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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e133-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976957

ABSTRACT

Background@#Medical students are known to be subjected to immense stress under competitive curricula and have a high risk of depression, burnout, anxiety and sleep disorders. There is a global trend of switching from norm-referenced assessment (NRA) to criterion-referenced assessment (CRA), and these changes may have influenced the quality of life (QOL), sleep phase, sleep quality, stress, burnout, and depression of the medical students. We hypothesized that there is a significant difference of QOL between CRA and NRA and that sleep, stress, burnout, and depression are the main contributors. @*Methods@#By administering an online survey regarding QOL and its contributors to Korean medical students, 365 responses from 10 medical schools were recorded. To clarify the complex relationship between the multiple factors in play, we applied nonlinear machine learning algorithms and utilized causal structure learning techniques on the survey data. @*Results@#Students with CRA had lower scores in stress (68.16 ± 11.29, 76.03 ± 12.38, P< 0.001), burnout (48.09 ± 11.23, 55.93 ± 13.07, P < 0.001), depression (12.77 ± 9.82, 16.44 ± 11.27, P = 0.003) and higher scores in QOL (95.79 ± 16.20, 89.65 ± 16.28, P < 0.001) compared with students with NRA. Multiple linear regression, permutation importance of the random forest model and the causal structure model showed that depression, stress and burnout are the most influential factors of QOL of medical students. @*Conclusion@#Medical students from schools that use CRA showed higher QOL scores, as well as lower burnout, stress and depression when compared with students from schools that use NRA. These results may be used as a basis for granting justification for the transition to CRA.

2.
Korean Medical Education Review ; (3): 56-67, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875308

ABSTRACT

Educational program evaluation can improve the quality of the curriculum, instructional methods, and resources and provide useful data for making educational decisions and policies. Developing and implementing a program evaluation system is essential in competency-based medical education. The purpose of this study was to explore and establish an educational program evaluation system adapting an integrated program evaluation model to promote competency-based medical education. First, an Educational Evaluation Committee was organized, consisting of faculty, staff members, and students. The committee established an integrated program evaluation model, combining Stufflebeam’s Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model of a process-oriented approach and Kirkpatrick’s four-level model of an outcome-oriented approach. Kirkpatrick’s model was applied to the product evaluation of the CIPP model. The committee then developed evaluation criteria, indicators, and data collection methods according to the components of the CIPP model and the four levels (reaction, learning, behavior, and results) of Kirkpatrick’s model, and collected and analyzed data. Finally, the committee reported the results of evaluation to a Medical Education Quality Improvement Committee, and the results were used to improve the curriculum and student selection. To enhance the quality of education, identifying educational deficiencies and developing various elements of education in a balanced way through educational evaluation will be needed. Furthermore, it will be necessary to listen to opinions of various stakeholders, work with all members involved in education, and communicate with decision-makers in the process of educational evaluation.

3.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 440-447, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896824

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hot springs have been traditionally used as an alternative treatment for a wide range of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, diabetes, hypertension, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. However, the clinical effects and therapeutic mechanisms associated with hot springs remain poorly defined. @*Objective@#The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the different effects of hot springs on cellular viability and secretion of inflammatory cytokines on keratinocyte in two geographically representative types of hot springs: NaHCO3 -type and NaCl-type, which are the most common types in South Korea. @*Methods@#We performed WST-1, BrdU measurements, human inflammatory cytokine arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in HaCaT cells stimulated with toll-like receptor 3 by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. @*Results@#The interaction effects of cell viability and cell proliferation were not significantly different regardless of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stimulation and cultured hot springs type. Cytokine array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stimulation, with expression levels differing according to hot springs hydrochemical composition. Cytokine reduction was not significant. @*Conclusion@#The effects and mechanisms of hot springs treatment in keratinocytes were partially elucidated.

