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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896447

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) is widely used to identify influenza A and B, the diagnostic accuracy of this test remains unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of this test compared to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. @*Methods@#A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and a hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curve (HSROC) of this test for identifying influenza A and B were determined using meta-analysis. A sensitivity subgroup analysis was performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity within selected studies. @*Results@#We identified 17 studies involving 8,334 patients. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza FIA for identifying influenza A were 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–0.83), 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98–0.99), and 251.26 (95% CI, 139.39–452.89), respectively. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of this test for identifying influenza B were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.82), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–0.99), and 140.20 (95% CI, 55.92–351.54), respectively. The area under the HSROC for this test for identifying influenza A was similar to that for identifying influenza B. Age was considered a probable source of heterogeneity. @*Conclusion@#Pooled sensitivities of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza FIA for identifying influenza A and B did not quite meet the target level (≥80%). Thus, caution is needed when interpreting data of this study due to substantial between-study heterogeneity.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904151

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) is widely used to identify influenza A and B, the diagnostic accuracy of this test remains unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of this test compared to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. @*Methods@#A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and a hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curve (HSROC) of this test for identifying influenza A and B were determined using meta-analysis. A sensitivity subgroup analysis was performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity within selected studies. @*Results@#We identified 17 studies involving 8,334 patients. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza FIA for identifying influenza A were 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71–0.83), 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98–0.99), and 251.26 (95% CI, 139.39–452.89), respectively. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of this test for identifying influenza B were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.82), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–0.99), and 140.20 (95% CI, 55.92–351.54), respectively. The area under the HSROC for this test for identifying influenza A was similar to that for identifying influenza B. Age was considered a probable source of heterogeneity. @*Conclusion@#Pooled sensitivities of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza FIA for identifying influenza A and B did not quite meet the target level (≥80%). Thus, caution is needed when interpreting data of this study due to substantial between-study heterogeneity.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is associated with poor outcomes. This study was performed to determine the clinical efficacy of PH-specific therapeutic agents for IPF patients.@*METHODS@#We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without language restriction until November 2018. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality to end of study.@*RESULTS@#We analyzed 10 RCTs involving 2,124 patients, 1,274 of whom received PH-specific agents. In pooled estimates, the use of PH-specific agents was not significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality to end of study compared with controls (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92, 1.06; P = 0.71; I² = 30%). When we performed subgroup analyses according to the type of PH-specific agent, sample size, age, forced vital capacity, diffusion lung capacity, and the extent of honeycombing, PH-specific agents also showed no significant association with a reduction in all-cause mortality. A small but significant improvement in quality of life, measured using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total score, was found in the PH-specific agent group (mean difference, −3.16 points; 95% CI, −5.34, −0.97; P = 0.005; I² = 0%). We found no significant changes from baseline in lung function, dyspnea, or exercise capacity. Serious adverse events were similar between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Although PH-specific agents provided small health-related quality-of-life benefits, our meta-analysis provides insufficient evidence to support their use in IPF patients.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There has been no consensus regarding the discontinuation order of vasopressors in patients recovering from septic shock treated with concomitant norepinephrine (NE) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension within 24 hours based on whether NE or AVP was discontinued first in order to determine the optimal sequence for discontinuation of vasopressors.@*METHODS@#A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register. The primary end-point was incidence of hypotension within 24 hours after discontinuation of the first vasopressor.@*RESULTS@#We identified five studies comprising 930 patients, of whom 631 (67.8%) discontinued NE first and 299 (32.2%) discontinued AVP first. In pooled estimates, a random-effect model showed that discontinuation of NE first was associated with a significant reduction of the incidence of hypotension compared to discontinuing AVP first (31.8% vs. 54.8%; risk ratios, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.76; P = 0.008; I² = 90.7%). Although a substantial degree of heterogeneity existed among the trials, we could not identify the significant source of bias. In addition, there were no significant differences in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality, or ICU length of stay between the groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Discontinuing NE prior to AVP was associated with a lower incidence of hypotension in patients recovering from septic shock. However, our results should be interpreted with caution, due to the considerable between-study heterogeneity.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is associated with poor outcomes. This study was performed to determine the clinical efficacy of PH-specific therapeutic agents for IPF patients.@*METHODS@#We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without language restriction until November 2018. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality to end of study.@*RESULTS@#We analyzed 10 RCTs involving 2,124 patients, 1,274 of whom received PH-specific agents. In pooled estimates, the use of PH-specific agents was not significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality to end of study compared with controls (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92, 1.06; P = 0.71; I² = 30%). When we performed subgroup analyses according to the type of PH-specific agent, sample size, age, forced vital capacity, diffusion lung capacity, and the extent of honeycombing, PH-specific agents also showed no significant association with a reduction in all-cause mortality. A small but significant improvement in quality of life, measured using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total score, was found in the PH-specific agent group (mean difference, −3.16 points; 95% CI, −5.34, −0.97; P = 0.005; I² = 0%). We found no significant changes from baseline in lung function, dyspnea, or exercise capacity. Serious adverse events were similar between the two groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Although PH-specific agents provided small health-related quality-of-life benefits, our meta-analysis provides insufficient evidence to support their use in IPF patients.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There has been no consensus regarding the discontinuation order of vasopressors in patients recovering from septic shock treated with concomitant norepinephrine (NE) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension within 24 hours based on whether NE or AVP was discontinued first in order to determine the optimal sequence for discontinuation of vasopressors.@*METHODS@#A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register. The primary end-point was incidence of hypotension within 24 hours after discontinuation of the first vasopressor.@*RESULTS@#We identified five studies comprising 930 patients, of whom 631 (67.8%) discontinued NE first and 299 (32.2%) discontinued AVP first. In pooled estimates, a random-effect model showed that discontinuation of NE first was associated with a significant reduction of the incidence of hypotension compared to discontinuing AVP first (31.8% vs. 54.8%; risk ratios, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.76; P = 0.008; I² = 90.7%). Although a substantial degree of heterogeneity existed among the trials, we could not identify the significant source of bias. In addition, there were no significant differences in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality, or ICU length of stay between the groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Discontinuing NE prior to AVP was associated with a lower incidence of hypotension in patients recovering from septic shock. However, our results should be interpreted with caution, due to the considerable between-study heterogeneity.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is associated with poor outcomes. This study was performed to determine the clinical efficacy of PH-specific therapeutic agents for IPF patients.METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without language restriction until November 2018. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality to end of study.RESULTS: We analyzed 10 RCTs involving 2,124 patients, 1,274 of whom received PH-specific agents. In pooled estimates, the use of PH-specific agents was not significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality to end of study compared with controls (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92, 1.06; P = 0.71; I² = 30%). When we performed subgroup analyses according to the type of PH-specific agent, sample size, age, forced vital capacity, diffusion lung capacity, and the extent of honeycombing, PH-specific agents also showed no significant association with a reduction in all-cause mortality. A small but significant improvement in quality of life, measured using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total score, was found in the PH-specific agent group (mean difference, −3.16 points; 95% CI, −5.34, −0.97; P = 0.005; I² = 0%). We found no significant changes from baseline in lung function, dyspnea, or exercise capacity. Serious adverse events were similar between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Although PH-specific agents provided small health-related quality-of-life benefits, our meta-analysis provides insufficient evidence to support their use in IPF patients.


