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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 100-107, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833101

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation mainly in the large intestine. The interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 KO) mouse is a well-known animal model of IBD that develops spontaneous intestinal inflammation resembling Crohn’s disease. Oxidative stress is considered to be the leading cause of cell and tissue damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause direct cell injury and/or indirect cell injury by inducing the secretion of cytokines from damaged cells. This study evaluated the effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) on the progression of IBD. @*Methods@#In this study, human bone marrow-derived MSCs were injected into IL-10 KO mice (MSC). Oxidative stress and inflammation levels were evaluated in the large intestine and compared with those in control IL-10 KO mice (CON) and normal wild-type control mice (Wild). @*Results@#The levels of ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxidase) and a secondary end-product of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) were considerably higher in the CON, while superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were lower in the MSC. Inflammation-related marker (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-4, and CD8) expression and inflammatory histological changes were much less pronounced in MSC than in CON. @*Conclusions@#MSCs affect the redox balance, leading to the suppression of IBD.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831094

ABSTRACT

Government healthcare expenditure is rising in Korea, and the costs incurred by patients in Korea exceed those incurred by patients in other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Despite the increasing health expenditure, patient demand for services is increasing as well, so it is now becoming recognized that cancer care needs to be balanced. The most important measure in cancer care optimization is to provide high-quality care while keeping costs sustainable. The Korean Cancer Association considers the current situation of cancer therapy in Korea the foremost issue, which has led to the implementation of the nationwide ‘Right Decisions in Cancer Care’ initiative. This initiative is based on the concepts of medical professionalism in that it should be led by physicians working in the field of oncology, that education should be offered to patients and clinicians, and that it should influence healthcare policy. In this article, we introduce the nationwide ‘Right Decision in Cancer Care’ initiative and highlight the five initial items on its agenda. The agenda is open to expansion and update as the medical environment evolves and additional clinical evidence becomes available.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831058

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#High rate of false-positive tests is a major obstacle to use human papillomavirus (HPV) detectionas a diagnostic tool for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer(HSIL+). We investigated whether type-specific viral load or physical state of HPV 16, 18,and 58 are useful biomarkers for HSIL+. @*Materials and Methods@#Type-specific viral loads of E6 and E2 genes in cervical cells from 240, 83, and 79 HPV 16–,18–, and 58–infected women, respectively, were determined using real-time polymerasechain reaction. Viral loads were normalized to cellular DNA (copy/cell). Total and integratedviral loads and physical state were compared between HSIL+ and controls, and diagnosticvalue was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. @*Results@#Viral loads of HPV 16, 18, and 58 were significantly different in lesions in the same pathologicgrade. High type-specific total viral loads were significantly associated with HSIL+ (oddsratio [OR], 14.065, 39.472, and 7.103 for HPV 16, 18, and 58, respectively). High integratedviral load was related to HSIL+ in women with HPV 16 (OR, 8.242), and integrated statewas associated with HSIL+ in women with HPV 18 (OR, 9.443). Type-specific total viral loadwas significantly associated with HSIL+ (area under curve, 0.914, 0.937, and 0.971 forHPV 16, 18, and 58, respectively), indicating an excellent performance in detecting HSIL+. @*Conclusion@#Type-specific total viral load may be a powerful diagnostic marker for HSIL+ in HPV 16–,18–, and 58–infected HSIL+ lesions. If demonstrated in all other high-risk HPV types, thismethod can lead to a paradigm shift in the strategy of equivocal cytologic abnormalities.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770040

ABSTRACT

Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) can occur naturally or traumatically and is most common in patients with an underlying disease of the vascular structure or coagulation disorder. Most SEHs occur naturally for no apparent reason, and epidural hematoma caused by trauma is less common, comprising 1.0%–1.7% of total spinal injuries. Few reports of SEH induced cauda equine syndrome resulting from low-energy injury caused by osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are available. The authors experienced a case of delayed SEH after hemorrhage due to a low-energy injury in an elderly patient. No cases in Korea have been reported; therefore, this case is reported with a review of the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Aged , Allografts , Arthroplasty , Fractures, Compression , Hematoma , Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal , Hemorrhage , Humans , Humerus , Korea , Spinal Injuries
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766883