4.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 440-447, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889120

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hot springs have been traditionally used as an alternative treatment for a wide range of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, diabetes, hypertension, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. However, the clinical effects and therapeutic mechanisms associated with hot springs remain poorly defined. @*Objective@#The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the different effects of hot springs on cellular viability and secretion of inflammatory cytokines on keratinocyte in two geographically representative types of hot springs: NaHCO3 -type and NaCl-type, which are the most common types in South Korea. @*Methods@#We performed WST-1, BrdU measurements, human inflammatory cytokine arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in HaCaT cells stimulated with toll-like receptor 3 by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. @*Results@#The interaction effects of cell viability and cell proliferation were not significantly different regardless of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stimulation and cultured hot springs type. Cytokine array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed increased expression of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stimulation, with expression levels differing according to hot springs hydrochemical composition. Cytokine reduction was not significant. @*Conclusion@#The effects and mechanisms of hot springs treatment in keratinocytes were partially elucidated.

5.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 501-518, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Sodium intake is positively associated with blood pressure, which may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we assessed the disease burden of CVD attributable to sodium intakes above 2,000 mg/day and prospectively investigated the association between dietary/urinary sodium levels and the risk of all-cause and CVD-mortality using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES). @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#A total of 68,578 and 33,113 participants were included for comparative risk assessment (CRA) analysis and mortality analysis, respectively, and mean follow-up time for mortality was 5.4 years. CRA analysis was used to quantify attributable incidences of stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and deaths attributable to sodium intake between 1998 and 2016. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the association between sodium intake and all-cause and CVD-mortality. @*RESULTS@#Mean dietary sodium intake decreased over time, reaching 3,647 mg/day in 2016.Similarly, the population attributable fractions of stroke and IHD, and the number of CVDassociated deaths attributable to high sodium intake/excretion also decreased. In terms of association with mortality, when participants were grouped into quartiles (Q) by energyadjusted sodium intake, those in Q2 had a lower risk of all-cause mortality than those in Q1 with lower intakes. The risk of CVD-associated mortality was higher only in females with high sodium intake in Q4 than those in Q1. @*CONCLUSIONS@#This nationwide data indicates that, in line with previous studies of multiple cohorts, both low and high sodium intakes may be associated with an increased risk of mortality; therefore, the optimal sodium intake for Koreans needs to be revised.

6.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 14-22, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893437

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The aim of this study was to examine socio-demographic variables and the correlation of their factors and mental health with resilience in adolescents. @*Methods@#:Participants were 4,325 middle and high school students living in Jeollanam-do, South Korea. Participants completed self-report questionnaires examining socio-demographic characteristics and including the following self-rating scales: the resilience test, the adolescent mental health and problem behavior screening questionnaire-II (AMPQ-II). @*Results@#:The resilience test scores were positively correlated with the adolescent mental health and problem behavior screening questionnaire-II scores (p<0.001). In multiple regression analysis, below average academic achievement (OR 4.05, 95%CI 2.62-6.27, p<0.001), perceived poor relationship with parents (OR 2.91, 95%CI 2.28-3.71, p<0.001), body dissatisfaction (OR 2.09, 95%CI 1.57-2.79, p<0.001), middle school students (OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.59-2.56, p<0.001), male (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.55-2.46, p<0.001), low socioeconomic status (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.11-2.52, p=0.014), low maternal education level (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.09-2.48, p=0.018) showed significant negative correlation with resilience. @*Conclusion@#:Resilience needs to be considered to promote mental health of adolescents. Specifically, interventions providing psychological support should target adolescents with factors correlated low resilience

7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 14-22, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901141

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The aim of this study was to examine socio-demographic variables and the correlation of their factors and mental health with resilience in adolescents. @*Methods@#:Participants were 4,325 middle and high school students living in Jeollanam-do, South Korea. Participants completed self-report questionnaires examining socio-demographic characteristics and including the following self-rating scales: the resilience test, the adolescent mental health and problem behavior screening questionnaire-II (AMPQ-II). @*Results@#:The resilience test scores were positively correlated with the adolescent mental health and problem behavior screening questionnaire-II scores (p<0.001). In multiple regression analysis, below average academic achievement (OR 4.05, 95%CI 2.62-6.27, p<0.001), perceived poor relationship with parents (OR 2.91, 95%CI 2.28-3.71, p<0.001), body dissatisfaction (OR 2.09, 95%CI 1.57-2.79, p<0.001), middle school students (OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.59-2.56, p<0.001), male (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.55-2.46, p<0.001), low socioeconomic status (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.11-2.52, p=0.014), low maternal education level (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.09-2.48, p=0.018) showed significant negative correlation with resilience. @*Conclusion@#:Resilience needs to be considered to promote mental health of adolescents. Specifically, interventions providing psychological support should target adolescents with factors correlated low resilience

