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1.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : S39-S43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896751

ABSTRACT

With the advent of checkpoint inhibitors, it has opened up opportunities for numerous cancer patients. However, as is the case with every treatment, complications need to be weighed. Gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea and colitis are well-known complications for checkpoint inhibitors. In severe cases, colitis-induced colonic perforation may occur with an estimation of 1.0% to 1.5% in anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. However, only a handful of cases of such devastating complications have been reported in anti-PD-1 antibodies such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab. We here report a case of intestinal perforation in a patient treated with nivolumab.

2.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : S39-S43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889047

ABSTRACT

With the advent of checkpoint inhibitors, it has opened up opportunities for numerous cancer patients. However, as is the case with every treatment, complications need to be weighed. Gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea and colitis are well-known complications for checkpoint inhibitors. In severe cases, colitis-induced colonic perforation may occur with an estimation of 1.0% to 1.5% in anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. However, only a handful of cases of such devastating complications have been reported in anti-PD-1 antibodies such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab. We here report a case of intestinal perforation in a patient treated with nivolumab.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1112-1119, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831143

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advance in the treatment of lung cancer, allowing sustained recovery in a significant proportion of patients. Nivolumab is a monoclonal anti–programmed death cell protein 1 antibody licensed for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after prior chemotherapy. In this study, we describe the demographic and clinical outcomes of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab in the Korean expanded access program. @*Materials and Methods@#Previously treated patients with advanced non-squamous and squamous NSCLC patients received nivolumab at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks up to 36 months. Efficacy data including investigator-assessed tumor response, progression data, survival, and safety data were collected. @*Results@#Two hundred ninety-nine patients were treated across 36 Korean centers. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 18% and 49%, respectively; the median progression-free survival was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87 to 3.45), and the overall survival (OS) was 13.2 months (95% CI, 10.6 to 18.9). Patients with smoking history and patients who experienced immune-related adverse events showed a prolonged OS. Cox regression analysis identified smoking history, presence of immune-related adverse events as positive factors associated with OS, while liver metastasis was a negative factor associated with OS. The safety profile was generally comparable to previously reported data. @*Conclusion@#This real-world analysis supports the use of nivolumab for pretreated NSCLC patients, including those with an older age.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719712

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This randomized phase III study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) over etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) in Korean patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive IP, composed of irinotecan 65 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8+cisplatin 70 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1 every 3 weeks, or EP, composed of etoposide 100 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 2, 3+cisplatin 70 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1, every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles, until disease progression, or until unacceptable toxicity occurred. The primary endpoint was overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 362 patients were randomized to IP (n=173) and EP (n=189) arms. There were no significant differences between IP and EP arms for the median overall survival (10.9 months vs. 10.3 months, p=0.120) and the median progression-free survival (6.5 months vs. 5.8 months, p=0.115). However, there was a significant difference in response rate (62.4% vs. 48.2%, p=0.006). The pre-planned subgroup analyses showed that IP was associated with longer overall survival in male (11.3 months vs. 10.1 months, p=0.036), < 65 years old (12.7 months vs. 11.3 months, p=0.024), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1 (12.4 months vs. 10.9 months, p=0.040) patient groups. The severity of treatment-related adverse events such as grade 3/4 anemia, nausea and diarrhea was more frequent in patients treated with IP. CONCLUSION: The IP chemotherapy did not significantly improve the survival compared with EP chemotherapy in Korean patients with extensive-disease SCLC.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Arm , Cisplatin , Diarrhea , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Etoposide , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Nausea , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a deadly disease in which precision medicine needs to be incorporated. We aimed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in determining actionable targets to guide appropriate molecular targeted therapy in HNSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three tumors and matched blood samples underwent targeted sequencing of 244 genes using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform with an average depth of coverage of greater than 1,000×. Clinicopathological data from patients were obtained from 17 centers in Korea, and were analyzed in correlation with NGS data. RESULTS: Ninety-two of the 93 tumors were amenable to data analysis. TP53 was the most common mutation, occurring in 47 (51%) patients, followed by CDKN2A (n=23, 25%), CCND1 (n=22, 24%), and PIK3CA (n=19, 21%). The total mutational burden was similar between human papillomavirus (HPV)–negative vs. positive tumors, although TP53, CDKN2A and CCND1 gene alterations occurred more frequently in HPV-negative tumors. HPV-positive tumors were significantly associated with immune signature-related genes compared to HPV-negative tumors. Mutations of NOTCH1 (p=0.027), CDKN2A (p < 0.001), and TP53 (p=0.038) were significantly associated with poorer overall survival. FAT1 mutations were highly enriched in cisplatin responders, and potentially targetable alterations such as PIK3CA E545K and CDKN2A R58X were noted in 14 patients (15%). CONCLUSION: We found several targetable genetic alterations, and our findings suggest that implementation of precision medicine in HNSCC is feasible. The predictive value of each targetable alteration should be assessed in a future umbrella trial using matched molecular targeted agents.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin , Epithelial Cells , Head , Humans , Korea , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Statistics as Topic
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 898-904, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762043