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and complications of scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) and retropupillary fixation of iris claw IOL for dislocated IOL or aphakia without sufficient capsular support. METHODS: This retrospective study was comprised of 17 eyes of 16 patients undergoing scleral fixation and 14 eyes of 13 patients undergoing retropupillary fixation from August 2013 to June 2018. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit lamp examination, corneal topography, refractive indices, corneal curvatures, corneal endothelial cell density, and complications of both groups were examined preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Six months after the operation, UCVA and BCVA improved in both groups; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups (UCVA, p = 0.162; BCVA, p = 0.418). IOP was temporarily higher in the scleral fixation group at one day postoperatively (p = 0.023). The mean absolute prediction error was smaller in the retropupillary iris fixation group at 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.034). Postoperative total astigmatism, corneal astigmatism, and corneal endothelial cell density were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The retropupillary iris fixation group did not show significant improvement in visual acuity compared with the scleral fixation group. However, the retropupillary iris fixation group provided better mean absolute prediction error and a low risk of postoperative increase in IOP compared with the scleral fixation group. Retropupillary fixation of iris claw IOL is a promising option for scleral fixation of posterior chamber IOL for dislocated IOL or aphakia without sufficient capsular support.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aphakia , Astigmatism , Corneal Topography , Endothelial Cells , Hoof and Claw , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Iris , Lenses, Intraocular , Refractometry , Retrospective Studies , Slit Lamp , Visual Acuity
6.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 87-89, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738809

ABSTRACT

The medial and lateral plantar nerves are branched from the tibial nerve and move to the tip of the toes. A variation of medial plantar nerve was found on the left side of a 78-year-old Korean male cadaver. The tibial nerve was divided into the lateral and medial plantar nerves beneath the plantar flexor. The medial plantar nerve passed deep to plantar aponeurosis and superficial to the flexor digitorum brevis. It gave off a common plantar digital nerve and then divided into three proper plantar digital nerves near the metatarsal bases. In this article, we report a superficial course of the medial plantar nerve and describe its unique morphology and discuss the clinical significance of this variation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cadaver , Humans , Male , Metatarsal Bones , Tibial Nerve , Toes
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcomes and complications of proton beam therapy (PBT) in a single institution in Korea and quantitatively analyzed the change in tumor volume after PBT using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four treatment-naïve patients who underwent PBT for choroidal melanoma between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. Dose fractionation was 60-70 cobalt gray equivalents over 5 fractions. Orbital MRIs were taken at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after PBT and annually thereafter. The tumor volume was reconstructed and evaluated by stacking the tumor boundary in each thin-sliced axial T1-weighted image using MIM software. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 36.5 months (range, 9 to 82 months). One patient had suspicious local progression and two patients had distant metastasis. The 3-year local progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rates were 95.8%, 95.8%, and 100%,respectively. Five Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event ver. 4.03 grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in four patients (16.7%), including one with neovascular glaucoma. The mean tumor volume at the baseline MRI was 0.565±0.084 mL (range, 0.074 to 1.610 mL), and the ratios of the mean volume at 3, 6, and 12 months to that at baseline were 81.8%, 67.3%, and 60.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The local controlrate and complication profile after PBT in patientswith choroidal melanoma in Korea were comparable with those reported in a previous PBT series. The change in tumor volume after PBT exhibited a gradual regression pattern on MRI.


Subject(s)
Choroid , Cobalt , Disease-Free Survival , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma, Neovascular , Humans , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Melanoma , Neoplasm Metastasis , Orbit , Proton Therapy , Protons , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716732

ABSTRACT

Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis is a kind of sensitive mutation detection method that has been usually used in field of medical genetics. A single DNA strand with a mutation or nucleotide polymorphism has a different conformation from its wild-type counterpart, and these conformational differences result in different electrophoretic mobility. In previous study of mitochondrial microsatellite instability in 50 uterine leiomyomas, PCR-SSCP showed 4 types of band mobility at (CA)n of the mitochondrial D-loop. In type 1 and 4, positions of the lower single stand of both were same but those of upper strand were different. In sequencing analysis, repeat number of (CA)n in type 1 was 4, 5 in type 2, 6 in type 3, and 4 in type 4, respectively. Without using expensive sequencing analysis, PCR-SSCP method can be used to detect the repeat number of (CA)n in mitochondrial D-loop.


