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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919202

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypoxemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) leads to reduced ability to exercise, decreased quality of life, and, eventually, increased mortality. Home oxygen therapy in patients with severe COPD reduces distress symptoms and mortality rates. However, there have been few studies on physicians’ prescription behavior toward home oxygen therapy. Therefore, we investigated the respiratory specialists’ perspective on home oxygen therapy. @*Methods@#In this cross-sectional, study, a questionnaire was completed by 30 pulmonary specialists who worked in tertiary hospitals and prescribed home oxygen therapy. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items, including 15 items on oxygen prescription for outpatients, four for inpatients, and nine on service improvement. @*Results@#All physicians were prescribing less than 2 L/min of oxygen for either 24 (n = 10, 33.3%) or 15 hours (n = 9, 30.3%). All (n = 30) used pulse oximetry, 26 (86.7%) analyzed arterial blood gas. Thirteen physicians had imposed restrictions and recommended oxygen use only during exercise or sleep. Sixteen (53.3%) physicians were educating their patients about home oxygen therapy. Furthermore, physicians prescribed home oxygen to patients that did not fit the typical criteria for longterm oxygen therapy, with 30 prescribing it for acute relief and 17 for patients with borderline hypoxemia. @*Conclusions@#This study identified the prescription pattern of home oxygen therapy in Korea. Respiratory physicians prescribe home oxygen therapy to hypoxemic COPD patients for at least 15 hours/day, and at a rate of less than 2 L/min. More research is needed to provide evidence for establishing policies on oxygen therapy in COPD patients.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915513

ABSTRACT

Background@#Some reports have suggested that the clinical and economic burdens of asthma are associated with blood eosinophil levels. The association between clinical burden and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in a Korean adult asthma cohort. @*Methods@#Clinical information including blood eosinophil counts that were not affected by systemic corticosteroids were extracted from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea database. Clinical burden was defined as 1) asthma control status, 2) medication demand and 3) acute exacerbation (AE) events during 1 consecutive year after enrollment. All patients were divided into atopic and non-atopic asthmatics. The associations between asthma outcomes and the blood eosinophil count were evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 302 patients (124 atopic and 178 non-atopic asthmatics) were enrolled. In all asthmatics, the risk of severe AE was higher in patients with blood eosinophil levels < 100 cells/µL than in patients with levels ≥ 100 cells/µL (odds ratio [OR], 5.406; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.266–23.078; adjusted P = 0.023). Among atopic asthmatics, the risk of moderate AE was higher in patients with blood eosinophil levels ≥ 300 cells/µL than in patients with levels < 300 cells/µL (OR, 3.558; 95% CI, 1.083–11.686; adjusted P = 0.036). Among non-atopic asthmatics, the risk of medication of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) steps 4 or 5 was higher in patients with high blood eosinophil levels than in patients with low blood eosinophil levels at cutoffs of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cells/µL. @*Conclusion@#The baseline blood eosinophil count may predict the future clinical burden of asthma.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904172

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903721

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Studies on the effectiveness of public health measures to prevent respiratory virus transmission in real-world settings are lacking. We investigated the effectiveness of universal mask use and adherence to other personal preventive measures on the changing viral respiratory infection patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#Data were extracted from the South Korean National Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional survey on adherence to personal preventive measures was conducted. Additionally, the number of subway passengers was analyzed to estimate physical distancing compliance. @*Results@#During the pandemic, adherence to personal preventive measures significantly increased, particularly indoors and on public transportation. Respiratory virus trends were compared based on laboratory surveillance data of 47,675 patients with acute respiratory infections (2016 to 2020). The 2019 to 2020 influenza epidemic ended within 3 weeks, from the epidemic peak to the epidemic end, quickly ending the inf luenza season; with a 1.8- to 2.5-fold faster decline than in previous seasons. Previously, the overall respiratory virus positivity rate remained high after the influenza seasons had ended (47.7% to 69.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this positive rate, 26.5%, was significantly lower than those in previous years. Hospital-based surveillance showed a decreased number of hospitalized patients with acute viral respiratory illnesses. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that high compliance to the use of personal preventive measures in public might reduce the incidence of all respiratory virus infections and its hospitalization rates, with no additional quarantine, isolation, or contact screening.