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is known to play a crucial role in carcinogenesis in various malignancies, including lung cancer regarding tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and cellular differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of components of Shh pathway as a prognostic marker in extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 36 patients who were diagnosed with ES-SCLC between 2008 and 2012 at a single center. We performed immuo-histochemistry for glioma-associated oncogene homolog zinc finger protein 1 (Gli1), patched, Shh, and Ptch-mediated repression of smoothened (Smo) proteins using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue derived from primary tumors. We then conducted survival analysis to evaluate the prognostic impact of these markers. RESULTS: All 36 patients received platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. The median progression free survival and median overall survival were 6.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.5–7.3] and 11.7 months (95% CI, 9.1–14.3), respectively. The overall response rate was 84%. Of the 36 tissue specimens examined, over-expression of Gli1, Patched, Shh, and Smo was found in 12 (33.3%), five (13.9%), five (13.9%), and six (16.7%) cases, respectively. We found that high expression of Shh was associated with worse progression free survival (6.3 vs. 7.6 months, p=0.005) and overall survival (9.2 vs. 12.0 months, p=0.039) by both univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas other markers were not related to patient prognosis. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of small cell lung cancer tumors express proteins related to Shh pathway, and over-expression of Shh is correlated with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Hedgehog Proteins , Hedgehogs , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Oncogenes , Prognosis , Repression, Psychology , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Zinc Fingers
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210751

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We recently reported on a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial comparing pemetrexed-cisplatin chemotherapy followed by gefitinib maintenance therapy (PC/G) with gefitinib monotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we report on a post hoc subgroup analysis of that study assessing the demographics and disposition of the Korean patient subgroup, and comparing the tolerability of PC/G and gefitinib monotherapy and the tumor response with respect to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients, who were ≥ 18 years, chemonaïve, Korean, light ex-smokers/never-smokers with advanced NSCLC, were randomly assigned (1:1) to PC/G or gefitinib monotherapy. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were graded, and tumor response was measured as change in lesion sum from baseline at best response. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT01017874. RESULTS: Overall, 111 Korean patients were treated (PC/G, 51; gefitinib, 60). Between-arm characteristics were balanced and similar to those of the overall population. Treatment discontinuations due to adverse events were low (PC/G: 1, 2.0%; gefitinib: 7, 11.7%). Overall, 92 patients (82.9%) reported ≥ 1 TEAE (PC/G, 44; gefitinib, 48); few patients (PC/G, 16; gefitinib, 7) reported severe TEAEs; the most frequent was neutropenia (PC/G arm) and elevated alanine aminotransferase (gefitinib arm). The lesion sum was decreased by PC/G treatment in most patients, regardless of EGFR mutation status, while gefitinib monotherapy reduced the lesion sum in EGFR-positive patients but had no effect in EGFR-negative patients. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that both PC/G and gefitinib were well tolerated in Korean patients, regardless of EGFR status; however, patients with EGFR wild-type NSCLC may not benefit from gefitinib monotherapy.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Demography , Drug Therapy , Humans , Korea , Neutropenia , ErbB Receptors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169453

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the treatment outcomes for locally advanced resectable hypopharyngeal cancer between organ-preserving chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery followed by radiotherapy (SRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 91 patients with stage III/IV hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy (RT). In the CRT group (n=34), 18 patients were treated with concurrent CRT and 16 patients with induction chemotherapy plus concurrent CRT. In the SRT group (n=57), six patients were treated with total laryngopharyngectomy, 34 patients with total laryngectomy (TL) and partial pharyngectomy (PP), and 17 patients with PP, which were followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (n=41) or CRT (n=16). The median RT dose was 70 Gy for CRT and 59.4 Gy for SRT. RESULTS: Five-year local control (84.1% vs. 90.9%), and disease-free survival (DFS, 51.0% vs. 52.7%) and overall survival (OS, 58.6% vs. 56.6%) showed no significant difference between the CRT and SRT groups. The functional larynx-preservation rate was higher in the CRT group (88.2% vs. 29.8%). Treatment-related toxicity, requiring surgical intervention, occurred more frequently in the SRT group (37% vs. 12%). In the SRT group, TL resulted in a significantly higher DFS than larynx-sparing surgery (63.9% vs. 26.5%, p=0.027). Treatment outcome of the SRT group improved when only patients with TL were considered (n=40); however, 5-year OS (67.1% vs. 58.6%, p=0.830) and DFS (63.9% vs. 51.0%, p=0.490) did not improve significantly when compared to the CRT group. CONCLUSION: Organ preserving CRT provided a treatment outcome that is comparable to SRT for locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer, while offering an opportunity for functional larynx-preservation and reduced treatment-related toxicity.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Induction Chemotherapy , Laryngectomy , Organ Preservation , Pharyngectomy , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Treatment Outcome
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1177-1186, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109758