Subject(s)
DNA , Genetics, Medical , Leiomyoma , Methods , Microsatellite Instability
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a crucial regulator of human pregnancy and parturition. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are important for regulating myometrial quiescence during pregnancy. We investigated regulatory effects of different concentrations of CRH on KATP channel expression in human myometrial smooth muscle cells (HSMCs) in in vitro conditions. METHODS: After treating HSMCs with different concentrations of CRH (1, 10, 102, 103, 104 pmol/L), mRNA and protein expression of KATP channel subunits (Kir6.1 and SUR2B) was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. We investigated which CRH receptor was involved in the reaction and measured the effects of CRH on intracellular Ca2+ concentration when oxytocin was administered in HSMCs using Fluo-8 AM ester. RESULTS: When HSMCs were treated with low (1 pmol/L) and high (103, 104 pmol/L) CRH concentrations, KATP channel expression significantly increased and decreased, respectively. SUR2B mRNA expression at low and high CRH concentrations was significantly antagonized by antalarmin (CRH receptor-1 antagonist) and astressin 2b (CRH receptor-2 antagonist), respectively; however, Kir6.1 mRNA expression was not affected. After oxytocin treatment, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in CRH-treated HSMCs was significantly lowered in low concentration of CRH (1 pmol/L), but not in high concentration of CRH (103 pmol/L), compared to control. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated the regulatory effect was different when HSMCs were treated with low (early pregnancy-like) and high (labor-like) CRH concentrations and the KATP channel expression showed significant increase and decrease. This could cause inhibition and activation, respectively, of uterine muscle contraction, demonstrating opposite dual actions of CRH.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adenosine , Animals , Blotting, Western , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , KATP Channels , Mice , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Myometrium , Oxytocin , Parturition , Potassium Channels , Potassium , Pregnancy , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , RNA, Messenger
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741159

ABSTRACT

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the gallbladder is extremely rare and usually combined with other type of malignancy, mostly adenocarcinoma. We report an unusual case of combined adenosquamous carcinoma and LCNEC of the gallbladder in a 54-year-old woman. A radical cholecystectomy specimen revealed a 4.3×4.0 cm polypoid mass in the fundus with infiltration of adjacent liver parenchyma. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of two distinct components. Adenosquamous carcinoma was predominant and abrupt transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma was observed. LCNEC showed round cells with large, vesicular nuclei, abundant mitotic figures, and occasional pseudorosette formation. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. However, multiple liver metastases were identified at 3-month follow-up. Metastatic nodules were composed of LCNEC and squamous cell carcinoma components. Detecting LCNEC component is important in gallbladder cancer, because the tumor may require a different chemotherapy regimen and show early metastasis and poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Adenosquamous , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cholecystectomy , Drug Therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Gallbladder , Humans , Liver , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis
12.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 182-191, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical outcome of proton therapy (PT) in patients with chordoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with chordoma treated with PT between June 2007 and December 2015 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. The median total dose was 69.6 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE; range, 64.8 to 79.2 CGE). Local progression-free survival (LPFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and diseasespecific survival (DSS) rates were calculated by the Kaplan–Meier method. RESULTS: With the median follow-up of 42.8 months (range, 4 to 174 months), the 5-year LPFS, DMFS, OS, and DSS rates were 87.9%, 86.7%, 88.3%, and 92.9%, respectively. The tumor location was associated with the patterns of failure: the LPFS rates were lower for cervical tumors (57.1%) than for non-cervical tumors (93.1%) (p = 0.02), and the DMFS rates were lower for sacral tumors (53.5%) than for non-sacral tumors (100%) (p = 0.001). The total dose was associated with both the LPFS rate and DMFS rate. The initial tumor size was associated with the DMFS rate, but was not associated with the LPFS rate. Three patients had grade 3 late toxicity with none ≥grade 4. CONCLUSION: PT is an effective and safe treatment in patients with chordomas. The tumor location was associated with the patterns of failure: local failure was common in cervical tumors, and distant failure was common in sacral tumors. Further refinement of PT, such as the utilization of intensity modulated PT for cervical tumors, is warranted to improve the outcome.


