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1.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 153-162, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002278

ABSTRACT

The identification for skeletal remains is one of roles of forensic medicine. For this purpose, dating, i.e., estimating the birth year and death year is expected as useful, however has not yet been practically applied. A dating method using radiocarbon analysis was recently introduced and related studies have been reported. In this study, we tried to confirm the applicability of radiocarbon dating for the identification of skeletal remains and to develop formulas to estimate the death year. Thirty-four autopsy cases from the National Forensic Service, from December 2014 to July 2022, with known death year were selected for inclusion. For each case, two samples were taken: the spongy bone of the femur head, and the compact bone of the femur midshaft. For each sample, radiocarbon analysis was carried out and the corresponding femur year were calculated using the bomb peak curve. The differences between the femur year and the death year were determined and analyzed on the influence of variables. A formula for estimating the death year was developed and the applicability of the formula was determined. The results showed that the difference between death year and femur head year was 14.2 years on average. In male, the difference between death year and femur head year increased with age, however, it did not show any difference according to age in female. The estimation formula of death year was as follows: (In male) Death year=0.993×(Femur head year)+0.288×(Age)+15.061, (In female) Death year=0.769×(Femur head year)-0.218×(Age)+489.676. The formula for male had relatively high explanatory power (adjusted R2=0.710), however, the formula for female had low explanatory power (adjusted R2=0.588). This study is meaningful because it is the largest single study of its kind, to date, and uses specific and identical skeleton (femur head/femur midshaft) to increase the accuracy of the death year estimation. We expect that the results of this study will be supplemented through additional research in the future.

2.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 163-170, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002277

ABSTRACT

The number of migrant workers is increasing worldwide every year, and their number and role in Korean society is also increasing. However, the poor conditions faced by migrant workers often become a social issue, and it is not uncommon for them to be the subject of forensic autopsies. This study aimed to investigate the current status of medicolegal autopsy on migrant workers in Korea. We collected data of medicolegal autopsies on migrant workers conducted in Korea from 2016 to 2020 by requesting data from the institutions performing medicolegal autopsy. We calculated the autopsy rate and analyzed manner of death and cause of death. The medicolegal autopsy rate for foreign deaths was 16.4%, which was more than five times higher than the autopsy rate for Korean deaths. By manner of death, 43.7% were natural death, 6.4% were homicides, 8.5% were suicides, 23.6% were accidental deaths, 2.7% were undetermined unnatural deaths and 15.0% were unknown. These results showed a high rate of homicide, accidental death, and unknown death compared to Korean. And the proportion of industrial accident deaths and sudden manhood death syndrome were high. Through this study, it was confirmed that medicolegal autopsies are performed at a relatively high frequency when migrant workers die, and the characteristics related to the deaths of migrant workers were identified.

3.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 8-13, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968148

ABSTRACT

In the cases of infants and children, there is a special form of accidental asphyxia that occurs in an unsafe sleeping environment. Rarely, some infants and children unexpectedly die in the day care centers. This also occurs during the process when teachers put the infants and children to sleep. This analysis was performed on national forensic autopsy cases from January 1, 2001, to October 31, 2022. The 97,402 cases were selected to provide their incident overview, the cause of death and the manner of death. The cases of infants and children asphyxia at day care centers were 43 cases (0.04%). The major cause of death was sudden infants and children death syndrome which included the possibility of accidental asphyxia (31 cases). This was followed by chocking (8 cases), complicated asphyxia (2 cases), smothering (1 case), and positional asphyxia (1 case). Two cases were a result of homicide, 10 cases were accidents, and 31 cases had unknown manner of death. There were four cases of asphyxia that occurred in the process of teachers putting infants and children to sleep. In all cases, there were no specific findings in the autopsy and there were CCTV footage including contact with the day care center teacher while taking a nap. Reporting these results provides information and awareness to social members related with infants and children, specially day care centers, and serves as basis for establishing social systems such as mandatory of CCTVs, helping to reduce the occurrence of similar death on infants and children.

4.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 23-26, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926664

ABSTRACT

Despite the high mortality rate associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), no clinical autopsy has been reported among the deceased during the pandemic by the Korean quarantine authorities. Notably, since 2020, forensic autopsies are performed in suspected and confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. The first case of death secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia in Korea was reported in November 2021. We recently performed a forensic autopsy of a couple (85-year-old man and 81-year-old woman) who were discovered dead at home. Gross examination showed lobar consolidation of lungs, and microscopic evaluation revealed diffuse alveolar injury in the acute phase and thrombi in small arterioles; these findings were consistent with those reported by previous studies that have described COVID-19 pneumonia. Based on the aforementioned findings, we concluded that the couple died of COVID-19, and our study is the second Korean study to report these findings.

