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1.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 1-17, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830919

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature myeloid cells that exert suppressive function on the immune response. MDSCs expand in tumor-bearing hosts or in the tumor microenvironment and suppress T cell responses via various mechanisms, whereas a reduction in their activities has been observed in autoimmune diseases or infections. It has been reported that the symptoms of various diseases, including malignant tumors, can be alleviated by targeting MDSCs. Moreover, MDSCs can contribute to patient resistance to therapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors. In line with these therapeutic approaches, diverse oligonucleotide-based molecules and small molecules have been evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in several disease models via the modulation of MDSC activity. In the current review, MDSC-targeting oligonucleotides and small molecules are briefly summarized, and we highlight the immunomodulatory effects on MDSCs in a variety of disease models and the application of MDSC-targeting molecules for immuno-oncologic therapy.

2.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 63-70, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719640

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that are able to suppress T cell function are a heterogeneous cell population frequently observed in cancer, infection, and autoimmune disease. Immune checkpoint molecules, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells and its ligand (PD-L1) expressed on tumor cells or antigen-presenting cells, have received extensive attention in the past decade due to the dramatic effects of their inhibitors in patients with various types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PD-1 on MDSCs in bone marrow, spleen, and tumor tissue derived from breast tumor-bearing mice. Our studies demonstrate that PD-1 expression is markedly increased in tumor-infiltrating MDSCs compared to expression in bone marrow and spleens and that it can be induced by LPS that is able to mediate NF-κB signaling. Moreover, expression of PD-L1 and CD80 on PD-1+ MDSCs was higher than on PD-1− MDSCs and proliferation of MDSCs in a tumor microenvironment was more strongly induced in PD-1+ MDSCs than in PD-1− MDSCs. Although we could not characterize the inducer of PD-1 expression derived from cancer cells, our findings indicate that the study on the mechanism of PD-1 induction in MDSCs is important and necessary for the control of MDSC activity; our results suggest that PD-1+ MDSCs in a tumor microenvironment may induce tumor development and relapse through the modulation of their proliferation and suppressive molecules.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antigen-Presenting Cells , Autoimmune Diseases , Bone Marrow , Bone Marrow Cells , Breast , Recurrence , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 392-399, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) is characterized by states of “embitterment”, characteristically similar to “Hwa-byung”, which is a Korean culture-bound syndrome. The present study aimed to assess diagnostic relationships between PTED and Hwa-byung. METHODS: A total of 290 participants completed our survey. PTED and Hwa-byung were diagnosed using a diagnostic interview and scale. Scales for depression, suicide ideation, and anger were used for evaluation. Fisher's exact tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to evaluate diagnostic overlap between PTED and Hwa-byung, and associations of scale scores for depression, suicide ideation, and anger between the PTED, Hwa-byung, and non-diagnosed groups. Associations of these scales between the depressive and non-depressive groups, and suicidal and non-suicidal groups were also evaluated. RESULTS: Among the participants, 1.7% of the sample fit the diagnostic criteria for PTED and 2.1% fit the criteria for Hwa-byung. No individual fit the criteria for both. Anger scores were significantly higher in the Hwa-byung group than in the non-diagnostic group. There were not any significant differences in anger scores between the PTED and non-diagnostic groups. Depression scores were significantly higher in the PTED than in the non-diagnostic groups. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between depression scores in the Hwa-byung and non-diagnostic groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PTED may be a disorder category that is distinct from Hwa-byung.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anger , Asian People , Depression , Ethnopsychology , Suicide , Weights and Measures
4.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 9-18, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20744