5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 328-336, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902247

ABSTRACT

Drug allergies encompass a spectrum of immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with various mechanisms and clinical presentations. β-lactam drugs are common causes of drug allergies. A detailed clinical history as well as skin and drug provocation tests, are essential to diagnose drug allergies. The key to successful treatment is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug, and replacing it with a safe alternative. Cross-reactivities among β-lactam antibiotics should be considered when choosing alternative medications. Proper management of β-lactam allergies is important at the individual and population levels, to reduce the likelihood of drug allergies and prevent antibiotic-related adverse outcomes.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896468

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896017

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Studies on the effectiveness of public health measures to prevent respiratory virus transmission in real-world settings are lacking. We investigated the effectiveness of universal mask use and adherence to other personal preventive measures on the changing viral respiratory infection patterns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#Data were extracted from the South Korean National Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System. During the COVID-19 pandemic, a cross-sectional survey on adherence to personal preventive measures was conducted. Additionally, the number of subway passengers was analyzed to estimate physical distancing compliance. @*Results@#During the pandemic, adherence to personal preventive measures significantly increased, particularly indoors and on public transportation. Respiratory virus trends were compared based on laboratory surveillance data of 47,675 patients with acute respiratory infections (2016 to 2020). The 2019 to 2020 influenza epidemic ended within 3 weeks, from the epidemic peak to the epidemic end, quickly ending the inf luenza season; with a 1.8- to 2.5-fold faster decline than in previous seasons. Previously, the overall respiratory virus positivity rate remained high after the influenza seasons had ended (47.7% to 69.9%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this positive rate, 26.5%, was significantly lower than those in previous years. Hospital-based surveillance showed a decreased number of hospitalized patients with acute viral respiratory illnesses. @*Conclusions@#This study suggests that high compliance to the use of personal preventive measures in public might reduce the incidence of all respiratory virus infections and its hospitalization rates, with no additional quarantine, isolation, or contact screening.

8.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 328-336, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894543

ABSTRACT

Drug allergies encompass a spectrum of immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with various mechanisms and clinical presentations. β-lactam drugs are common causes of drug allergies. A detailed clinical history as well as skin and drug provocation tests, are essential to diagnose drug allergies. The key to successful treatment is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug, and replacing it with a safe alternative. Cross-reactivities among β-lactam antibiotics should be considered when choosing alternative medications. Proper management of β-lactam allergies is important at the individual and population levels, to reduce the likelihood of drug allergies and prevent antibiotic-related adverse outcomes.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875279