8.
Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions ; : 10-2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937914

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to explore students’ cognitive patterns while solving clinical problems in 3 different types of assessments—clinical performance examination (CPX), multimedia case-based assessment (CBA), and modified essay question (MEQ)—and thereby to understand how different types of assessments stimulate different patterns of thinking. @*Methods@#A total of 6 test-performance cases from 2 fourth-year medical students were used in this cross-case study. Data were collected through one-on-one interviews using a stimulated recall protocol where students were shown videos of themselves taking each assessment and asked to elaborate on what they were thinking. The unit of analysis was the smallest phrases or sentences in the participants’ narratives that represented meaningful cognitive occurrences. The narrative data were reorganized chronologically and then analyzed according to the hypothetico-deductive reasoning framework for clinical reasoning. @*Results@#Both participants demonstrated similar proportional frequencies of clinical reasoning patterns on the same clinical assessments. The results also revealed that the three different assessment types may stimulate different patterns of clinical reasoning. For example, the CPX strongly promoted the participants’ reasoning related to inquiry strategy, while the MEQ strongly promoted hypothesis generation. Similarly, data analysis and synthesis by the participants were more strongly stimulated by the CBA than by the other assessment types. @*Conclusion@#This study found that different assessment designs stimulated different patterns of thinking during problem-solving. This finding can contribute to the search for ways to improve current clinical assessments. Importantly, the research method used in this study can be utilized as an alternative way to examine the validity of clinical assessments.

9.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 49-58, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741644

ABSTRACT

Eleven steroid hormones (SHs: androstene-3,17-dione, estrone, β-estradiol, α-estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, 17á-hydroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone, megestrol acetate, progesterone, and androsterone) were detected from New Zealand deer (Cervus elaphus var. scoticus) velvet antler (NZA, 鹿茸). A method for the quantification of eleven SHs was established by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS. The linearities (R² > 0.991), limits of quantification (LOQ values, 0.3 ng/mL to 23.1 ng/mL), intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation: RSD 0.999), LOQ values (30 ng/mL to 350 ng/mL), intraday and interday precisions (RSD < 1.93%), and recovery rates (97.2% to 103.5%) for the three 7-O-CSs were determined. These quantitative methods are accurate, precise, and reproducible. As a result, it is suggested that the five steroid compounds of androstene-3,17-dione, androsterone, 7-ketocholesterol, 7α-hydroxycholesterol, and 7β-hydroxycholesterol could be marker steroids of NZA. These methods can be applied to quantify or standardize the marker steroids present in NZA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Androsterone , Antlers , Chromatography, Liquid , Deer , Dehydroepiandrosterone , Estrone , Medroxyprogesterone , Megestrol Acetate , Methods , New Zealand , Progesterone , Steroids , Testosterone
10.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 366-368, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766710
11.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 378-380, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766706

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Edema , Brain , Skin
12.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 40-42, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766627

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Vision Disorders
13.
Korean Journal of Medical Education ; : 79-89, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714954

ABSTRACT

The Korean Association of Medical Colleges (KAMC) developed graduate outcomes based on “The role of Korean doctor, 2014” to serve as guidelines regarding outcome-based education in Korea. The working group in this study analyzed 65 competencies proposed in “The role of Korean doctor, 2014” according to the developmental principle that certain outcomes should be demonstrated at the point of entry into the graduate medical education. We established 34 competencies as “preliminary graduate outcomes” (PGOs). The advisory committee consisted of 11 professors, who reviewed the validity of PGOs. Ultimately, a total of 19 “revised graduate outcomes” (RGOs) were selected. We modified the RGOs based on opinions from medical schools and a public hearing. In November 2017, the KAMC announced the “graduate outcomes for basic medical education,” which serves as a guide for basic medical education for the 40 medical schools throughout Korea. Medical schools can expand the graduate outcomes according to their educational goals and modify them according to their own context. We believe that graduate outcomes can be a starting point for connecting basic medical education to graduate medical education.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Competency-Based Education , Education , Education, Medical , Education, Medical, Graduate , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Hearing , Korea , Physician's Role , Republic of Korea , Schools, Medical
14.
Environmental Health and Toxicology ; : 2017010-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786729