5.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 7-13, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917824

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of unusual death. However, diagnosing acute myocardial infarction based on post-mortem examination may be difficult; notably, it cannot be diagnosed based on postmortem inspection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of cardiac marker analysis in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and to review the possibility of its application in post-mortem inspections. This study included 69 autopsy cases, including 29 cases in which the post-mortem interval was ≤24 hours, performed at the National Forensic Service Seoul Institute from July to November 2018. Tests for three cardiac markers (myoglobin, creatinine kinase-MB, and cardiac troponin I) were performed in each case using portable equipment, Triage Meter. The reliability of the equipment enzyme levels according to cause of death, and factors affecting the postmortem test results were analyzed. Cardiac marker concentrations were not significantly different between the heart disease and other disease groups, and Triage Meter was not found to be suitable for postmortem examination. Therefore, we can conclude that using cardiac marker analysis in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction using portable equipment at the scene of postmortem inspection is inappropriate.

6.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 17-23, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811383

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock (AS) is a systemic and life-threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction and is often encountered at an autopsy. However, postmortem diagnosis of AS can be difficult due to non-specific autopsy findings. Clinically, the analysis of serum mast cell tryptase (MCT) is well known as a useful ancillary test for the diagnosis of AS. However, in order to apply this test to forensic autopsy, it is necessary to confirm its usefulness due to postmortem changes. We carried out serum MCT analysis in 299 autopsy cases including nine AS cases at National Forensic Service from January 2013 to May 2015 and analyzed the difference according to the cause of death and degree of postmortem change. As a result, the MCT level in AS was significantly increased compared to others, and the appropriate cutoff value for postmortem diagnosis of AS was 63.0 µg/L (sensitivity 88.9%, specificity 98.6%). Conclusively, serum MCT analysis is a useful test for postmortem diagnosis of AS and seems to be more appropriate for screening rather than confirmation.

7.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 24-30, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811382

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy is a device used to determine whether traumatic intracranial hemorrhage has occurred and is primarily used for screening in emergency situations. In this study we examined the applicability of this equipment in postmortem inspection. This study included 124 autopsy cases and 59 postmortem inspection cases performed in the National Forensic Service from July 2017 to October 2018. We carried out the test using Infrascanner Model 2000 (Infrascan Inc.). Autopsy cases were divided into four groups (epidural hemorrhage or subdural hemorrhage group, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral contusion group, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage group, and control group) and analyzed. There was no difference in the test results according to the presence and type of intracranial hemorrhage. The possibility that variables related to postmortem change affected the test results was considered. In conclusion, this study confirmed that near-infrared spectroscopy is not suitable for the detection of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in postmortem inspection.

8.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 150-156, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836590

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders, that have become a major cause of death worldwide. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of diabetes-related laboratory tests for diagnosis of postmortem DM. From March to August 2018, among the autopsy cases investigated by the National Forensic Service, heart blood and vitreous humor samples from 253 cases that had not been decomposed were collected, and the data from 208 cases except 45 cases that were incapable of testing were analyzed for statistical significance and compared with the causes of death on autopsy reports. The levels of C-peptide, insulin, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HA), total ketone, and HbA1c were measured in the heart blood, and the levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and potassium were measured in the vitreous humor. The levels of glucose in the vitreous humor and HbA1c, β-HA, and total ketone in the heart blood were significantly correlated. C-peptide and insulin levels were lower than normal levels in most cases (C-peptide 92.3%, P=0.480, insulin 97.6%, P=0.589), and were not useful measures indicating diabetic complications. In the group with DM history, the average levels of HbA1c from the heart blood and glucose from the vitreous humor were higher than in those with no or unknown history of DM, indicating their usefulness as diagnostic tools. The results of this study suggest a postmortem DM diagnosis model.Therefore, postmortem DM-related tests can help diagnose the cause of death in forensic medicine.

9.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 49-53, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836585

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a respiratory syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. It resulted in a worldwide pandemic, and spread through community transmission in the Republic of Korea (ROK). In the ROK, SARS-CoV-2 is categorized as a first-degree infectious disease of the legal communicable disease present. The Korean Society for Legal Medicine (KSLM) is the sole official academic association of forensic professionals in the ROK. As such, this society has played an important role in forensic medicine and science in the ROK. Therefore, KSLM suggests a standard operating procedure for the postmortem inspection in a focus on COVID-19. This article includes the background of this suggested standard operation procedure, basic principles for postmortem inspections of individuals suggested of having an infectious disease, and specific procedures according to the probability level of SARSCoV- 2 infection.