ABSTRACT

Bone matrix is properly maintained by osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In the tumor microenvironment, osteoclasts are increasingly differentiated by the various ligands and cytokines secreted from the metastasized cancer cells at the bone metastasis niche. The activated osteoclasts generate osteolytic lesions. For this reason, studies focusing on the differentiation of osteoclasts are important to reduce bone destruction by tumor metastasis. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been known to contribute to the suppression of tumor growth and metastasis, but the precise role of NDRG2 in osteoclast differentiation induced by cancer cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that NDRG2 expression in breast cancer cells has an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation. RAW 264.7 cells, which are monocytic preosteoclast cells, treated with the conditioned media (CM) of murine breast cancer cells (4T1) expressing NDRG2 are less differentiated into the multinucleated osteoclast-like cells than those treated with the CM of 4T1-WT or 4T1-mock cells. Interestingly, 4T1 cells stably expressing NDRG2 showed a decreased mRNA and protein level of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), which is known to enhance osteoclast maturation. Osteoclast differentiation was also reduced by ICAM1 knockdown in 4T1 cells. In addition, blocking the interaction between soluble ICAM1 and ICAM1 receptors significantly decreased osteoclastogenesis of RAW 264.7 cells in the tumor environment. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduction of ICAM1 expression by NDRG2 in breast cancer cells decreases osteoclast differentiation, and demonstrate that excessive bone resorption could be inhibited via ICAM1 down-regulation by NDRG2 expression.


Subject(s)
Bone Matrix , Bone Resorption , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Culture Media, Conditioned , Cytokines , Down-Regulation , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Ligands , Neoplasm Metastasis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Microenvironment
5.
Immune Network ; : 104-112, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216356

ABSTRACT

Silica is one of the most abundant compounds found in nature. Immoderate exposure to crystalline silica has been linked to pulmonary disease and crystalline silica has been classified as a Group I carcinogen. Ultrafine (diameter <100 nm) silica particles may have different toxicological properties compared to larger particles. We evaluated the effect of ultrafine silica nanoparticles on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and murine dendritic cell line, DC2.4. The exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to ultrafine silica nanoparticles showed a decrease in cell viability and an induction of cell death in size- and concentration-dependent manners. In addition, in order to examine the phenotypic changes of DCs following co-culture with silica nanoparticles, we added each sized-silica nanoparticle along with GM-CSF and IL-4 during and after DC differentiation. Expression of CD11c, a typical DC marker, and multiple surface molecules such as CD54, CD80, CD86, MHC class II, was changed by silica nanoparticles in a size-dependent manner. We also found that silica nanoparticles affect inflammatory response in DCs in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we found that p38 and NF-kappaB activation may be critical for the inflammatory response by silica nanoparticles. Our data demonstrate that ultrafine silica nanoparticles have cytotoxic effects on dendritic cells and immune modulation effects in vitro and in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apoptosis , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Coculture Techniques , Crystallins , Dendritic Cells , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Interleukin-4 , Lung Diseases , Nanoparticles , NF-kappa B , Silicon Dioxide , Silicones
6.
Immune Network ; : 348-357, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a member of a newly described family of differentiation-related genes, has been characterized as a regulator of dendritic cells. However, the role of NDRG2 on the expression and activation of transcription factors in blood cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDRG2 overexpression on GATA-1 expression in PMA-stimulated U937 cells. METHODS: We generated NDRG2-overexpressing U937 cell line (U937-NDRG2) and treated the cells with PMA to investigate the role of NDRG2 on GATA-1 expression. RESULTS: NDRG2 overexpression in U937 cells significantly induced GATA-1 expression in response to PMA stimulation. Interestingly, JAK2/STAT and BMP-4/Smad pathways associated with the induction of GATA-1 were activated in PMA-stimulated U937-NDRG2 cells. We found that the inhibition of JAK2 activation, but not of BMP-4/Smad signaling, can elicit a decrease of PMA-induced GATA-1 expression in U937-NDRG2 cells. CONCLUSION: The results reveal that NDRG2 promotes the expression of GATA-1 through activation of the JAK2/STAT pathway, but not through the regulation of the BMP-4/Smad pathway in U937 cells. Our findings further suggest that NDRG2 may play a role as a regulator of erythrocyte and megakaryocyte differentiation during hematopoiesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Cells , Dendritic Cells , Erythrocytes , Hematopoiesis , Megakaryocytes , Transcription Factors , U937 Cells
7.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 198-204, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40493