ABSTRACT

Traffic-related pollutants have been reported to increase the morbidity of respiratory diseases. In order to apply management policies related to motor vehicles, studies of the floating population living in cities are important. The rate of metro rail transit system use by passengers residing in Seoul is about 54% of total public transportation use. Through the rate of metro use, the people-flow ratios in each administrative area were calculated. By applying a people-flow ratio based on the official census count, the floating population in 25 regions was calculated. The reduced level of deaths among the floating population in 14 regions having the roadside monitoring station was calculated as assuming a 20% reduction of mobile emission based on the policy. The hourly floating population size was calculated by applying the hourly population ratio to the regional population size as specified in the official census count. The number of people moving from 5 a.m. to next day 1 a.m. could not be precisely calculated when the population size was applied, but no issue was observed that would trigger a sizable shift in the rate of population change. The three patterns of increase, decrease, and no change of population in work hours were analyzed. When the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter was reduced by 20%, the number of excess deaths varied according to the difference of the floating population. The effective establishment of directions to manage the pollutants in cities should be carried out by considering the floating population. Although the number of people using the metro system is only an estimate, this disadvantage was supplemented by calculating inflow and outflow ratio of metro users per time in the total floating population in each region. Especially, 54% of metro usage in public transport causes high reliability in application.


Subject(s)
Censuses , Korea , Motor Vehicles , Particulate Matter , Population Density , Seoul , Transportation
15.
Korean Medical Education Review ; (3): 145-148, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760409

ABSTRACT

One important purpose of premedical education is to help students attain core competencies during the two-year premedical program. Since premedical curriculum is the foundation of medical education, it is necessary to develop the premedical curriculum in accordance with the overarching curriculum of a medical school. Inje University's College of Medicine (IUCM) has attempted to integrate competency-based medical education into the premedical education curriculum. The revised premedical curriculum aims to develop students' intrinsic competencies during premedical years. In an effort to do so, IUCM defined competencies for premedical education, analyzed and designed premedical courses according to the defined competencies, and suggested learner-centered instructional methods. As a result of implementing the revised premedical curriculum, students have reported both positive experiences and difficulties. Based on the results, it will be necessary to continuously improve the premedical curriculum as well as develop appropriate methods for evaluating student achievement of the defined competencies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Competency-Based Education , Curriculum , Education, Medical , Education, Premedical , Schools, Medical
16.
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; : 23-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occupational physicians (OPs) have complex relationships with employees, employers, and the general public. OPs may have simultaneous obligations towards third parties, which can lead to variable conflicts of interests. Among the various studies of ethical issues related to OPs, few have focused on the Korean OPs. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the ethical contexts, the practical resolutions, and the ethical principles for the Korean OPs. METHODS: An email with a self-administered questionnaire was sent to members of the Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, comprising 150 specialists and 130 residents. The questionnaire was also distributed to 52 specialists and 46 residents who attended the annual meeting of the Korean Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics in October 2015, and to 240 specialists by uploading the questionnaire to the online community ‘oem-doctors’ in February 2016. The responses to each question (perception of general ethical conflicts, recognition of various ethical codes for OPs, core professional values in ethics of occupational medicine, and a mock case study) were compared between specialists and residents by the chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: Responses were received from 80 specialists and 71 residents. Most participants had experienced ethical conflicts at work and felt the need for systematic education and training. OPs suffered the most ethical conflicts in decisions regarding occupational health examination and evaluation for work relatedness. Over 60% of total participants were unaware of the ethical codes of other countries. Participants thought ‘consideration of worker’s health and safety’ (26.0%) and ‘neutrality’ (24.7%) as the prominent ethical values in professionality ofoccupational medicine. In mock cases, participants chose beneficence and justice for fitness for work and confidential information acquired while on duty, and beneficence and respect for autonomy in pre-placement examinations. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the current perception of and attitude toward ethical issues among the Korean OPs. These findings will facilitate the development of a code of ethics and the ethical decision-making program forthe Korean OPs. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40557-017-0182-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