Subject(s)
Diffusion , Dyspnea , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung , Lung Volume Measurements , Mortality , Quality of Life , Sample Size , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents , Vital Capacity
8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831854

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although pneumococcal urinary antigen tests (PUATs) have universally been used for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia, data on the efficacy of these exams are limited. The objective of our study was to investigate the clinical impact of the PUAT in patients with community-onset pneumonia (CO-pneumonia). @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with CO-pneumonia. Patients were classified according to their PUAT results and were matched using the propensity score-matching method. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. @*Results@#A total of 1,257 patients were identified and 163 (13.0%) demonstrated positive PUAT results. The sensitivity and specificity values of PUAT for overall pneumococcal pneumonia were 56.5% and 91.4%, respectively. In the full cohort, there were no significant differences in 30-day mortality between the two groups (6.1% in the positive PUAT group vs. 8.2% in the negative PUAT group, p = 0.357). However, in the propensity-matched cohort, the 30-day mortality rates were lower in the positive PUAT group (5.6% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.001). With respect to secondary outcomes, the proportion of patients with potentially drug-resistant pathogens, changes in antibiotics, and failure rates of initial antibiotic therapy were significantly lower in the positive PUAT group than in the negative PUAT group of the propensity-matched cohort. @*Conclusions@#We found that the sensitivity of the index test was low and specificity was high in this clinical setting. And our findings suggest that positive PUAT results may be associated with favorable clinical outcomes in patients with CO-pneumonia.