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: REVEL demonstrated improved overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rate (ORR) with docetaxel+ramucirumab versus docetaxel+placebo in 1,253 intent-to-treat (ITT) stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients with disease progression following platinum-based chemotherapy. Results from the East Asian subgroup analysis are reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgroup analyses were performed in the East Asian ITT population (n=89). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed for OS and PFS, and the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was performed for response rate. RESULTS: In docetaxel+ramucirumab (n=43) versus docetaxel+placebo (n=46), median OS was 15.44 months versus 10.17 months (hazard ratio [HR], 0.762; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.444 to 1.307), median PFS was 4.88 months versus 2.79 months (HR, 0.658; 95% CI, 0.408 to 1.060), and ORR was 25.6% (95% CI, 13.5 to 41.2) versus 8.7% (95% CI, 2.4 to 20.8). Due to increased incidence of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in East Asian patients, starting dose of docetaxel was reduced for newly enrolled East Asian patients (75 to 60 mg/m², n=24). In docetaxel+ramucirumab versus docetaxel+placebo, incidence of neutropenia was 84.4% versus 72.7% (75 mg/m²) and 54.5% versus 38.5% (60 mg/m²). Incidence of febrile neutropenia was 43.8% versus 12.1% (75 mg/m²) and 0% versus 7.7% (60 mg/m²). CONCLUSION: Results of this subgroup analysis showed a trend favoring ramucirumab+docetaxel for median OS, PFS, and improved ORR in East Asian patients, consistent with ITT population results. Reduction of starting dose of docetaxel in East Asian patients was associated with improved safety.


Subject(s)
Asians , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Far East , Febrile Neutropenia , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neutropenia
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196073

ABSTRACT

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a cross-linking enzyme, is involved in drug resistance and in the constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). We investigated the association of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment efficacy with TG2 and NF-kappaB expression in 120 patients: 102 with adenocarcinoma and 18 with other histologic types. All patients underwent surgery; 88 received adjuvant chemotherapy, with 28 receiving platinum-based doublet chemotherapy as first-line treatment and 29 receiving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Patients' TG2 and NF-kappaB expression values were calculated semiquantitatively. The median TG2 value was 50 (range, 0-300) and the median NF-kappaB value was 20 (range, 0-240). Disease-free survival did not differ between the low- and high-TG2 groups. Among patients who received palliative platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, progression free survival (PFS) was longer in the low-TG2 group than in the high-TG2 group (11.0 vs. 7.0 months; P=0.330). Among those who received EGFR-TKI therapy, PFS was also longer in the low-TG2 group than in the high-TG 2 group (11.0 vs. 2.0 months; P=0.013). Similarly, in EGFR wild-type patients treated with EGFR-TKI, PFS was longer in patients with low TG2 expression (9.0 vs. 2.0 months; P=0.013). TG2 expression levels can predict PFS in patients with NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKI.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , GTP-Binding Proteins/biosynthesis , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/biosynthesis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Transglutaminases/biosynthesis , Treatment Outcome
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 854-864, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99053

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association between polymorphisms of the target genes of pemetrexed and clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with pemetrexed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed polymorphisms at 8 sites in 4 genes [thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; 1610, 680, 317, intron 1), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; 677, 1298), glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase (GARFT; 2255)] associated with pemetrexed metabolism using polymerase chain reaction, gene scanning, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 90 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. RESULTS: Survival was significantly longer with pemetrexed in patients with TS 3RGCC/3RGCC or 3RGGC/3RGGC compared with the other groups (PFS; 5.2 months vs. 3.7 months, p=0.03: OS; 31.8 months vs. 18.5 months, p=0.001). Patients with DHFR 680CC experienced fatigue more frequently (50% vs. 8.6%, p=0.008). Polymorphisms of MTHFR and GARFT were not significantly associated with clinical outcomes of pemetrexed. CONCLUSION: The TS genotype was associated with survival and one DHFR polymorphism was associated with fatigue in NSCLC patients treated with pemetrexed. Further large prospective studies are required to identify other biomarkers that affect patients being treated with pemetrexed for adenocarcinoma of the lung.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Female , Glutamates/pharmacology , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Middle Aged , Pharmacogenetics , Phosphoribosylglycinamide Formyltransferase/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Thymidylate Synthase/genetics
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 865-874, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99052