ABSTRACT

Target herbal ingredient (THI) is an extract made from two herbs, Scutellariae Radix and Platycodi Radix. It has been developed as a treatment for metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. One component of these two herbs has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anti-obesity activities. However, there have been no reports about the effects of the mixed extract of these two herbs on metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the metabolic effects of THI using a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. High-fat diet (HFD) mice were orally administered daily with 250 mg/kg of THI. After 10 weeks of treatment, the THI-administered HFD mice showed reduction of body weights and epididymal white adipose tissue weights as well as improved glucose tolerance. In addition, the level of total cholesterol in the serum was markedly reduced. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the metabolic effects of THI in vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with THI, after which the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors, including C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, were measured. The results show that the expression of these two transcription factors was down regulated by THI in a dose-dependent manner. We also examined the combinatorial effects of THI and swimming exercise on metabolic status. THI administration simultaneously accompanied by swimming exercise had a synergistic effect on serum cholesterol levels. These findings suggest that THI could be developed as a supplement for improving metabolic status.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , 3T3-L1 Cells , Adipose Tissue, White , Atherosclerosis , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Diet, High-Fat , Flavonoids , Glucose , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Metabolic Diseases , Obesity , PPAR gamma , RNA, Messenger , Scutellaria baicalensis , Swimming , Transcription Factors , Weights and Measures
8.
Immune Network ; : 219-229, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a member of the NDRG gene family. Our previous report indicated a possible role for NDRG2 in regulating the cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), which is an important immunosuppressive cytokine. Several pathways, including p38-MAPK, NF-kappaB, and JAK/STAT, are used for IL-10 production, and the JAK/STAT pathway can be inhibited in a negative feedback loop by the inducible protein, SOCS3. In the present study, we investigated the effect of NDRG2 gene expression on IL-10 signaling pathway that is modulated via SOCS3 and STAT3. METHODS: We generated NDRG2-overexpressing U937 cell line (U937-NDRG2) and treated the cells with PMA to investigate the role of NDRG2 in IL-10 production. U937 cells were also transfected with SOCS3- or NDRG2-specific siRNAs to examine whether the knockdown of SOCS3 or NDRG2 influenced IL-10 expression. Lastly, STAT3 and SOCS3 induction was measured to identify the signaling pathway that was associated with IL-10 production. RESULTS: RT-PCR and ELISA assays showed that IL-10 was increased in U937-mock cells upon stimulation with PMA, but IL-10 was inhibited by overexpression NDRG2. After PMA treatment, STAT3 phosphorylation was decreased in a time-dependent manner in U937-mock cells, whereas it was maintained in U937-NDRG2 cells. SOCS3 was markedly reduced in U937-NDRG2 cells compared with U937-mock cells. IL-10 production after PMA stimulation was reduced in U937 cells when SOCS3 was inhibited, but this effect was less severe when NDRG2 was inhibited. CONCLUSION: NDRG2 expression modulates SOCS3 and STAT3 activity, eventually leading to the inhibition of IL-10 production.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression , Interleukin-10 , NF-kappa B , Phosphorylation , RNA, Small Interfering , U937 Cells
9.
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; : 230-238, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-206226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2BP) is a secreted glycoprotein from the culture fluid of several human cancer cells, especially breast, lung, and gastric cells. Mac-2BP plays a role in immune response and cell adhesion activity in patients with various cancer and infectious diseases. In this study, we attempted to identify the regulators of Mac-2BP expression at the transcriptional level. METHODS: To determine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to Mac-2BP expression in gastric cancers, we constructed the different lengths of Mac-2BP promoter plasmids and measured the promoter activity and Mac-2BP expression. In addition to investigating the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (STAT3) or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) as a regulator of Mac-2BP, we transfected the small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for STAT3 or hTERT, and Mac-2BP level was observed by a quantitative ELISA. RESULTS: EGF treatment could suppress the Mac-2BP transcription in HEK293 or gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-638 or AGS). In 5'-deleted promoter experiment, pGL3-Mac Pro-2377 transfected cells showed a decreased luciferase activity compared to pGL3-Mac Pro-2277. We also identified that (-2,366/-2,356) on Mac-2BP promoter is a putative STAT3 binding site and suppression of STAT3 with STAT3 specific siRNA increased the Mac-2BP level, suggesting the role of STAT3 as a negative regulator, in contrast to hTERT, which is known as a positive regulator. CONCLUSIONS: EGF signal is critical for the Mac-2BP expression, and more importantly, STAT3 could work as a negative regulator, while hTERT as a positive regulator in Mac-2BP transcription.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Down-Regulation , Epidermal Growth Factor/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , Telomerase/metabolism , Transfection
10.
Immune Network ; : 133-140, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is well established that cross talk between natural killer (NK) cells and myeloid dendritic cells (DC) leads to NK cell activation and DC maturation. In the present study, we investigated whether type 1-polarized DC (DC1) matured in the presence of IFN-gamma and type 2-polarized DC (DC2) matured in the presence of PGE2 can differentially activate NK cells. METHODS: In order to generate DC, plastic adherent monocytes were cultured in RPMI 1640 containing GM-CSF and IL-4. At day 6, maturation was induced by culturing the cells for 2 days with cytokines or PGE2 in the presence or absence of LPS. Each population of DC was cocultured with NK cells for 24 h. The antigen expression on DC was analyzed by flow cytometry and cytokine production in culture supernatant was measured by ELISA or a bioassay for TNF-alpha determination. NK cell-mediated lysis was determined using a standard 4 h chromium release assay. RESULTS: DC2, unlike DC1, had weak, if any, ability to induce NK cell activation as measured by IFN-gamma production and cytolytic activity. DC2 were weakly stimulated by activated NK cells compared to DC1. In addition, IFN-gamma-primed mature DC appeared to be most resistant to active NK cell-mediated lysis even at a high NK cell/DC ratio. On the other hand, PGE2-primed DC were less resistant to feedback regulation by NK cells than IFN-gamma-primed mature DC. Finally, we showed that the differential effect of two types of DC population on NK cell activity is not due to differences in their ability to form conjugates with NK cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that different combinations of inflammatory mediators differentially affect the effector function of DC and, as a result, the function of NK cells, eventually leading to distinct levels of activation in adaptive immunity.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Biological Assay , Chromium , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Dinoprostone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Hand , Interleukin-4 , Killer Cells, Natural , Monocytes , Plastics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
11.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 705-714, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21108