10.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 76-83, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836583

ABSTRACT

An autopsy for a fatal anaphylactic shock (AS) is not rare; however, postmortem diagnosis of anaphylaxis can be very challenging due to nonspecific macroscopic findings and absence of diagnostic tests except serum mast cell tryptase analysis. We tried to review the usefulness of histopathologic examination as an alternative method for the postmortem diagnosis of AS in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out for detection of mast cells in 27 autopsy cases, including 7 AS cases, 5 false-positive cases, and 15 control cases at the National Forensic Service from January 2013 to May 2015, and the differences of mast cell counts and staining pattern were analyzed. The results revealed no differences in the number of mast cells among the three groups; however, a characteristic mast cell degranulation staining pattern was observed in the AS group and false-positive group. It can be conclusively inferred that the histopathologic examination could prove helpful in the postmortem diagnosis of AS, but it should serve as an ancillary option.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e302-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831548

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and emerged in Wuhan, China, in late 2019. It resulted in a worldwide pandemic, and spread through community transmission in the Republic of Korea (ROK). In the ROK, SARS-CoV-2 is categorized as a first-degree infectious disease of the legal communicable disease present. The Korean Society for Legal Medicine (KSLM) is the sole official academic association of forensic professionals in the ROK. As such, this society has played an important role in forensic medicine and science in the ROK. Therefore, KSLM suggests a standard operating procedure for the postmortem inspection in a focus on COVID-19. This article includes the background of this suggested standard operation procedure, basic principles for postmortem inspections of individuals suggested of having an infectious disease, and specific procedures according to the probability level of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 17-23, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894474

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock (AS) is a systemic and life-threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction and is often encountered at an autopsy. However, postmortem diagnosis of AS can be difficult due to non-specific autopsy findings. Clinically, the analysis of serum mast cell tryptase (MCT) is well known as a useful ancillary test for the diagnosis of AS. However, in order to apply this test to forensic autopsy, it is necessary to confirm its usefulness due to postmortem changes. We carried out serum MCT analysis in 299 autopsy cases including nine AS cases at National Forensic Service from January 2013 to May 2015 and analyzed the difference according to the cause of death and degree of postmortem change. As a result, the MCT level in AS was significantly increased compared to others, and the appropriate cutoff value for postmortem diagnosis of AS was 63.0 µg/L (sensitivity 88.9%, specificity 98.6%). Conclusively, serum MCT analysis is a useful test for postmortem diagnosis of AS and seems to be more appropriate for screening rather than confirmation.

13.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 24-30, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894473

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy is a device used to determine whether traumatic intracranial hemorrhage has occurred and is primarily used for screening in emergency situations. In this study we examined the applicability of this equipment in postmortem inspection. This study included 124 autopsy cases and 59 postmortem inspection cases performed in the National Forensic Service from July 2017 to October 2018. We carried out the test using Infrascanner Model 2000 (Infrascan Inc.). Autopsy cases were divided into four groups (epidural hemorrhage or subdural hemorrhage group, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral contusion group, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage group, and control group) and analyzed. There was no difference in the test results according to the presence and type of intracranial hemorrhage. The possibility that variables related to postmortem change affected the test results was considered. In conclusion, this study confirmed that near-infrared spectroscopy is not suitable for the detection of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in postmortem inspection.

14.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 17-23, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902178

ABSTRACT

Anaphylactic shock (AS) is a systemic and life-threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction and is often encountered at an autopsy. However, postmortem diagnosis of AS can be difficult due to non-specific autopsy findings. Clinically, the analysis of serum mast cell tryptase (MCT) is well known as a useful ancillary test for the diagnosis of AS. However, in order to apply this test to forensic autopsy, it is necessary to confirm its usefulness due to postmortem changes. We carried out serum MCT analysis in 299 autopsy cases including nine AS cases at National Forensic Service from January 2013 to May 2015 and analyzed the difference according to the cause of death and degree of postmortem change. As a result, the MCT level in AS was significantly increased compared to others, and the appropriate cutoff value for postmortem diagnosis of AS was 63.0 µg/L (sensitivity 88.9%, specificity 98.6%). Conclusively, serum MCT analysis is a useful test for postmortem diagnosis of AS and seems to be more appropriate for screening rather than confirmation.

15.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 24-30, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902177

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy is a device used to determine whether traumatic intracranial hemorrhage has occurred and is primarily used for screening in emergency situations. In this study we examined the applicability of this equipment in postmortem inspection. This study included 124 autopsy cases and 59 postmortem inspection cases performed in the National Forensic Service from July 2017 to October 2018. We carried out the test using Infrascanner Model 2000 (Infrascan Inc.). Autopsy cases were divided into four groups (epidural hemorrhage or subdural hemorrhage group, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral contusion group, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage group, and control group) and analyzed. There was no difference in the test results according to the presence and type of intracranial hemorrhage. The possibility that variables related to postmortem change affected the test results was considered. In conclusion, this study confirmed that near-infrared spectroscopy is not suitable for the detection of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in postmortem inspection.