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine the relationship of cigarette smoking to the frequency and qualitative differences among KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas from Korean patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Detailed smoking histories were obtained from 200 consecutively enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma according to a standard protocol. EGFR (exons 18 to 21) and KRAS (codons 12/13) mutations were determined via direct-sequencing. RESULTS: The incidence of KRAS mutations was 8% (16 of 200) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS mutations were found in 5.8% (7 of 120) of tumors from never-smokers, 15% (6 of 40) from former-smokers, and 7.5% (3 of 40) from current-smokers. The frequency of KRAS mutations did not differ significantly according to smoking history (p=0.435). Never-smokers were significantly more likely than former or current smokers to have a transition mutation (G-->A or C-->T) rather than a transversion mutation (G-->T or G-->C) that is known to be smoking-related (p=0.011). In a Cox regression model, the adjusted hazard ratios for the risk of progression with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) were 0.24 (95% CI, 0.14-0.42; p<0.001) for the EGFR mutation and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.58-2.79; p=0.537) for the KRAS mutation. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking did not influence the frequency of KRAS mutations in lung adenocarcinomas in Korean patients, but influenced qualitative differences in the KRAS mutations.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asians/genetics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Mutation Rate , Proportional Hazards Models , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Smoking/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , ras Proteins/genetics
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1377-1383, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26579

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the prognostic value of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pancreatic cancer patients who underwent curative resection, which included 64 consecutive patients who had preoperative FDG PET scans. For statistical analysis, the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of primary pancreatic cancer was measured. Survival time was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox's proportional hazard model was used to determine whether SUVmax added new predictive information concerning survival together with known prognostic factors. p3.5) showed significantly shorter OS and DFS than the low SUVmax group. Multivariate analysis of OS and DFS showed that both high SUVmax and poor tumor differentiation were independent poor prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that degree of FDG uptake was an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer patients who underwent curative resection.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Retrospective Studies
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1128-1135, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183503

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been confirmed as predictors of the efficacy of treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We investigated whether polymorphisms of the EGFR gene were associated with clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with EGFR-TKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A polymorphic dinucleotide repeat in intron 1 [CA simple sequence repeat in intron 1(CA-SSR1)] in intron 1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP-216) in the promoter region of the EGFR gene were evaluated in 71 NSCLC patients by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and clinical outcomes of treatment with EGFR-TKIs was evaluated. RESULTS: SNP-216G/T polymorphisms were associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKI. The response rate for the SNP-216G/T tended to be higher than that for G/G (62.5% vs. 27.4%, p=0.057). The SNP-216G/T genotype was also associated with longer progression-free survival compared with the GG genotype (16.7 months vs. 5.1 months, p=0.005). However, the length of CA-SSR1 was not associated with the efficacy of EGFR-TKI. CONCLUSION: SNP-216G/T polymorphism was a potential predictor of clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-TKI.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Genotype , Humans , Introns/genetics , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 352-357, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154808

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is known to have a poor prognosis due to its aggressive and rapid metastasis with median survival of less than 6 months. Multimodal treatment involving surgery and chemoradiotherapy has been used to improve the survival of patients. Here, we retrospectively review of treatment outcome of 13 consecutive patients who were treated at a single center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 13 anaplastic thyroid cancer patients who received multidisciplinary treatment between 2006 and 2010. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to analyze progression-free survival and overall survival of patients. RESULTS: The median patient age at diagnosis was 69 years, and six patients had stage IVc diseases. Eight patients received primary surgery followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Five patients received weekly doxorubicin-based definitive CCRT, but only one patient's condition remained stable, while the rest experienced rapid disease progression. The median progression-free survival was 2.8 months (95% CI, 1.2-4.4 months), and the median overall survival was 3.8 months (95% CI, 3.0-4.6 months). CONCLUSION: Patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer showed poor prognosis despite multimodality treatment. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic targets is warranted to take an effective mode of treatment.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 931-939, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228779

