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1.
Journal of Stroke ; : 113-123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874951

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose To evaluate the outcome events and bleeding complications of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF). @*Methods@#Patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF from a nationwide multicenter registry (Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts [K-ATTENTION]) between January 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study. Patients were divided into the ESC guideline-matched and the non-matched groups. The primary outcome was recurrence of any stroke during the 90-day follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, acute coronary syndrome, allcause mortality, and major hemorrhage. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of the treatments administered. @*Results@#Among 2,321 eligible patients, 1,126 patients were 1:1 matched to the ESC guidelinematched and the non-matched groups. As compared with the non-matched group, the ESC guideline-matched group had a lower risk of any recurrent stroke (1.4% vs. 3.4%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.95). The risk of recurrent ischemic stroke was lower in the ESC guideline-matched group than in the non-matched group (0.9% vs. 2.7%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.88). There was no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESC guideline-matched oral anticoagulant therapy was associated with reduced risks of any stroke and ischemic stroke as compared with the non-matched therapy.

2.
Journal of Stroke ; : 213-222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892943

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Previous studies have assessed the relationship between cerebral vessel tortuosity and intracranial aneurysm (IA) based on two-dimensional brain image analysis. We evaluated the relationship between cerebral vessel tortuosity and IA according to the hemodynamic location using three-dimensional (3D) analysis and studied the effect of tortuosity on the recurrence of treated IA. @*Methods@#We collected clinical and imaging data from patients with IA and disease-free controls. IAs were categorized into outer curvature and bifurcation types. Computerized analysis of the images provided information on the length of the arterial segment and tortuosity of the cerebral arteries in 3D space. @*Results@#Data from 95 patients with IA and 95 controls were analyzed. Regarding parent vessel tortuosity index (TI; P<0.01), average TI (P<0.01), basilar artery (BA; P=0.02), left posterior cerebral artery (P=0.03), both vertebral arteries (VAs; P<0.01), and right internal carotid artery (P<0.01), there was a significant difference only in the outer curvature type compared with the control group. The outer curvature type was analyzed, and the occurrence of an IA was associated with increased TI of the parent vessel, average, BA, right middle cerebral artery, and both VAs in the logistic regression analysis. However, in all aneurysm cases, recanalization of the treated aneurysm was inversely associated with increased TI of the parent vessels. @*Conclusions@#TIs of intracranial arteries are associated with the occurrence of IA, especially in the outer curvature type. IAs with a high TI in the parent vessel showed good outcomes with endovascular treatment.

3.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892940

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

4.
Journal of Stroke ; : 213-222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900647

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Previous studies have assessed the relationship between cerebral vessel tortuosity and intracranial aneurysm (IA) based on two-dimensional brain image analysis. We evaluated the relationship between cerebral vessel tortuosity and IA according to the hemodynamic location using three-dimensional (3D) analysis and studied the effect of tortuosity on the recurrence of treated IA. @*Methods@#We collected clinical and imaging data from patients with IA and disease-free controls. IAs were categorized into outer curvature and bifurcation types. Computerized analysis of the images provided information on the length of the arterial segment and tortuosity of the cerebral arteries in 3D space. @*Results@#Data from 95 patients with IA and 95 controls were analyzed. Regarding parent vessel tortuosity index (TI; P<0.01), average TI (P<0.01), basilar artery (BA; P=0.02), left posterior cerebral artery (P=0.03), both vertebral arteries (VAs; P<0.01), and right internal carotid artery (P<0.01), there was a significant difference only in the outer curvature type compared with the control group. The outer curvature type was analyzed, and the occurrence of an IA was associated with increased TI of the parent vessel, average, BA, right middle cerebral artery, and both VAs in the logistic regression analysis. However, in all aneurysm cases, recanalization of the treated aneurysm was inversely associated with increased TI of the parent vessels. @*Conclusions@#TIs of intracranial arteries are associated with the occurrence of IA, especially in the outer curvature type. IAs with a high TI in the parent vessel showed good outcomes with endovascular treatment.

