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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898134

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are hereditary in approximately 30% to 40% cases. With the advancement of genetic analysis techniques, including next-generation sequencing (NGS), there were attempts to classify PPGL into molecular clusters. With NGS being applied to clinical settings recently, we aimed to review the results of genetic analysis, including NGS, and investigate the association with clinical characteristics in Korean PPGL patients. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of PPGL patients who visited Severance hospital from 2006 to 2019. We documented the clinical phenotype of those who underwent targeted NGS or had known germline mutations of related genes. @*Results@#Among 57 PPGL patients, we found 28 pathogenic germline mutations of susceptibility genes. Before the targeted NGS was implemented, only obvious syndromic feature lead to the Sanger sequencing for the specific genes. Therefore, for the exact prevalence, only patients after the year 2017, when targeted NGS was added, were included (n=43). The positive germline mutations were found in 14 patients; thus, the incidence rate is 32.6%. Patients with germline mutations had a higher likelihood of family history. There were significant differences in the type of PPGLs, percentage of family history, metastasis rate, presence of other tumors, and biochemical profile among three molecular clusters: pseudohypoxic tricarboxylic acid cycle-related, pseudohypoxic von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)/endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1-related, and kinase-signaling group. Germline mutations were identified in seven PPGL-related genes (SDHB, RET, VHL, NF1, MAX, SDHA, and SDHD). @*Conclusion@#We report the expected prevalence of germline mutations in Korean PPGL patients. NGS is a useful and accessible tool for genetic analysis in patients with PPGLs, and further research on molecular classification is needed for precise management.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890430

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are hereditary in approximately 30% to 40% cases. With the advancement of genetic analysis techniques, including next-generation sequencing (NGS), there were attempts to classify PPGL into molecular clusters. With NGS being applied to clinical settings recently, we aimed to review the results of genetic analysis, including NGS, and investigate the association with clinical characteristics in Korean PPGL patients. @*Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of PPGL patients who visited Severance hospital from 2006 to 2019. We documented the clinical phenotype of those who underwent targeted NGS or had known germline mutations of related genes. @*Results@#Among 57 PPGL patients, we found 28 pathogenic germline mutations of susceptibility genes. Before the targeted NGS was implemented, only obvious syndromic feature lead to the Sanger sequencing for the specific genes. Therefore, for the exact prevalence, only patients after the year 2017, when targeted NGS was added, were included (n=43). The positive germline mutations were found in 14 patients; thus, the incidence rate is 32.6%. Patients with germline mutations had a higher likelihood of family history. There were significant differences in the type of PPGLs, percentage of family history, metastasis rate, presence of other tumors, and biochemical profile among three molecular clusters: pseudohypoxic tricarboxylic acid cycle-related, pseudohypoxic von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)/endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1-related, and kinase-signaling group. Germline mutations were identified in seven PPGL-related genes (SDHB, RET, VHL, NF1, MAX, SDHA, and SDHD). @*Conclusion@#We report the expected prevalence of germline mutations in Korean PPGL patients. NGS is a useful and accessible tool for genetic analysis in patients with PPGLs, and further research on molecular classification is needed for precise management.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766742

ABSTRACT

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS), which is caused by mutations in SACS gene, is a very rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the clinical triad of early onset cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract features, and sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Herein, we report a 35-year-old Korean male who presented with gait disturbance and lower extremity weakness. Neuroimaging and ophthalmologic evaluation revealed features consistent with ARSACS. Mutation in SACS gene was demonstrated in clinical exome sequence analysis and the patient was finally diagnosed as ARSACS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ataxia , Cerebellar Ataxia , Exome , Gait , Humans , Lower Extremity , Male , Muscle Spasticity , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroimaging , Polyneuropathies , Pyramidal Tracts , Sequence Analysis , Spinocerebellar Degenerations
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718774

ABSTRACT

In both 2016 and 2017, the cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic programs conducted three assessments for the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service. A total of six cases with chromosomal aberrations were distributed in 2016, and nine cases were examined in 2017 in the chromosome surveys. For the fluorescence in situ hybridization surveys, six cases and nine cases were assessed in 2016 and 2017, respectively. A total of 38 laboratories in 2016 and 39 laboratories in 2017 participated in the cytogenetics program. In the molecular cytogenetics program, a total of 32 laboratories participated in 2016, and 31 laboratories participated in 2017. Most of the participating laboratories showed acceptable results for the cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetics programs. For the unacceptable results, there were various annotation errors, suggesting the need for continuous education and quality control.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , Education , Fluorescence , In Situ Hybridization , Korea , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Quality Control
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728809