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The prognostic and predictive value of pretreatment serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin-19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) were assessed in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with gefitinib or erlotinib. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pretreatment CEA and CYFRA 21-1 were measured in 123 advanced NSCLC patients receiving gefitinib or erlotinib. High CEA levels (h-CEA) were significantly associated with females, patients with adenocarcinoma, and non-smokers. RESULTS: Low CYFRA 21-1 levels (l-CYFRA) were significantly associated with a good performance status (ECOG PS 0-1). The overall response rate (RR) was 27.6%, and higher RR was associated with adenocarcinoma, h-CEA, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Patients with h-CEA had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.021). Patients with l-CYFRA had significantly longer PFS and overall survival (p=0.006 and p<0.001, respectively). Of note, h-CEA and l-CYFRA had good prognosis in patients with unknown EGFR mutation status or patients with squamous cell carcinoma (p=0.021 and p=0.015, respectively). A good ECOG PS (HR=0.45, p=0.017), h-CEA (HR=0.41, p=0.007), l-CYFRA 21-1 (HR=0.52, p=0.025), and an EGFR mutation (HR=0.22, p<0.001) were independently predictive of a longer PFS. CONCLUSION: h-CEA and l-CYFRA 21-1 may be prognostic and predictive serum markers for higher response and longer survival in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving gefitinib or erlotinib, especially in patients with unknown EGFR mutation status or patients with squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Biomarkers , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Female , Humans , Keratin-19 , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39517

ABSTRACT

The strategies of incorporating monoclonal antibodies (MoABs) have now proved efficacy in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These include targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Bevacizumab is a MoAB targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important mediator of new blood vessel formation. Cetuximab is a MoAB directed at EGFR. Binding cetuximab to EGFR blocks signal transduction and promotes receptor internalization and degradation. In this review, we present current data of bevacizumab and cetuximab for the first line treatment of advanced NSCLC. We also refer to their potential for Asian patients with advanced NSCLC in the first-line setting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Asians , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Humans
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35652

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We wanted to evaluate the prognostic factors for the pathologic N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who were treated by postoperative radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 112 pN2 NSCLC patients who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) From January 1999 to February 2008. Seventy-five (67%) patients received segmentectomy or lobectomy and 37 (33%) patients received pneumonectomy. The resection margin was negative in 94 patients, and it was positive or close in 18 patients. Chemotherapy was administered to 103 (92%) patients. Nine (8%) patients received PORT alone. The median radiation dose was 54 Gy (range, 45 to 66), and the fraction size was 1.8~2 Gy. RESULTS: The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 60.2% and the disease free survival (DFS) rate was 44.7% for all the patients. Univariate analysis showed that the patients with multiple-station N2 disease had significantly reduced OS and DFS (p=0.047, p=0.007) and the patients with an advanced T stage (> or =T3) had significantly reduced OS and DFS (p or =5 cm) and positive lymphovascular invasion reduced the OS (p=0.035, 0.034). Using multivariate analysis, we found that multiple-station N2 disease and an advanced T stage (> or =T3) significantly reduced the OS and DFS. Seventy one patients (63.4%) had recurrence of disease. The patterns of failure were loco-regional in 23 (20.5%) patients, distant failure in 62 (55.4%) and combined loco-regional and distant failure in 14 (12.5%) patients. CONCLUSION: Multiple involvement of mediastinal nodal stations for the pN2 NSCLC patients with PORT was a poor prognostic factor in this study. A prospective study is necessary to evaluate the N2 subclassification and to optimize the adjuvant treatment.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Mastectomy, Segmental , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonectomy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 719-722, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-139611

ABSTRACT

Ependymomas usually develop from neuroectodermal organs. Here, we present an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity. A 27-year-old Korean female was admitted to the hospital with a sensation of abdominal fullness. Imaging studies revealed a huge heterogeneous nodular mass in the pelvis and lower abdomen. Laparotomy showed that two large masses with multiple nodules were located between the uterus and rectum and uterus and bladder, respectively. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by compact columnar neoplastic cells divided by fibrovascular septae. The neoplastic cells formed true ependymal rosettes and perivascular pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemical staining showed a strong positive reaction for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin and a partial positive reaction for S100 and EMA. The tumor was thus diagnosed as an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity. The patient was treated with a debulking operation and chemotherapy based upon the in vitro chemosensitivity test results. The patient was free of cancer for 4 years following surgery. This is a rare case of extraneural ependymoma for which an in vitro chemosensitivity test was critical in determining the multidisciplinary approach for treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ependymoma/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Pelvic Neoplasms/drug therapy
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