16.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 738-748, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827781

ABSTRACT

Dioscorea batatas Decne (DBD) has been used to heal various illnesses of the kidney and intestine as an herbal medicine in Asia. As a source of therapeutic agents, many glycoproteins have been isolated from mushrooms and plants, but the functional role of glycoprotein in intestinal epithelial wound healing has not been understood yet. In the present study, we investigated the wound healing potentials of the 30 kDa glycoprotein (DBD glycoprotein) isolated from DBD in human intestinal epithelial (INT-407) cells. We found that DBD glycoprotein (100 μg·mL) significantly increased the motility of INT-407 cells for 24 h by activating protein kinase C (PKC). DBD glycoprotein stimulated the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is responsible for the phosphorylation of NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα). DBD glycoprotein increased the level of profilin-1 (PFN1), α-actinin and F-actin expression via activation of transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) during its promotion of cell migration. Experimental mouse colitis was induced by adding dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to the drinking water at a concentration of 4% (W/V) for 7 days. We figured out that administration of DBD glycoprotein (10 and 20 mg·kg) lowers the levels of disease activity index and histological inflammation in DSS-treated ICR mice. In this regard, we suggest that DBD glycoprotein has ability to promote the F-actin-related migration signaling events via activation of PKC and NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells and prevent inflammatory bowel disease.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 301-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782459
18.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 64-70, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917805

ABSTRACT

This study provides a statistical analysis of 1,226 cases of death occurring in Area 8, Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency (Gangseo, Yangcheon, and Guro Police Stations) from January 1 to December 31, 2017. There were 427 postmortem inspection cases in Gangseo, 393 in Yangcheon, 377 in Guro, and 29 in other areas. The number of autopsy cases was 69 in Gangseo, 70 in Yangcheon, 86 in Guro, and seven in other areas. According to the postmortem inspection reports, there were 593 cases of natural death and 336 cases of unnatural death, while in 297 cases the cause of death was unknown. Of the 297 unknown cases, autopsy rates from each police station were as follows: 54 of 99 cases (54.5%) in Gangseo, 60 of 101 cases (59.4%) in Yangcheon, 67 of 93 cases (72.0%) in Guro, and in all four cases (100%) from other areas. Unnatural deaths included 215 cases of suicide, nine cases of homicide, and 64 accidental death, while 48 cases were undetermined. Among the unnatural deaths, the cause of death included 138 cases of hanging, 72 cases of falls from a height, and 32 cases of poisoning. Since this statistical study is based on actual postmortem inspection data for 1,226 cases of death in the eight areas of Seoul (excluding deaths from traffic accidents), it raises issues relating to the current postmortem inspection system, and can be used as reference material for a comprehensive overview of causes of death.

19.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 91-96, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917795

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction is one of the most common causes of unexpected deaths, but there are limitations to its diagnosis in postmortem inspection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of cardiac marker analysis for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in postmortem inspection. This study was conducted on 30 postmortem inspection cases conducted by the National Forensic Service from 2016 to 2018. Tests for three myocardial enzymes (myoglobin, creatinine kinase-MB, and cardiac troponin I) were performed in each case, and the relationships between enzyme levels, cause of death, and factors affecting the postmortem tests were analyzed. Cardiac enzyme concentrations were not significantly different between the heart disease group and other disease groups, and the false-positive rate was increased due to postmortem changes. Therefore, we can conclude that it is not appropriate to use cardiac enzyme analysis for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in postmortem inspection.

20.
Korean Journal of Legal Medicine ; : 91-96, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759871

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction is one of the most common causes of unexpected deaths, but there are limitations to its diagnosis in postmortem inspection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of cardiac marker analysis for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in postmortem inspection. This study was conducted on 30 postmortem inspection cases conducted by the National Forensic Service from 2016 to 2018. Tests for three myocardial enzymes (myoglobin, creatinine kinase-MB, and cardiac troponin I) were performed in each case, and the relationships between enzyme levels, cause of death, and factors affecting the postmortem tests were analyzed. Cardiac enzyme concentrations were not significantly different between the heart disease group and other disease groups, and the false-positive rate was increased due to postmortem changes. Therefore, we can conclude that it is not appropriate to use cardiac enzyme analysis for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in postmortem inspection.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Creatinine , Diagnosis , Heart Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Postmortem Changes , Troponin , Troponin I
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