients were treated with IFX; as rescue therapy for IVCS failure in 37 and as first-line medical therapy for ASUC in 12. All patients treated with IFX avoided colectomy during index hospitalization. The cumulative rates of rehospitalization and colectomy were 20.4% and 6.1% at 3 months and 39.6% and 18.8% at the end of follow-up, respectively. Patients treated with IFX presented with significantly shorter colectomy-free survival than IVCS responders (P= 0.04, log-rank test). Both cytomegalovirus colitis and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) were the significant predictors of colectomy in the overall study cohort (hazard ratios of 6.57 and 4.61, respectively). There were no fatalities. @*Conclusions@#Our real-world cohort study demonstrated that IFX is an effective therapeutic option in Korean patients with ASUC, irrespective of IFX indication. Aggressive vigilance for cytomegalovirus colitis and CDI is warranted for hospitalized patients with ASUC.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 742-751, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898477

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (EOUC) in Korean patients over a 30-year period using a wellestablished population-based cohort in the Songpa-Kangdong district of Seoul, Korea. @*Methods@#Clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared between two groups: EOUC,defined as UC diagnosed in individuals aged ≥60 years and non-EOUC (N-EOUC), defined asUC diagnosed in individuals aged 18 to 59 years. @*Results@#We identified 99 patients with EOUC (10.3%) and 866 patients with N-EOUC (89.7%) between 1986 and 2015. During the median follow-up of 104.5 months, the overall exposure tomedications was comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (p=0.091 for corticosteroids, p=0.794 for thiopurines, and p=0.095 for anti-tumor necrosis factor agents). The cumula-tive risks of disease outcomes were also comparable between patients with EOUC and N-EOUC (22.4% vs 30.4% for proximal disease extension [p=0.351], 11.9% vs 18.1% for hospitalization [p=0.240], and 2.3% vs 1.8% for colectomy [p=0.977]) at 10 years after diagnosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid use at diagnosis was an independent predic-tor of proximal disease extension (hazard ratio [HR], 6.216; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.314 to 28.826) and hospitalization (HR, 11.241; 95% CI, 3.027 to 41.742) in patients with EOUC. @*Conclusions@#In this population-based study from Korea, the pattern of medication use seemed comparable between the EOUC and N-EOUC groups. Moreover, patients with EOUC and those with N-EOUC have a similar disease course in terms of proximal disease extension, hospitaliza-tion, and colectomy.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 752-762, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898475

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Our study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes and risk factors forrelapse after anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cessation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients because they are not well established. @*Methods@#A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted involving patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) from 10 referral hospitals in Korea who discontinued firstline anti-TNF therapy after achieving clinical remission. @*Results@#A total of 109 IBD patients (71 CD and 38 UC) with a median follow-up duration of 56months were analyzed. The cumulative relapse rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 11.3%, 46.7%, and 62.5% for CD patients and 28.9%, 45.3%, and 60.9% for UC patients. Multivariable Coxanalysis revealed that discontinuation owing to the clinician’s decision was associated with lower risk of relapse (vs patient’s preference: hazard ratio [HR], 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.48; p=0.002) and adalimumab use was associated with higher risk of relapse (vs infliximab: HR, 4.42; 95% CI, 1.24 to 17.74; p=0.022) in CD patients. Mucosal healing was associated with lower risk of relapse (vs nonmucosal healing: HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.83; p=0.031) in UC patients. Anti-TNF re-induction was provided to 52 patients, and a response was obtained in 50 patients. However, 25 of them discontinued retreatment owing to a loss of response (n=15), the patient’s preference (n=6), and other factors (n=4). @*Conclusions@#More than 60% of IBD patients in remission under anti-TNF therapy relapsed within 5 years of treatment cessation. Anti-TNF re-induction was effective. However, half of the patients discontinued anti-TNF therapy, and 50% of these patients discontinued treatment owing to loss of response.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 375-382, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898463

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) enables endoscopic visualization of small bowel (SB) involvement in Crohn’s disease (CD), there is no data on the changes in outcomes over time. We therefore investigated the changes in BAE use on CD patients over different time periods in terms of its role and clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#We used a multicenter enteroscopy database to identify CD patients with SB involvement who underwent BAE (131 procedures, 116 patients). We compared BAE-related factors and outcomes between the first period (70 procedures, 60 patients) and the second period (61procedures, 56 patients). The specific cutoff point for dividing the two periods was 2007, when BAE guidelines were introduced. @*Results@#Initial diagnosis of SB involvement in CD was the most common indication for BAE during each period (50.0% vs 31.1%, p=0.034). The largest change was in the number of BAE uses for stricture evaluation and/or treatment, which increased significantly in the latter period (2.9% vs 21.3%, p=0.002). The diagnostic yield in patients with suspected CD was 90.7% in the first period and 95.0% in the second (p=0.695). More endoscopic interventions were performed in the second period than in the first (5.1% vs 17.6%, p=0.041). Enteroscopic success rates were high throughout (100% in the first period vs 80.0% in the second period, p>0.999). In the first and second periods, therapeutic plans were adjusted in 62.7% and 61.4% of patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The overall clinical indications, outcomes, and effectiveness of BAE were constant over time in CD patients with SB involvement, with the exception that the frequency of enteroscopic intervention increased remarkably.