ABSTRACT

KBG syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies, short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and macrodontia. ANKRD11 gene mutation and 16q24.3 microdeletion have been reported to cause KBG syndrome. Here, we report two patients with ANKRD11 mutations who initially presented with neurologic symptoms such as developmental delay and seizures. Patient 1 was a 23-month-old boy who presented with a global developmental delay. Language delay was the most dominant feature. He had hypertelorism, hearing impairment, and behavior problems characterized as hyperactivity. A c.1903_1907delAAACA (p.Lys635GInfsTer26) mutation in ANKRD11 was identified with diagnostic exome sequencing. Patient 2 was a 14-month-old boy with developmental delay and seizure. He also had atrial septum defect, and ventricular septal defect. Generalized tonic seizures began at the age of 8 months. Electroencephalography showed generalized sharp and slow wave pattern. Seizures did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. A loss of function mutation c.5350_5351delTC (p.ser1784HisfsTer12) in ANKRD11 was identified with diagnostic exome sequencing. In both cases, characteristic features of KBG syndrome such as short stature or macrodontia, were absent, and they visited the hospital due to neurological symptoms. These findings suggest that more patients with mild phenotypes of KBG syndrome are being recognized with advances in diagnostic exome sequencing genetic technologies.


Subject(s)
Anticonvulsants , Atrial Septum , Developmental Disabilities , Early Diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Exome , Hearing Loss , Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular , Humans , Hypertelorism , Infant , Intellectual Disability , Language Development Disorders , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Neurologic Manifestations , Phenotype , Seizures
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183539

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical role of rapid next-generation sequencing (NGS) for identifying BRCA1/2 mutations compared to traditional Sanger sequencing. METHODS: Twenty-four paired samples from 12 patients were analyzed in this prospective study to compare the performance of NGS to the Sanger method. Both NGS and Sanger sequencing were performed in 2 different laboratories using blood samples from patients with breast cancer. We then analyzed the accuracy of NGS in terms of variant calling and determining concordance rates of BRCA1/2 mutation detection. RESULTS: The overall concordance rate of BRCA1/2 mutation identification was 100%. Variants of unknown significance (VUS) were reported in two cases of BRCA1 and 3 cases of BRCA2 after Sanger sequencing, whereas NGS reported only 1 case of BRCA1 VUS, likely due to differences in reference databases used for mutation identification. The median turnaround time of Sanger sequencing was 22 days (range, 14–26 days), while the median time of NGS was only 6 days (range, 3–21 days). CONCLUSION: NGS yielded comparably accurate results to Sanger sequencing and in a much shorter time with respect to BRCA1/2 mutation identification. The shorter turnaround time and higher accuracy of NGS may help clinicians make more timely and informed decisions regarding surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Clinical Decision-Making , Drug Therapy , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Methods , Prospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186607

ABSTRACT

Minimal residual disease (MRD) following B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) treatment has gained prognostic importance. Clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement is a useful follow-up marker in B-ALL owing to its high positivity rate. We evaluated the performance and clinical applicability of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay for IGH rearrangement in B-ALL MRD monitoring. IGH rearrangement was tested by using fluorescence PCR-fragment analysis and the NGS assay in eight B-ALL patients. The NGS assay was run on two platforms: the Ion Torrent PGM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) (18 samples from 1st to 7th patients) and the MiSeq system (Illumina, USA) (four samples from 8th patient). All initial diagnostic samples and four follow-up samples were positive for clonal IGH rearrangement with fluorescence PCR-fragment analysis and the NGS assay, and six follow-up samples were positive only with NGS. In one case with BCR-ABL1 translocation, BCR-ABL1 quantitative PCR was negative but the NGS IGH assay was positive just prior to full-blown relapse, suggesting the high sensitivity and clinical utility of the NGS assay. The NGS assay is proposed for MRD monitoring in B-ALL Additional studies are needed to confirm the clinical implications of cases showing positive results only in NGS.