Subject(s)
Beneficence , Codes of Ethics , Confidentiality , Education , Electronic Mail , Environmental Medicine , Ethics , Occupational Health , Occupational Medicine , Social Justice , Specialization
17.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 119-121, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77129

ABSTRACT

Although cardiac myxoma is the most commonly encountered benign cardiac tumor in cardiac surgery practice, recurrent cardiac myxoma is very rare, is most commonly related to the Carney complex, and usually requires multiple cardiac operations with specific requirements in terms of perioperative management. In this report, we describe a patient who experienced the fourth recurrence of cardiac myxoma and review the diagnostic criteria of the Carney complex. This is the first report of such a case in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carney Complex , Heart Neoplasms , Korea , Myxoma , Recurrence , Thoracic Surgery
18.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 465-467, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25155

ABSTRACT

The intrinsic structural failure of a Dacron graft resulting from the loss of structural integrity of the graft fabric can cause late graft complications. Late non-anastomotic rupture has traditionally been treated surgically via open thoracotomy. We report a case of the successful use of thoracic endovascular repair to treat a Dacron graft rupture in the descending aorta. The rupture occurred 20 years after the graft had been placed. Two stent grafts were placed at the proximal portion of the surgical graft, covering almost its entire length.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Thoracic , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Endovascular Procedures , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Rupture , Stents , Thoracotomy , Transplants
19.
Korean Journal of Medical Education ; : 169-178, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32289

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The quality of problem representation is critical for developing students' problem-solving abilities in problem-based learning (PBL). This study investigates preclinical students' experience with standardized patients (SPs) as a problem representation method compared to using video cases in PBL. METHODS: A cohort of 99 second-year preclinical students from Inje University College of Medicine (IUCM) responded to a Likert scale questionnaire on their learning experiences after they had experienced both video cases and SPs in PBL. The questionnaire consisted of 14 items with eight subcategories: problem identification, hypothesis generation, motivation, collaborative learning, reflective thinking, authenticity, patient-doctor communication, and attitude toward patients. RESULTS: The results reveal that using SPs led to the preclinical students having significantly positive experiences in boosting patient-doctor communication skills; the perceived authenticity of their clinical situations; development of proper attitudes toward patients; and motivation, reflective thinking, and collaborative learning when compared to using video cases. The SPs also provided more challenges than the video cases during problem identification and hypotheses generation. CONCLUSION: SPs are more effective than video cases in delivering higher levels of authenticity in clinical problems for PBL. The interaction with SPs engages preclinical students in deeper thinking and discussion; growth of communication skills; development of proper attitudes toward patients; and motivation. Considering the higher cost of SPs compared with video cases, SPs could be used most advantageously during the preclinical period in the IUCM curriculum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Curriculum , Learning , Methods , Motivation , Problem-Based Learning , Thinking
20.
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; : 14-2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Asian migrant workers in Korea have various ethnicities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in spirometric interpretation made using the set of third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reference equations and the relevant ethnicity-specific reference sets. METHODS: Spirometry was performed on 166 migrant and 498 Korean male workers between March and November 2012. We analyzed the spirometric data of healthy never-smokers. Spirometric patterns were evaluated using the NHANES III reference set and some relevant ethnicity-specific equations (Eom's equation for Koreans, Ip's equation for East Asians, Crapo's equation for Central Asians, Memon's equation for South Asians, and Gnanou's equation for Southeast Asian people). RESULTS: In all migrant groups except the Central Asian group, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage (FEV1%) and forced vital capacity percentage (FVC%) calculated using each of the ethnicity-specific reference equations considered were significantly higher than those calculated using the NHANES III reference set. This study showed that in the evaluation of the spirometric result of subjects from Southeast Asia or South Asia, the percentage of cases with an abnormal FEV1 or FVC increased when the NHANES III set of equations was used as compared to when the ethnicity-specific equations were used. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the spirometric results of all ethnic groups were higher and the composition of the abnormal spirometric result was lower when the ethnicity-specific reference equations were used instead of the NHANES III reference set.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Asia , Asia, Southeastern , Asian People , Ethnicity , Forced Expiratory Volume , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Spirometry , Transients and Migrants , Vital Capacity
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