ABSTRACT

Although N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been known to be a tumor suppressor gene, the function of this gene has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the expression and function of NDRG2 in human gastric cancer. Among seven gastric cancer and two non-cancer cell lines, only two gastric cancer cell lines, SNU-16 and SNU-620, expressed NDRG2, which was detected in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, NDRG2 was highly expressed in normal gastric tissues, but gastric cancer patients were divided into NDRG2-positive and -negative groups. The survival rate of NDRG2-negative patients was lower than that of NDRG2-positive patients. We confirmed that the loss of NDRG2 expression was a significant and independent prognostic indicator in gastric carcinomas by multivariate analysis. To investigate the role of NDRG2 in gastric cancer cells, we generated a NDRG2-silenced gastric cancer cell line, which stably expresses NDRG2 siRNA. NDRG2-silenced SNU-620 cells exhibited slightly increased proliferation and cisplatin resistance. In addition, inhibition of NDRG2 decreased Fas expression and Fas-mediated cell death. Taken together, these data suggest that inactivation of NDRG2 may elicit resistance against anticancer drug and Fas-mediated cell death. Furthermore, case studies of gastric cancer patients indicate that NDRG2 expression may be involved in tumor progression and overall survival of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Down-Regulation , Fas Ligand Protein/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/biosynthesis
12.
Immune Network ; : 102-111, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells in the immune system and can induce T cell response against virus infections, microbial pathogens, and tumors. Therefore, immunization using DC loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is a powerful method of inducing anti-tumor immunity. For induction of effective antitumor immunity, antigens should be efficiently introduced into DC and presented on MHC class I molecules at high levels to activate antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. We have been exploring methods for loading exogenous antigens into APC with high efficiency of Ag presentation. In this study, we tested the effect of the cationic liposome (Lipofectin) for transferring and loading exogenous model antigen (OVA protein) into BM-DC. METHODS: Bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC) were incubated with OVA-Lipofectin complexes and then co-cultured with B3Z cells. B3Z activation, which is expressed as the amount of beta-galactosidase induced by TCR stimulation, was determined by an enzymatic assay using beta-gal assay system. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with OVA-pulsed DC to monitor the in vivo vaccination effect. After vaccination, mice were inoculated with EG7-OVA tumor cells. RESULTS: BM-DC pulsed with OVA-Lipofectin complexes showed more efficient presentation of OVA-peptide on MHC class I molecules than soluble OVA-pulsed DC. OVA-Lipofectin complexes-pulsed DC pretreated with an inhibitor of MHC class I-mediated antigen presentation, brefeldin A, showed reduced ability in presenting OVA peptide on their surface MHC class I molecules. Finally, immunization of OVA-Lipofectin complexes-pulsed DC protected mice against subsequent tumor challenge. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that antigen-loading into DC using Lipofectin can promote MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation. Therefore, antigen-loading into DC using Lipofectin can be one of several useful tools for achieving efficient induction of antigen-specific immunity in DC-based immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antigen Presentation , Antigen-Presenting Cells , beta-Galactosidase , Brefeldin A , Dendritic Cells , Enzyme Assays , Immune System , Immunization , Immunotherapy , Liposomes , Ovum , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
13.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 72-84, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43452