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Iterative reconstruction degrades image quality. Thus, further advances in image reconstruction are necessary to overcome some limitations of this technique in low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scan of the chest. Deep-learning image reconstruction (DLIR) is a new method used to reduce dose while maintaining image quality. The purposes of this study was to evaluate image quality and noise of LDCT scan images reconstructed with DLIR and compare with those of images reconstructed with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-Veo at a level of 30% (ASiR-V 30%). @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included 58 patients who underwent LDCT scan for lung cancer screening.Datasets were reconstructed with ASiR-V 30% and DLIR at medium and high levels (DLIR-M and DLIR-H, respectively). The objective image signal and noise, which represented mean attenuation value and standard deviation in Hounsfield units for the lungs, mediastinum, liver, and background air, and subjective image contrast, image noise, and conspicuity of structures were evaluated. The differences between CT scan images subjected to ASiR-V 30%, DLIR-M, and DLIR-H were evaluated. @*Results@#Based on the objective analysis, the image signals did not significantly differ among ASiR-V 30%, DLIR-M, and DLIR-H (p = 0.949, 0.737, 0.366, and 0.358 in the lungs, mediastinum, liver, and background air, respectively). However, the noise was significantly lower in DLIR-M and DLIR-H than in ASiR-V 30% (all p < 0.001). DLIR had higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than ASiR-V 30% (p = 0.027, < 0.001, and < 0.001 in the SNR of the lungs, mediastinum, and liver, respectively; all p < 0.001 in the CNR). According to the subjective analysis, DLIR had higher image contrast and lower image noise than ASiR-V 30% (all p < 0.001). DLIR was superior to ASiR-V 30% in identifying the pulmonary arteries and veins, trachea and bronchi, lymph nodes, and pleura and pericardium (all p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#DLIR significantly reduced the image noise in chest LDCT scan images compared with ASiR-V 30% while maintaining superior image quality.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Long-term oxygen therapy provides various benefits, including prolonged survival for severely hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, adequate management strategies for home oxygen therapy are not well established in Korea. This study aimed to explore the current situation of home oxygen therapy to provide basic data for developing a strategy for COPD patients on home oxygen therapy.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled COPD patients using home oxygen therapy for at least 1 month. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, guided by a structured questionnaire about home oxygen therapy.@*RESULTS@#A total of 195 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 72.6 ± 9.7 years, and 76.4% of patients were men. The mean modified Medical Research Council, COPD Assessment Test, and EuroQol-5D index scores were 3.4 ± 0.8, 29.7 ± 6.8, and 0.35 ± 0.44, respectively. At rest, patients were prescribed oxygen for 12.5 ± 7.3 hr/day and used 12.9 ± 8.5 hr/day on average. During exercise, the mean duration of prescribed oxygen was 6.6 ± 4.3 hr/day, and the actual use was 1.1 ± 2.9 hr/day. A total of 25.6% of patients used ambulatory oxygen; with financial burden the main reason for nonuse. The mean number of hospitalizations and emergency room visits were 2.5 and 2.6, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#This study revealed low adherence to home oxygen therapy, poor health-related quality of life, frequent hospitalizations, and a high financial burden among COPD patients using home oxygen therapy. The study highlights the need for adequate strategies to improve the quality of home oxygen therapy.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896615

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896607

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Cold air is a major environmental factor that exacerbates asthma. Transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) is a cold-sensing channel expressed in the airway epithelium. However, its role in airway inflammation remains unknown. We investigated the role of TRPM8 in innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells and asthmatic subjects. @*Methods@#The TRPM8 mRNA and protein expression on BEAS2B human bronchial epithelial cells was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-25 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels before and after menthol, dexamethasone and N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide (BCTC) treatments were measured via real-time PCR. TRPM8 protein levels in the supernatants of induced sputum from asthmatic subjects and normal control subjects were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mRNA levels in sputum cell lysates were measured using real-time PCR. @*Results@#Treatment with up to 2 mM menthol dose-dependently increased TRPM8 mRNA and protein in BEAS2B cells compared to untreated cells (P < 0.001) and concomitantly increased IL-25 and TSLP mRNA (P < 0.05), but not IL-33 mRNA. BCTC (10 μM) significantly abolished menthol-induced up-regulation of TRPM8 mRNA and protein and IL-25 and TSLP mRNA (P < 0.01). TRPM8 protein levels were higher in the supernatants of induced sputum from asthmatic subjects (n = 107) than in those from healthy controls (n = 19) (P < 0.001), and IL-25, TSLP and IL-33 mRNA levels were concomitantly increased (P < 0.001). Additionally, TRPM8 mRNA levels correlated strongly with those of IL-25 and TSLP (P < 0.001), and TRPM8 protein levels were significantly higher in bronchodilator-responsive asthmatic subjects than in nonresponders. @*Conclusions@#TRPM8 may be involved in the airway epithelial cell innate immune response and a molecular target for the treatment of asthma.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Long-term oxygen therapy provides various benefits, including prolonged survival for severely hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, adequate management strategies for home oxygen therapy are not well established in Korea. This study aimed to explore the current situation of home oxygen therapy to provide basic data for developing a strategy for COPD patients on home oxygen therapy.@*METHODS@#In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled COPD patients using home oxygen therapy for at least 1 month. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, guided by a structured questionnaire about home oxygen therapy.@*RESULTS@#A total of 195 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 72.6 ± 9.7 years, and 76.4% of patients were men. The mean modified Medical Research Council, COPD Assessment Test, and EuroQol-5D index scores were 3.4 ± 0.8, 29.7 ± 6.8, and 0.35 ± 0.44, respectively. At rest, patients were prescribed oxygen for 12.5 ± 7.3 hr/day and used 12.9 ± 8.5 hr/day on average. During exercise, the mean duration of prescribed oxygen was 6.6 ± 4.3 hr/day, and the actual use was 1.1 ± 2.9 hr/day. A total of 25.6% of patients used ambulatory oxygen; with financial burden the main reason for nonuse. The mean number of hospitalizations and emergency room visits were 2.5 and 2.6, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#This study revealed low adherence to home oxygen therapy, poor health-related quality of life, frequent hospitalizations, and a high financial burden among COPD patients using home oxygen therapy. The study highlights the need for adequate strategies to improve the quality of home oxygen therapy.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913265