5.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900644

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

6.
Journal of Stroke ; : 1-10, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834647

ABSTRACT

Systemic cancer and ischemic stroke are common conditions and two of the most frequent causes of death among the elderly. The association between cancer and stroke has been reported worldwide. Stroke causes severe disability for cancer patients, while cancer increases the risk of stroke. Moreover, cancer-related stroke is expected to increase due to advances in cancer treatment and an aging population worldwide. Because cancer and stroke share risk factors (such as smoking and obesity) and treatment of cancer can increase the risk of stroke (e.g., accelerated atherosclerosis after radiation therapy), cancer may accelerate conventional stroke mechanisms (i.e., atherosclerosis, small vessel disease, and cardiac thrombus). In addition, active cancer and chemotherapy may enhance thrombin generation causing stroke related to coagulopathy. Patients with stroke due to cancer-related coagulopathy showed the characteristics findings of etiologic work ups, D-dimer levels, and infarct patterns. In this review, we summarized the frequency of cancer-related stroke among patients with ischemic stroke, mechanisms of stroke with in cancer patients, and evaluation and treatment of cancer-related stroke. We discussed the possibility of cancer-related stroke as a stroke subtype, and presented the most recent discoveries in the pathomechanisms and treatment of stroke due to cancer-related coagulopathy.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical implications of echocardiography findings for long-term outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke patients are unknown. METHODS: This was a substudy of the Korean ATrial fibrillaTion EvaluatioN regisTry in Ischemic strOke patieNts (K-ATTENTION), which is a multicenter-based cohort comprising prospective stroke registries from 11 tertiary centers. Stroke survivors who underwent two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization were enrolled. Echocardiography markers included the left-ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), the left atrium diameter, and the ratio of the peak transmitral filling velocity to the mean mitral annular velocity during early diastole (E/e′ ratio). LVEF was categorized into normal (≥55%), mildly decreased (>40% and <55%), and severely decreased (≤40%). The E/e′ ratio associated with the LV filling pressure was categorized into normal (<8), borderline (≥8 and <15), and elevated (≥15). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed for recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death. RESULTS: This study finally included 1,947 patients. Over a median follow-up of 1.65 years (interquartile range, 0.42–2.87 years), the rates of recurrent stroke, major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause death were 35.1, 10.8, and 69.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that severely decreased LVEF was associated with a higher risks of major adverse cardiac events [hazard ratio (HR), 3.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58–9.69] and all-cause death (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.23–3.10). The multivariable fractional polynomial plot indicated that recurrent stroke might be associated with a lower LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Severe LV systolic dysfunction could be a determinant of long-term outcomes in AF-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Diastole , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Atria , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke , Survivors
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766731

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans
9.
Journal of Stroke ; : 332-339, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the number and characteristics of patients eligible for endovascular treatment (EVT) determined using three different selection methods: clinical-core mismatch, target mismatch, and collateral status. METHODS: Using the data of consecutive patients from two prospectively maintained registries of university medical centers, the number and characteristics of patients according to the three selection methods were investigated and their correlation was analyzed. Patients with anterior circulation stroke due to occlusion of the middle cerebral and/or internal carotid artery and a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of ≥6 points, who arrived within 8 hours or between 6 and 12 hours of symptom onset and underwent magnetic resonance imaging prior to EVT, were included. Collateral status was assessed using magnetic resonance perfusion-derived collateral flow maps. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-five patients were investigated; the proportions of patients who were eligible and ineligible for EVT in all three selection methods were both small (n=85, 25.4%; n=54, 16.1%, respectively). The intercorrelation among the three selection methods was low (κ=0.235). The baseline NIHSS score and onset-to-selection time interval were associated with the presence of clinical-core mismatch, while the penumbra/core volume ratio and onset-to-selection time interval were related to target mismatch; none of these variables were associated with collateral status. The infarct core volume was associated with favorable profiles in all three selection methods. CONCLUSIONS: Although the application of individual selection methods resulted in favorable outcomes after EVT in clinical trials, there is a significant discrepancy in EVT eligibility depending on the selection method used.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Carotid Artery, Internal , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Prospective Studies , Registries , Stroke
10.
Journal of Stroke ; : 42-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740619