10.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019006-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763756

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the general approaches of dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) available for the quantitative synthesis of data using the R software. We conducted a DRMA using two types of data, the difference of means in continuous data and the odds ratio in binary data. The package commands of the R software were “doseresmeta” for the overall effect sizes that were separated into a linear model, quadratic model, and restricted cubic split model for better understanding. The effect sizes according to the dose and a test for linearity were demonstrated and interpreted by analyzing one-stage and two-stage DRMA. The authors examined several flexible models of exposure to pool study-specific trends and made a graphical presentation of the dose-response trend. This study focused on practical methods of DRMA rather than theoretical concepts for researchers who did not major in statistics. The authors hope that this study will help many researchers use the R software to perform DRMAs more easily, and that related research will be pursued.


Subject(s)
Hope , Linear Models , Odds Ratio
11.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019007-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763755

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to describe general approaches of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) that are available for the quantitative synthesis of data using R software. We conduct a DTA that summarizes statistics for univariate analysis and bivariate analysis. The package commands of R software were “metaprop” and “metabin” for sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio; forest for forest plot; reitsma of “mada” for a summarized receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve; and “metareg” for meta-regression analysis. The estimated total effect sizes, test for heterogeneity and moderator effect, and a summarized ROC curve are reported using R software. In particular, we focus on how to calculate the effect sizes of target studies in DTA. This study focuses on the practical methods of DTA rather than theoretical concepts for researchers whose fields of study were non-statistics related. By performing this study, we hope that many researchers will use R software to determine the DTA more easily, and that there will be greater interest in related research.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Forests , Hope , Odds Ratio , Population Characteristics , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019013-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763749

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to describe the general approaches to network meta-analysis that are available for quantitative data synthesis using R software. We conducted a network meta-analysis using two approaches: Bayesian and frequentist methods. The corresponding R packages were “gemtc” for the Bayesian approach and “netmeta” for the frequentist approach. In estimating a network meta-analysis model using a Bayesian framework, the “rjags” package is a common tool. “rjags” implements Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation with a graphical output. The estimated overall effect sizes, test for heterogeneity, moderator effects, and publication bias were reported using R software. The authors focus on two flexible models, Bayesian and frequentist, to determine overall effect sizes in network meta-analysis. This study focused on the practical methods of network meta-analysis rather than theoretical concepts, making the material easy to understand for Korean researchers who did not major in statistics. The authors hope that this study will help many Korean researchers to perform network meta-analyses and conduct related research more easily with R software.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Hope , Markov Chains , Population Characteristics , Publication Bias
14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019006-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785780

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the general approaches of dose-response meta-analysis (DRMA) available for the quantitative synthesis of data using the R software. We conducted a DRMA using two types of data, the difference of means in continuous data and the odds ratio in binary data. The package commands of the R software were “doseresmeta” for the overall effect sizes that were separated into a linear model, quadratic model, and restricted cubic split model for better understanding. The effect sizes according to the dose and a test for linearity were demonstrated and interpreted by analyzing one-stage and two-stage DRMA. The authors examined several flexible models of exposure to pool study-specific trends and made a graphical presentation of the dose-response trend. This study focused on practical methods of DRMA rather than theoretical concepts for researchers who did not major in statistics. The authors hope that this study will help many researchers use the R software to perform DRMAs more easily, and that related research will be pursued.


