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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 349-358, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833377

ABSTRACT

Globally and in Africa specifically, female sex workers (FSWs) are at an extraordinarily high risk of contracting human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as an effective and ethical method with which to preventHIV infection among FSWs. PrEP efficacy is, however, closely linked to adherence, and adherence to PrEP among FSWs is a complexand interrelated process that has been shown to be of importance to public health policies and HIV control and interventionprograms. This comprehensive review categorizes barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HIV PrEP for FSWs, and describes fivestrategies for promoting PrEP adherence among FSWs. These strategies encompass 1) a long-term educational effort to decreasethe stigma associated with sex work and PrEP use, 2) education on how PrEP works, 3) lifestyle modification, 4) research on nextgenerationPrEP products to address the inconvenience of taking daily pills, and 5) integration of PrEP into existing services, suchas social services and routine primary care visits, to reduce the economic burden of seeking the medication. Our review is expectedto be useful for the design of future PrEP intervention programs. Multidisciplinary intervention should be considered to promotePrEP adherence among FSWs in order to help control the HIV epidemic.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99576

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between Ni-Cr alloy and composite resin using universal adhesive systems coMPared to conventional method using metal primers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, a total of 120 cast commercial Ni-Cr alloy (Vera Bond 2V) disks were embedded in acrylic resin, and their surfaces were smoothed with silicon carbide papers and airborne-particle abrasion. Specimens of each metal were divided into 6 groups based on the combination of metal primers (Metal primer II, Alloy primer, Metal & Zirconia primer, MKZ primer) and universal adhesive systems (Single Bond Universal, All Bond Universal). All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37degrees C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength testing was performed with a universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 1 m/min. Data (MPa) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey's multiple comparison test (alpha=.05). RESULTS: There were significant differences between Single Bond Universal, All Bond Universal, Metal Primer II and Alloy Primer, MKZ Primer, Metal & Zirconia Primer (P<.001). CONCLUSION: Universal Adhesive system groups indicated high shear bond strength value bonded to Ni-Cr alloy than that of conventional system groups using primers except Metal Primer II. Within the limitations of this study, improvement of universal adhesive systems which can be applied to all types of restorations is recommended especially non-precious metal alloy. More research is needed to evaluate the effect of silane inclusion or exclusion in universal adhesive systems.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Alloys , Head , Water
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82945

ABSTRACT

Platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapy has been growing in popularity as a viable treatment alternative for a number of clinical applications and has a potential benefit for use in wound healing. The objective of the present study was to verify the effectiveness of PRP in the management of the refractory cutaneous ulcer associated with Nicolau syndrome. A 73-year-old woman with a diclofenac sodium intramuscular injection history in a local clinic presented with a severely painful acute necrotic ulcer on the right buttock. The ulcerative wound showed no improvement despite having conventional treatment for 1 month. After 3 weeks of the PRP treatment, the wound evolved favorably, with the alleviation of severe pain. It showed a size reduction of more than 80% after 4 months of regular follow up. The result demonstrated that PRP treatment could be an appropriate option for an extensive refractory ulceration associated with Nicolau syndrome.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Buttocks , Diclofenac , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Ulcer , Wound Healing
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146688

ABSTRACT

The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been advocated as a way to introduce increased concentrations of growth factors and other bioactive molecules to injured tissues in an attempt to optimize the local healing environment. A 94-yr-old woman with various comorbidities presented with a two-week history of severe cutaneous ulcer on the left dorsum of foot. It was caused by recurrent mechanical trauma and did not respond to several wound debridement and simple dressings. However, after she was completed on seven times of autologous PRP treatments, we observed complete healing of the skin lesion within 3 months. Herein, we report a case of recalcitrant cutaneous ulcer with various comorbidities and discuss about the promising possibility of autologous PRP as an effective alternative therapeutic modality.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Skin Ulcer/complications , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111757

ABSTRACT

Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica (PPK) is a rare syndrome defined by the association of an organoid nevus occasionally with sebaceous differentiation, a speckled lentiginous nevus, and other extracutaneous anomalies. A preterm male infant of only 830 g at 27 week gestational age had an organoid nevus showing sebaceous differentiation. Also, he had multiple speckled-lentiginous nevus. Correlating the observed clinical presentation with the histopathological findings, the diagnosis of PPK was established. There have been less than 10 cases of PPK without extracutaneous manifestation. We present an uncommon case of a preterm patient with PPK who had no extracutaneous abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Male , Nevus, Pigmented/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-32534

ABSTRACT

Interferon (IFN) alpha is commonly used for the treatment of chronic hepatits C with a combination of ribavirin. There are numerous dermatologic adverse events of IFN, such as xerosis, pruritus, alopecia, and injection site reaction. Panniculitis is one of the rare cutaneous side effects of IFN treatment, which may have a significant reduction on patient's quality of life and may lead to discontinuation of the treatment. Although there have been several reports of panniculitis induced by IFN-beta, IFN-alpha induced panniculitis are rarely reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of panniculitis caused by pegylated IFN alpha2a injection in a patient with chronic hepatitis C.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Interferon-alpha , Interferons , Panniculitis , Pruritus , Quality of Life , Ribavirin
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25812

ABSTRACT

The distinction of a spitz nevus from a melanoma can be difficult and in some cases, impossible. A misdiagnosed spitz nevus can metastasize and lead to fatal outcomes, especially in children. A 5-yr-old girl presented with a 1-yr history of a solitary pinkish nodule on her left hand. On physical examination, she had a palpable left axillary lymph node. We performed biopsy and checked 3 sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) on her axillary area. The biopsy specimen showed multiple variably sized and shaped nests with large spindle or polygonal cells and SLN biopsy showed 3 of 3 lymph nodes that were metastasized. Under the diagnosis of spitzoid melanoma, she was treated with excision biopsy and complete left axillary lymph nodes were dissected. She received interferon-alpha2b subcutaneously at a dose of 8 MIU per day, 3 times weekly for 12 months, and shows no recurrence.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Lymphatic Metastasis , Melanoma/drug therapy , Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90373

ABSTRACT

Inverted follicular keratosis is a benign, solitary skin lesion that is mainly diagnosed histologically, rather than clinically. The pathogenesis of inverted follicular keratosis has not been elucidated. It is still controversial as to whether the inverted follicular keratosis is a distinct hair follicle lesion, an old lesion of verruca vulgaris, or an irritated seborrheic keratosis. It is usually presented with a verrucous firm papule or nodular lesion clinically, and it commonly mimics other proliferative skin lesions, such as warts, cutaneous horn and basal cell carcinoma. However, inverted follicular keratosis with a pedunculated feature has been hardly found. Clinical morphology of the inverted follicular keratosismight be related with the site of tumor origin. Herein, we report two interesting cases of inverted follicular keratosis with a peculiar pedunculated feature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Hair Follicle , Horns , Keratosis , Keratosis, Seborrheic , Skin , Warts
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