ABSTRACT

Several myeloid leukemia-derived cells have been reported to possess the ability to differentiate into dendritic cells (DC). MUTZ-3, a myeloid leukemia cell line, responds to GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF-alpha, and acquires a phenotype similar to immature monocyte-derived DC (MoDC). In the present study, MUTZ-3-derived DC (MuDC) showed high level expression of HLA class II molecules, CD80 and CD86, and were able to function as potent antigen presenting cells as previously reported. Interestingly, MuDC maturation was induced by CD40-mediated stimulation, but not by LPS stimulation. We analyzed CCR1, CCR7 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expressions in MuDC, and measured IL-10 and IL-12 production after maturation stimuli. Although MuDC expressed the mRNA for TLR4, a major component of the LPS receptor system, they did not show an enhanced level of CCR7 or cytokine production after LPS stimulation. In contrast, they responded to CD40 stimulation, which resulted in increased levels of CD83, CD86 and CCR7. Moreover, while LPSstimulated MoDC could potently stimulate NK cells in a DC-NK cell co-culture, LPS-stimulated MuDC failed to stimulate primary NK cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that, although MuDC express TLR4, unlike TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, LPS does not stimulate MuDC to acquire mature phenotypes, and they may have impaired activity to initiate innate immune response.


Subject(s)
Humans , CD40 Antigens/metabolism , B7-1 Antigen/metabolism , B7-2 Antigen/metabolism , Blotting, Western , CD40 Ligand/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line, Tumor , Coculture Techniques , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Fluorescent Dyes , Interleukin-10/analysis , Interleukin-12/analysis , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Leukemia, Myeloid/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
14.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 420-427, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76972

ABSTRACT

FTY720, a synthetic sphingoid base analog, was examined as a new sphingosine kinase inhibitor, which converts endogenous sphingosine into its phosphate form. With 20 micrometer of FTY720, sphingosine accumulated in the LLC-PK1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The FTY720 treated cells showed a high concentration of fragmented DNA, a high caspase-3 like activity and TUNEL staining cells. It was also found that the sphingosine and sphinganine level increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 12 h after the FTY720 treatment. The sphingosine kinase activity was reduced by FTY720 as much as other sphingosine kinase inhibitors, N, N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), dl-threo-dihydrosphingosine (DHS). The fragmented DNA content as a result of the 20 micrometer of FTY720 treatment and by 5 micrometer of the exogenously added BSA-sphingosine complex indicated typical apoptosis. Under similar conditions, the accumulated sphingosine concentration in all the cells was almost identical even though the sphingosine distribution inside the cells was somewhat different. These results indicate that the FTY720 induced apoptosis is associated with the inhibition of the sphingosine kinase activity and is strongly associated with the successive accumulation of sphingosine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/physiology , Caspases/biosynthesis , Cell Line , DNA Fragmentation , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Kidney/cytology , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/antagonists & inhibitors , Propylene Glycols/pharmacology , Sphingosine/pharmacology , Swine , Up-Regulation
15.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 428-443, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76971