ABSTRACT

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the “Stroke Statistics in Korea” project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Ambulances , Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage , Hope , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Male , Mortality , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Writing
11.
Journal of Stroke ; : 77-87, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with active cancer are at an increased risk for stroke. Hypercoagulability plays an important role in cancer-related stroke. We aimed to test whether 1) hypercoagulability is a predictor of survival, and 2) correction of the hypercoagulable state leads to better survival in patients with stroke and active cancer. METHODS: We recruited consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and active systemic cancer between January 2006 and July 2015. Hypercoagulability was assessed using plasma D-dimer levels before and after 7 days of anticoagulation treatment. The study outcomes included overall and 1-year survival. Plasma D-dimer levels before and after treatment were tested in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. We controlled for systemic metastasis, stroke mechanism, age, stroke severity, primary cancer type, histology, and atrial fibrillation using the forward stepwise method. RESULTS: A total of 268 patients were included in the analysis. Patients with high (3rd–4th quartiles) pre-treatment plasma D-dimer levels showed decreased overall and 1-year survival (adjusted HR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.46–3.31] and 2.70 [1.68–4.35], respectively). After anticoagulation treatment, post-treatment D-dimer level was significantly reduced and independently associated with poor 1-year survival (adjusted HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.01–1.05] per 1 μg/mL increase, P=0.015). The successful correction of hypercoagulability was a protective factor for 1-year survival (adjusted HR 0.26 [CI 0.10–0.68], P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability is associated with poor survival after stroke in patients with active cancer. Effective correction of hypercoagulability may play a protective role for survival in these patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Humans , Methods , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Plasma , Prognosis , Protective Factors , Stroke , Thrombophilia
12.
Journal of Stroke ; : 88-96, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perfusion-diffusion mismatch has been evaluated to determine whether the presence of a target mismatch helps to identify patients who respond favorably to recanalization therapies. We compared the impact on infarct growth of collateral status and the presence of a penumbra, using magnetic resonance perfusion (MRP) techniques. METHODS: Consecutive patients who were candidates for recanalization therapy and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MRP were enrolled. A collateral flow map derived from MRP source data was generated by automatic post-processing. The impact of a target mismatch (Tmax>6 s/apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) volume≥1.8, ADC volume10 s for ADC volume<100 mL) on infarct growth was compared with MR-based collateral grading on day 7 DWI, using multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 73 patients, 55 (75%) showed a target mismatch, whereas collaterals were poor in 14 (19.2%), intermediate in 36 (49.3%), and good in 23 (31.5%) patients. After adjusting for initial severity of stroke, early recanalization (P<0.001) and the MR-based collateral grading (P=0.001), but not the presence of a target mismatch, were independently associated with infarct growth. Even in patients with a target mismatch and successful recanalization, the degree of infarct growth depended on the collateral status. Perfusion status at later Tmax time points (beyond the arterial phase) was more closely correlated with collateral status. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with good collaterals show a favorable outcome in terms of infarct growth, regardless of the presence of a target mismatch pattern. The presence of slow blood filling predicts collateral status and infarct growth.