Subject(s)
Hope , Linear Models , Odds Ratio
15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019007-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785779

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to describe general approaches of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) that are available for the quantitative synthesis of data using R software. We conduct a DTA that summarizes statistics for univariate analysis and bivariate analysis. The package commands of R software were “metaprop” and “metabin” for sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio; forest for forest plot; reitsma of “mada” for a summarized receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve; and “metareg” for meta-regression analysis. The estimated total effect sizes, test for heterogeneity and moderator effect, and a summarized ROC curve are reported using R software. In particular, we focus on how to calculate the effect sizes of target studies in DTA. This study focuses on the practical methods of DTA rather than theoretical concepts for researchers whose fields of study were non-statistics related. By performing this study, we hope that many researchers will use R software to determine the DTA more easily, and that there will be greater interest in related research.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Forests , Hope , Odds Ratio , Population Characteristics , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019013-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785773

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to describe the general approaches to network meta-analysis that are available for quantitative data synthesis using R software. We conducted a network meta-analysis using two approaches: Bayesian and frequentist methods. The corresponding R packages were “gemtc” for the Bayesian approach and “netmeta” for the frequentist approach. In estimating a network meta-analysis model using a Bayesian framework, the “rjags” package is a common tool. “rjags” implements Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation with a graphical output. The estimated overall effect sizes, test for heterogeneity, moderator effects, and publication bias were reported using R software. The authors focus on two flexible models, Bayesian and frequentist, to determine overall effect sizes in network meta-analysis. This study focused on the practical methods of network meta-analysis rather than theoretical concepts, making the material easy to understand for Korean researchers who did not major in statistics. The authors hope that this study will help many Korean researchers to perform network meta-analyses and conduct related research more easily with R software.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Hope , Markov Chains , Population Characteristics , Publication Bias
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 211-218, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713101

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Molecular testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) aids in identifying oncogenic alterations. The aim of this study was to compare the rates of detection of oncogenic alterations and responsiveness to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) according to EGFR mutation status as determined by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamping or direct sequencing (DS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. Data from included studies were pooled to yield summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio, and receiver operating characteristic curves. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to identify potential sources of heterogeneity between selected studies. RESULTS: We identified 10 studies comprising 924 patients. Oncogenic alterations were detected in 340 of 924 cases (36.8%) with PNA clamping and in 250 of 924 (27.1%) with DS. The pooled sensitivities of PNA clamping and DS were 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90−0.95] and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64−0.73), respectively. According to meta-regression analysis, none of the covariates were found to be significant sources of heterogeneity. With respect to treatment responses to EGFR-TKIs, there was no significant difference therein between EGFR mutations detected by PNA clamping and DS (53.4% vs. 50.8%; risk ratio, 0.99; 95% CI 0.83−1.19; p=0.874). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that PNA clamping has a higher sensitivity than DS for detecting oncogenic alterations in NSCLC. Our findings suggest that PNA clamping is a more useful method for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Constriction , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mutation , Peptide Nucleic Acids/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sequence Analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Translocation, Genetic
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 778-785, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81894

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peramivir is the first intravenously administered neuramidase inhibitor for immediate delivery of an effective single-dose treatment in patients with influenza. However, limited data are available on intravenous (IV) peramivir treatment compared to oral oseltamivir for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With a systematic review and meta-analysis, we compared the efficacy of IV peramivir with oral oseltamivir for treatment of patients with seasonal influenza. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register were searched for relevant clinical trials. RESULTS: A total of seven trials [two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five non-randomized observational trials] involving 1676 patients were finally analyzed. The total number of peramivir- and oseltamivir-treated patients was 956 and 720, respectively. Overall, the time to alleviation of fever was lower in the peramivir-treated group compared with the oseltamivir-treated group [mean difference (MD), −7.17 hours; 95% confidence interval (CI) −11.00 to −3.34]. Especially, pooled analysis of observational studies (n=4) and studies of outpatients (n=4) demonstrated the superiority of the peramivir-treated group (MD, -7.83 hours; 95% CI −11.81 to −3.84 and MD, −7.71 hours; 95% CI −11.61 to −3.80, respectively). Mortality, length of hospital stay, change in virus titer 48 hours after admission, and the incidence of adverse events in these patients were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: IV peramivir therapy might reduce the time to alleviation of fever in comparison with oral oseltamivir therapy in patients with influenza; however, we could not draw clear conclusions from a meta-analysis because of the few RCTs available and methodological limitations.


Subject(s)
Fever , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human , Length of Stay , Mortality , Oseltamivir , Outpatients , Seasons , Viral Load
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