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a scleroderma-like immune-allergic disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. This rare disease is characterized by the progressive induration of the skin and soft tissue, and peripheral eosinophilia. Here, we report a case of EF. A 21-year-old female was referred due to edema in the upper and lower extremities for 1 month. Laboratory results were unremarkable except for severe eosinophilia. Parasite infestation, venous thrombosis, and cardiac and renal problems were excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging of both the lower extremities revealed symmetrical thickening and contrast enhancement of crural fascia with adjacent subcutaneous fat infiltration. A full-thickness biopsy at the lower extremity showed infiltration of the fascia by eosinophils, plasma cells, and lymphocytes with marked edema. Thus, this patient was confirmed to have EF and she was treated with systemic corticosteroids, resulting in a remarkable improvement in both edema and eosinophilia.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811063

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anaphylaxis is an immediate allergic reaction characterized by potentially life-threatening, severe, systemic manifestations. While studies have evaluated links between serious illness and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few have investigated PTSD after anaphylaxis in adults. We sought to investigate the psychosocial burden of recent anaphylaxis in Korean adults.METHODS: A total of 203 (mean age of 44 years, 120 females) patients with anaphylaxis were recruited from 15 university hospitals in Korea. Questionnaires, including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-Korean version (IES-R-K), the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), and the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI), were administered. Demographic characteristics, causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis, and serum inflammatory markers, including tryptase, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein, were evaluated.RESULTS: PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 25) was noted in 84 (41.4%) patients with anaphylaxis. Of them, 56.0% had severe PTSD (IES-R-K ≥ 40). Additionally, 23.2% and 28.1% of the patients had anxiety (K-BAI ≥ 22) and depression (K-BDI ≥ 17), respectively. IES-R-K was significantly correlated with both K-BAI (r = 0.609, P < 0.0001) and K-BDI (r = 0.550, P < 0.0001). Among the inflammatory mediators, tryptase levels were lower in patients exhibiting PTSD; meanwhile, platelet-activating factor levels were lower in patients exhibiting anxiety and depression while recovering from anaphylaxis. In multivariate analysis, K-BAI and K-BDI were identified as major predictive variables of PTSD in patients with anaphylaxis.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with anaphylaxis, we found a remarkably high prevalence of PTSD and associated psychological distresses, including anxiety and depression. Physicians ought to be aware of the potential for psychological distress in anaphylactic patients and to consider psychological evaluation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anaphylaxis , Anxiety , C-Reactive Protein , Depression , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Necrosis , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Tryptases
16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832860