Subject(s)
Collateral Circulation , Diffusion , Humans , Linear Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Perfusion , Stroke
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Measuring the extent of the collateral blood vessels using computed tomography (CT) angiography source images may promote tissue survival and functional gain in acute ischemic stroke patients who are candidates for endovascular recanalization treatment. METHODS: Of 5,558 acute stroke patients registered in a prospective clinical stroke registry, 104 met the selection criteria of endovascular recanalization treatment for internal cerebral artery or middle cerebral artery main-stem (M1) occlusions and presented for treatment ≤4 hours after the event. Using CT angiography source images, two independent and blinded reviewers measured the extent of collateral circulations at four regions, with good interrater reliability. The functional recovery at 3 months after stroke was used as an outcome variable. RESULTS: Cases with a sufficient collateral circulation at the Sylvian fissure showed significantly increased likelihood of having a modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2 at 3 months after stroke (adjusted odds ratio=3.03, 95% confidence interval=1.19–7.73, p=0.02), but the association became nonsignificant after adding the infarct volume to the model (p=0.65). The association between leptomeningeal convexity collaterals and functional recovery was no longer significant after adjusting for the infarct volume (p=0.28). The natural indirect effect of infarct volume on functional recovery was significant for both the Sylvian fissure (p=0.03) and leptomeningeal convexity (p=0.02) collaterals. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of collateral circulation at the Sylvian fissure was significantly associated with functional recovery, which may be mediated via the volume of the final infarction.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Blood Vessels , Cerebral Arteries , Collateral Circulation , Humans , Infarction , Middle Cerebral Artery , Mortality , Patient Selection , Prospective Studies , Stroke , Tissue Survival
14.
Journal of Stroke ; : 54-59, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An elevated intracellular calcium level is known to be a major initiator and activator of ischemic cell death pathway; however, in recent studies, elevated serum calcium levels have been associated with better clinical outcomes and smaller cerebral infarct volumes. The pathophysiological role played by calcium in ischemic stroke is largely unknown. METHODS: Acute stroke patients from a prospective stroke registry, consecutively admitted during October 2002-September 2008, were included. Significant associations between the modified Rankin scale distribution at discharge and serum calcium or albumin-corrected calcium were identified using ordinal logistic regression analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis. RESULTS: Mean serum calcium and albumin-corrected calcium levels of the 1,915 participants on admission were 8.97+/-0.58 mg/dL and 9.07+/-0.49 mg/dL, respectively. Second [adjusted odds ratio 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.61)] and third [1.24 (1.01-1.53)] tertiles of serum calcium level and the third [1.24 (1.01-1.53)] tertile of albumin-corrected calcium level were found to be independent risk factors for a poor discharge outcome. Significant relationships were observed with serum calcium [1.19 (1.03-1.38)] and albumin-corrected calcium [1.21(1.01-1.44)] as linear variables. However, only albumin-corrected calcium was associated with long-term mortality, third tertile [adjusted hazard ratio 1.40 (1.07-1.83)], and increase by 1 mg/dL [1.46 (1.16-1.84)]. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated albumin-corrected serum calcium levels are associated with a poorer short-term outcome and greater risk of long-term mortality after acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Cell Death , Cerebral Infarction , Humans , Logistic Models , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Patient Outcome Assessment , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke
15.
Journal of Stroke ; : 161-172, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In order to improve inter-rater reliability and minimize diagnosis of undetermined etiology for stroke subtype classification, using a stroke registry, we developed and implemented a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based algorithm for acute ischemic stroke subtype classification (MAGIC). METHODS: We enrolled patients who experienced an acute ischemic stroke, were hospitalized in the 14 participating centers within 7 days of onset, and had relevant lesions on MR-diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). MAGIC was designed to reflect recent advances in stroke imaging and thrombolytic therapy. The inter-rater reliability was compared with and without MAGIC to classify the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) of each stroke patient. MAGIC was then applied to all stroke patients hospitalized since July 2011, and information about stroke subtypes, other clinical characteristics, and stroke recurrence was collected via a web-based registry database. RESULTS: The overall intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) value was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.31-0.57) for MAGIC and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.18-0.42) for TOAST. Large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was the most common cause of acute ischemic stroke (38.3%), followed by cardioembolism (CE, 22.8%), undetermined cause (UD, 22.2%), and small-vessel occlusion (SVO, 14.6%). One-year stroke recurrence rates were the highest for two or more UDs (11.80%), followed by LAA (7.30%), CE (5.60%), and SVO (2.50%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite several limitations, this study shows that the MAGIC system is feasible and may be helpful to classify stroke subtype in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Classification , Diagnosis , Humans , Magic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Recurrence , Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759052

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results and prognostic factors of arthroscopic surgeries for tears of the discoid lateral menisci. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1997 to September 2005, 260 patients received arthroscopic surgeries due to discoid lateral menisci tears. Among these patients, 179 knees in 168 patients were followed up for at least 2 years and were enrolled into this study. The following prognostic factors were evaluated: sex, age, symptom duration, and type of meniscal tear. Visual analogue score (VAS), Lysholm score, and Ikeuchi grade were assessed as clinical results of arthroscopic surgeries. RESULTS: The mean VAS and Lysholm score improved at the last follow-up. According to the Ikeuchi grade, 104 cases were rated as excellent, 51 cases as good, and 23 cases as fair. Male sex (p<0.033), age younger than 20 years (p=0.0474), and symptom duration less than 12 months (p<0.044) were good prognostic factors. However, there was no correlation between tear types of discoid lateral menisci and clinical results. CONCLUSIONS: Sex, age, and symptom duration could be significant prognostic factors of arthroscopic surgeries for tears of discoid lateral menisci.