18.
Gut and Liver ; : 100-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874572

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside) is a flavonoid isolated from the leaves of persimmon or Rosa agrestis. Astragalin exhibits various anti-inflammatory properties; however, little is known about its therapeutic potential for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of astragalin via blockade of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in human colonic epithelial cells and a murine colitis model. @*Methods@#HCT-116 and HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells were pretreated with astragalin and stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Cell viability was assessed by the MTS assay. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the messenger RNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. The effect of astragalin on the NF-κB pathway was evaluated by Western blot analysis of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation/degradation and by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute murine colitis model was used for in vivo experiments. @*Results@#Astragalin strongly suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human colonic epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that astragalin inhibited IκBα phosphorylation/degradation. Additionally, astragalin reduced the DNA binding ac-tivity of NF-κB. Astragalin alleviated colon shortening and improved the pathologic scores in DSSinduced acute murine colitis model. Furthermore, astragalin reduced the level of phosphorylated IκBα and decreased the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the DSS-treated colon mucosa. @*Conclusions@#Astragalin exerted an anti-inflammatory effect through NF-κB pathway inhibition and attenuated murine colitis. Astragalin is thus a potential therapeutic agent for IBD.

19.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1069-1077, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914254

ABSTRACT

Background@#Positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results have been recently suggested as a risk factor for systemic inflammation. Diabetes induces inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract via several ways. We investigated the association between FIT results and the incidence of diabetes. @*Methods@#A total of 7,946,393 individuals aged ≥50 years from the National Cancer Screening Program database who underwent FIT for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening from 2009 to 2012 were enrolled. The primary outcome was newly diagnosed diabetes based on the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes and administration of anti-diabetic medication during the follow-up period. @*Results@#During a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, the incidence rates of diabetes were 11.97, 13.60, 14.53, and 16.82 per 1,000 personyears in the FIT negative, one-positive, two-positive, and three-positive groups, respectively. The hazard ratios (HRs) for the incidence of diabetes were 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.16; HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.27; and HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.55) in the one-positive, two-positive, and three-positive FIT groups compared with the FIT negative group, respectively. The effect was consistent in individuals with normal fasting blood glucose (adjusted HR 1.55 vs. 1.14, P for interaction <0.001). @*Conclusion@#Positive FIT results were associated with a significantly higher risk of diabetes, suggesting that the FIT can play a role not only as a CRC screening tool, but also as a surrogate marker of systemic inflammation; thus, increasing the diabetes risk.

20.
Intestinal Research ; : 45-55, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834396

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#PF-00547659 is a monoclonal antibody against human mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) that prevents the binding of α4β7+ lymphocytes to MAdCAM-expressing sites in the gastrointestinal tract with high affinity and selectivity, and is being developed for the treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD). @*Methods@#OPERA is a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of PF-00547659 following subcutaneous administration in subjects with active CD, a history of failure or intolerance to anti-tumor necrosis factor and/or immunosuppressants, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein > 3.0 mg/L, and ulcers on colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was Crohn’s Disease Activity Index-70 response at week 8 or 12. Subpopulation analyses for Asian subjects were performed as some differences are observed in genetics and clinical phenotypes in Asian CD patients compared with Western patients. @*Results@#In this study, 265 CD subjects were randomized, with a subpopulation of 21 subjects (8 Japanese and 13 Korean) defined as the Asian population. In the overall and Asian populations; PF-00547659 was pharmacologically active as evidenced by soluble MAdCAM and circulating β7+ central memory CD4+ T-lymphocytes, although no clear evidence of efficacy was observed in any clinical endpoints; pharmacokinetics of PF-00547659 in the Asian subpopulation was generally comparable to the overall population; and the safety profile of PF-00547659 appeared acceptable up to 12 weeks of treatment. @*Conclusions@#In the overall and Asian populations, efficacy of PF-00547659 could not be demonstrated using any clinical endpoints compared with placebo. Pharmacokinetics and safety of PF-00547659 were generally comparable. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required to confirm our results. (Trial Registration Number: NCT01276509)

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