Subject(s)
Fluorescence , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains , Immunoglobulins , Leukemia , Neoplasm, Residual , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recurrence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79080

ABSTRACT

Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizure (MFEI) is an early-onset epileptic encephalopathy characterized by randomly migrating focal seizures and psychomotor deterioration. It is associated with mutations in a variety of genes, with potassium sodium-activated channel subfamily T member 1 (KCNT1) being an example. Previously reported KCNT1 mutations in MFEI are gain-of-function mutations. Therefore, quinidine therapy targeted at reduction of pathologically increased KCNT1 channel-mediated potassium conductance has been proposed as a target treatment for MEFI with KCNT1 mutation. The authors report a case involving a patient with MFEI and a missense mutation in KCNT1 (c.7129G>A; p.Phe346Leu) treated with quinidine therapy. Seizure activity was poorly responsive to quinidine.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , Epilepsy , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Potassium , Quinidine , Seizures
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Grafts survive despite blood group antigens on the transplant being continuously exposed to antibodies in the blood of recipients in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT), owing to the mechanism of accommodation. We analyzed the immunodynamics of soluble ABH antigens in allografts from secretor donors and the influence of such immunodynamics on accommodation and subsequent graft survival in ABOi KT. METHODS: The genotype of a known human β-galactoside α-1,2-fucosyltransferase gene (FUT2), which determines soluble ABH antigen secretor status, was established in 32 donors for ABOi KT at the Severance Hospital, from June 2010 to July 2015. Clinical outcomes of recipients, such as anti-A/B antibody titer change, renal function, and graft survival, were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-five donors were secretors (78.1%), and seven were nonsecretors (21.9%). The frequency of anti-A/B IgG or IgM antibody titer elevation or reduction post-transplantation was not significantly related to donor secretor status. However, IgM titer was rapidly reduced in recipients transplanted from nonsecretor donors (P=0.01), which could be explained by the lack of absorption effect of soluble antigens, enhancing the binding of antibodies to antigens in the allografts. Interestingly, soluble ABH antigens did not affect rejection-free graft survival, which may be due to the nature of β-galactoside α-1,2-fucosyltransferase. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble ABH antigens produced by transplanted kidneys from secretor donors played a role in inducing accommodation within three months of KT through neutralization; however, major graft outcomes were not affected.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Allografts , Antibodies , Blood Group Antigens , Blood Group Incompatibility , Genotype , Graft Survival , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Tissue Donors , Transplants
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146513

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Korea was unexpected that laboratory response had to be built up urgently during the outbreak. The outbreak was almost all healthcare-associated, which was aggravated by lack of availability in laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV on site. On behalf of the MERS joint public and private sector response committee (MERS Joint committee), the Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine (KSLM) launched a MERS response task force (MERS KSLM TF) to facilitate clinical laboratories set up MERS molecular diagnosis. MERS TF established guidelines for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV and provided it to all participating laboratories as the official guidance of MERS Joint committee. This guideline was used for procedure manual of molecular diagnosis of MERS-CoV and laboratory safety manual.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus , Diagnosis , Joints , Korea , Middle East , Private Sector
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is crucial to understand the current status of clinical laboratory practices for the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in the Republic of Korea to be well prepared for future emerging infectious diseases. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 49 clinical laboratories in medical institutions and referral medical laboratories. A short questionnaire to survey clinical laboratory practices relating to MERS-CoV diagnostic testing was sent by email to the directors and clinical pathologists in charge of the clinical laboratories performing MERS-CoV testing. The survey focused on testing volume, reporting of results, resources, and laboratory safety. RESULTS: A total of 40 clinical laboratories responded to the survey. A total of 27,009 MERS-CoV real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) tests were performed. Most of the specimens were sputum (73.5%). The median turnaround time (TAT) was 5.29 hr (first and third quartile, 4.11 and 7.48 hr) in 26 medical institutions. The median TAT of more than a half of the laboratories (57.7%) was less than 6 hr. Many laboratories were able to perform tests throughout the whole week. Laboratory biosafety preparedness included class II biosafety cabinets (100%); separated pre-PCR, PCR, and post-PCR rooms (88.6%); negative pressure pretreatment rooms (48.6%); and negative pressure sputum collection rooms (20.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical laboratories were able to quickly expand their diagnostic capacity in response to the 2015 MERS-CoV outbreak. Our results show that clinical laboratories play an important role in the maintenance and enhancement of laboratory response in preparation for future emerging infections.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Services/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sputum/virology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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