Subject(s)
Arthroscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Knee , Male , Menisci, Tibial
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The CHADS2 (an acronym for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age > or =75 years, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism) score is a widely used system for estimating the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, how the CHADS2 score is related to stroke severity and outcome in patients with strokes due to atrial fibrillation has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: We enrolled patients with atrial fibrillation who visited our stroke center within 7 days after the onset of acute ischemic stroke between October 2002 and September 2008. CHADS2 scores were categorized into three groups: 0 points, low risk; 1 or 2 points, intermediate risk; and 3-6 points, high risk. Poor neurological state was defined as follows: a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of > or =2, and a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of > or =3 at discharge. Mortality information was ascertained as at December 2008. RESULTS: A cohort of 298 patients with atrial-fibrillation-related stroke was included in this study. A high-risk CHADS2 score at admission was a powerful predictor of poor neurological outcome [for NIHSS: odds ratio (OR), 4.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.76-9.87; for mRS: OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.23-7.16] after controlling for all possible confounders. In addition, a high-risk CHADS2 score was an independent predictor of all causes of death during the follow-up [hazard ratio (HR), 3.01; 95% CI, 1.18-7.65] and vascular death (HR, 12.25; 95% CI, 1.50-99.90). CONCLUSIONS: Although the CHADS2 score was originally designed to distinguish patients with a future risk of stroke, our study shows that it may also be used to predict poor neurological outcome after atrial-fibrillation-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypertension , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Odds Ratio , Stroke
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The vertebral artery (VA) is important for the development of the transverse foramen (TF). Most studies of these structures have focused on anatomical anomalies. Therefore, we investigated quantitatively the association between the relative sizes of the TF and VA. METHODS: We recruited a consecutive series of subjects who underwent CT angiography to estimate the relative sizes of the VA and TF in axial source images. Two neurologists independently reviewed the axial CT images of 208 patients who had no history of transient ischemic attack or stroke. Averaged areas of the VA and TF were defined by the sum of the areas at each level from C3 to C6, divided by 4. Correlation analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and vascular risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 53 years. The interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities of TF size were good. There was a linear relationship between the sizes of the VA and TF on each side (right side: r2=0.58, p<0.001; left side: r2=0.62, p<0.001). The area of the VA was significantly associated with that of the TF after adjusting for vascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The size of the VA is strongly and linearly correlated with the size of the TF. These findings suggest that measurement of the TF and VA with CT angiography is a reliable method for evaluating VA diseases, and may provide new insight into the differentiation between VA hypoplasia and atherosclerosis of the VA.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Atherosclerosis , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke , Vertebral Artery
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730602

ABSTRACT

The biomechanical function of the meniscus is well known and its chondroprotective effect is very important. The meniscus should be preserved whenever possible, but subtotal or total meniscectomy is sometimes inevitable, and especially if considerable tissue damage already exists. Although meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) is performed for the meniscus-deficient knees to restore the biomechanical function of the meniscus, its current indication has been limited to the symptomatic young patients who do not have advanced osteoarthritis. However, the osteoarthritic process is usually progressive over the time even if there are minimal symptoms. When evident clinical symptoms are present, it is usually associated with advanced cartilage damage. In this status, MAT cannot be indicated or the result of surgery would be very poor. Thus, the status of the articular cartilage should be carefully assessed in subtotal or total meniscectomized knees by performing radiographic and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a meticulous physical examination. MAT could be considered if there is an objective evidence of cartilage damage even without evident clinical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Cartilage , Cartilage, Articular , Humans , Knee , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Osteoarthritis , Physical Examination , Transplantation, Homologous , Transplants
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727297

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) in cases of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied long-term outcomes for 54 patients (72 hips). Mean duration of follow-up was 13.5 years. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Harris Hip Score. Radiographic evaluation from the preoperative and follow-up periods included assessment of the fixation of the femoral and acetabular components, polyethylene wear, osteolysis, and radiolucent line. RESULTS: The mean Harris Hip Score improved from a preoperative value of 51.9 points to 89.4 at final follow-up. Regarding the femoral components, there was radiographic evidence of stable bony ingrowth in 69 hips, stable fibrous ingrowth in 2 hips and unstable fixation in 1 hip. There was a radiolucent line of less than 1 mm in 7 hips, and femoral osteolysis in 27 hips. Regarding the acetabular components, there was radiographic evidence of stable fixation in 68 hips, unstable fixation in 4 hips, and osteolysis in 39 hips. There was a significant correlation between (i) failure of components and (ii) femoral osteolysis, acetabular osteolysis, polyethylene thickness, linear wear rate per year, or total linear wear. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show favorable long term results, both clinical and radiographic, using cementless total hip replacement arthroplasties. However, the revision rates for the Harris-Galante acetabular components were high. Wear of the load? weight? bearing surface continues to limit the long-term success rate of THA, and improved design of the acetabular components should be considered.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Hip , Humans , Osteolysis , Osteonecrosis , Polyethylene , Tacrine , Ursidae
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