ABSTRACT

Immunization with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor antigen can activate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which is responsible for tumor protection and regression. In this study, we examined whether DCs pulsed with necrotic tumor lysates can efficiently prevent malignant melanoma tumor cell metastasis to the lung. DCs derived from mouse bone marrow were found to produce remarkably elevated levels of IL-12 after being pulsed with the tumor lysates. Moreover, immunization with these DCs induced CTL activation and protected mice from metastasis development by intravenously inoculated tumor cells. In addition, these DCs activated NK cells in vitro in a contact-dependent manner, and induced NK activities in vivo. Furthermore, NK cell depletion before DC vaccination significantly reduced the tumor-specific CTL activity, IFN-g production, and IFN-gamma- inducible gene expression, and eventually interfered with the antitumor effect of tumor-pulsed DCs. Finally, similar findings with respect to NK cell dependency were obtained in the C57BL/ 6J-bg/bg mice, which have severe deficiency in cytolytic activity of NK cells. These data suggest that the antitumor effect elicited by DC vaccination, at least in a B16 melanoma model, requires the participation of both cytolytic NK and CD8+ T cells. The findings of this study would provide important data for the effective design of DC vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antigen Presentation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interleukin-12/biosynthesis , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Lymphocyte Depletion , Melanoma, Experimental/immunology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins/biosynthesis , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology
16.
The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; : 411-414, 2003.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The analysis of serological markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a useful tool for the prevention and diagnosis of HBV infection. In this work, we evaluated a newly improved domestic rapid assay, Kobias HBsAg and anti-HBs Window kits (Kobias, Korea) for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HBs in serum. METHODS: A total of 360 sera screened by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Enzygnost, DADE Behring, Germany) were included in this study. Each specimen was tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs by Kobias Window kits and Genedia Rapid device (Green Cross, Korea), conventional one step test kits. The results were compared with those of EIA. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of Kobias HBsAg were 99.2% and 96.7%, and those of Kobias Anti-HBs were 95.8% and 96.7%, respectively. The concordance rates between EIA and Kobias HBsAg and Kobias Anti-HBs were 98.3% and 96.1%, and those between Kobias kits and Genedia kits for HBsAg and anti-HBs were 97.8% and 93.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Kobias HBsAg/Anti-HBs kits are simple, rapid, and low-cost methods for detecting HBsAg and anti-HBs. With comparable results with EIA, the Kobias HBsAg/Anti-HBs kits could be suitable for screening purposes or in emergency situations.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Emergencies , Exercise Test , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Immune Network ; : 188-200, 2003.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunization of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor antigen can activate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that are responsible for protection and regression. In this study, we examined whether the uptake of necrotic tumor cells could modulate DC phenotypes and whether the immunization of necrotic tumor cell-loaded DCs could elicit efficient tumor specific immune responses followed by a regression of established tumor burdens. METHODS: We prepared necrotic tumor cell-pulsed DCs for the therapeutic vaccination and investigated their phenotypic characteristics, the immune responses induced by these DCs, and therapeutic vaccine efficacy against colon carcinoma in vivo. Several parameters including phagocytosis of tumor cells, surface antigen expression, chemokine receptor expression, IL-12 production, and NK as well as CTL activation were assessed to characterize the immune response. RESULTS: DCs derived from mouse bone marrow efficiently phagocytosed necrotic tumor cells and after the uptake, they produced remarkably increased levels of IL-12. A decreased CCR1 and increased CCR7 expression on DCs was also observed after the tumor uptake, suggesting that antigen uptake could induce DC maturation. Furthermore, co-culturing of DCs with NK cells in vitro enhanced IL-12 production in DCs and IFN-gamma production in NK cells, which was significantly dependent on IL-12 production and cell-to-cell contact. Immunization of necrotic tumor cell-loaded DCs induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes as well as NK activation, and protected mice against subsequent tumor challenge. In addition, intratumoral or contra-lateral immunization of these DCs not only inhibited the growth of established tumors, but also eradicated tumors in more than 60% of tumor-bearing mice. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that production of IL-12, chemokine receptor expression and NK as well as CTL activation may serve as major parameters in assessing the effect of tumor cell-pulsed DC vaccine. Therefore, DCs loaded with necrotic tumor cells offer a rational strategy to treat tumors and eventually lead to prolonged survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antigens, Surface , Bone Marrow , Colon , Dendritic Cells , Immunization , Interleukin-12 , Killer Cells, Natural , Phagocytosis , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic , Tumor Burden , Vaccination
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