ABSTRACT

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is now considered a subtype of squamous cell carcinoma as per the 2015 WHO classification and remains a relatively unknown type of lung cancer due to its rarity. Here we report two cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and their CT findings to clarify some of the radiologic features of this type of cancer. Two patients aged 85 and 68 years with lung basaloid squamous cell carcinoma visited our institution and underwent surgical resection. On CT, the lesions were 3.1 and 2.8 cm in size, respectively, well-defined, round in shape with lobulated margins and prominent intratumoral necrosis. The latter case was followed after operation for 20 months, and there was no recurrence of the disease on CT. Although very rare, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma should be considered a subtype of lung cancer in tumors sharing these CT findings.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888911

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888903

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Cold air is a major environmental factor that exacerbates asthma. Transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) is a cold-sensing channel expressed in the airway epithelium. However, its role in airway inflammation remains unknown. We investigated the role of TRPM8 in innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells and asthmatic subjects. @*Methods@#The TRPM8 mRNA and protein expression on BEAS2B human bronchial epithelial cells was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-25 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) levels before and after menthol, dexamethasone and N-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide (BCTC) treatments were measured via real-time PCR. TRPM8 protein levels in the supernatants of induced sputum from asthmatic subjects and normal control subjects were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mRNA levels in sputum cell lysates were measured using real-time PCR. @*Results@#Treatment with up to 2 mM menthol dose-dependently increased TRPM8 mRNA and protein in BEAS2B cells compared to untreated cells (P < 0.001) and concomitantly increased IL-25 and TSLP mRNA (P < 0.05), but not IL-33 mRNA. BCTC (10 μM) significantly abolished menthol-induced up-regulation of TRPM8 mRNA and protein and IL-25 and TSLP mRNA (P < 0.01). TRPM8 protein levels were higher in the supernatants of induced sputum from asthmatic subjects (n = 107) than in those from healthy controls (n = 19) (P < 0.001), and IL-25, TSLP and IL-33 mRNA levels were concomitantly increased (P < 0.001). Additionally, TRPM8 mRNA levels correlated strongly with those of IL-25 and TSLP (P < 0.001), and TRPM8 protein levels were significantly higher in bronchodilator-responsive asthmatic subjects than in nonresponders. @*Conclusions@#TRPM8 may be involved in the airway epithelial cell innate immune response and a molecular target for the treatment of asthma.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although mild to moderate asthma is much more common, the morbidity and mortality of severe asthma are much higher. This study was performed to identify and analyze the clinical characteristics of severe asthma in Korea. METHODS: We registered patients with severe refractory asthma into the Severe Asthma Registry supported by the Severe Asthma Work Group of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Patients were enrolled since 2010 from the 15 university hospitals nationwide in Korea. Severe asthma was defined according to modified European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society criteria. Information on demographics, medical history, pulmonary function tests and skin prick tests was collected; the clinical characteristics of severe asthmatics were analyzed from the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 489 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 62.3; 45% are male. Sixty percent of patients received Global Initiative for Asthma step 4 treatment, and 30% received step 5 treatment. The most common comorbidities were allergic rhinitis (58.7%). Aspirin hypersensitivity was observed in 14.0%. Approximately half (53.9%) are non-smokers. Atopy was proven in 38.5% of the patients. Regarding asthma medications, inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonist combination inhalers were most commonly prescribed (96.5%), followed by leukotriene antagonists (71.0%). A recombinant anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) has been used in 1.8% of the patients. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC were 78.7%, 67.5% and 67.9% of predicted values, respectively. The mean Asthma Control Test and quality of life questionnaire scores were 16.5 out of 25 and 59.5 out of 85, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The baseline characteristics of severe asthma patients in the Korea Severe Asthma Registry were analyzed and reported for the first time. With this cohort, further prospective studies should be performed to search for ways to improve management of severe refractory asthma.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Allergy and Immunology , Aspirin , Asthma , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Demography , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Leukotriene Antagonists , Male , Mortality , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Vital Capacity
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