Subject(s)
Chordoma , Cobalt , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Methods , Proton Therapy , Protons , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714536

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Noninvasive precursor lesions for pancreatic adenocarcinoma include pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and mucinous cystic neoplasm. PanIN is often found synchronously adjacent to resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumors. However, its prognostic significance on outcome after PDAC resection is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the presence of PanIN has a prognostic or predictive effect on survival after resection for PDAC with curative intent. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic data of patients who underwent pancreatectomy for PDAC from January 2002 to January 2013. Intraductal papillary mucinous lesions and mucinous cystic neoplasms were excluded. All available postoperative imaging and clinical follow-up data were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 95 patients who underwent pancreatectomy. Tumors were most commonly located in the pancreas head and as such pancreaticoduodenectomy was the most commonly performed operation. The median tumor size was 3.2 cm. An absence of PanIN lesions was identified in 39 patients (41%). Of the patients with PanIN lesions, high-grade PanIN (grade 3) was the most common type (64.3%) followed by grade 2 (28.6%). There was no significant difference in overall survival or disease-free survival between the non-PanIN and PanIN groups. CONCLUSION: The presence or absence of PanIN lesions did not affect survival in patients undergoing resection for pancreatic cancer. However, patients with high-grade PanINs tended to have better overall survival. Larger studies with longer follow up are needed to accurately determine its clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma in Situ , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Humans , Mucins , Pancreas , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158432

ABSTRACT

Recently, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been suggested to contribute to physiopathology and therapeutic effects. Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (BLT2), a member of the GPCR family, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including cancer and asthma. However, no studies on BLT2 SNP effects have been reported to date. In this study, we demonstrate that the BLT2 SNP (rs1950504, Asp196Gly), a Gly-196 variant of BLT2 (BLT2 D196G), causes enhanced cell motility under low-dose stimulation of its ligands. In addition, we demonstrated that Akt activation and subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both of which act downstream of BLT2, are also increased by BLT2 D196G in response to low-dose ligand stimulation. Furthermore, we observed that the ligand binding affinity of BLT2 D196G was enhanced compared with that of BLT2. Through homology modeling analysis, it was predicted that BLT2 D196G loses ionic interaction with R197, potentially resulting in increased agonist-receptor interaction. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe a SNP study on BLT2 and shows that BLT2 D196G enhances ligand sensitivity, thereby increasing cell motility in response to low-dose ligand stimulation.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Cell Movement , Humans , Ligands , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Receptors, Leukotriene B4 , Therapeutic Uses
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160276

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the neurocognitive functioning of children with intracranial germ cell tumor (IGCT) prior to receiving proton beam therapy (PBT), and to identify differential characteristics of their neurocognitive functioning depending on tumor location. As a secondary object of this study, neurocognitive functions were followed up at 1-2 years after PBT to examine early post-treatment changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2014, 34 childrenwith IGCT treatedwho received PBT atNational Cancer Center, Korea were enrolled in this study. Standardized neurocognitive tests of intelligence, memory, and executive functioning were performed with baseline psychological assessments using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Follow-up assessments after PBT were conducted in 20 patients (T2). The results were analyzed based on the locations of tumors, which included the suprasellar, pineal gland, basal ganglia, and bifocal regions. RESULTS: The neurocognitive function of IGCT patients was significantly lower than that of the normal population in performance intelligence quotient (p=0.041), processing speed (p=0.007), memory (p < 0.001), and executive functioning (p=0.010). Patients with basal ganglia tumors had significantly lower scores for most domains of neurocognitive functioning and higher scores for CBCL than both the normal population and patients with IGCT in other locations. There was no significant change in neurocognitive function between T1 and T2 for all types of IGCT patients in first 1-2 years after PBT. CONCLUSION: Tumor location significantly affects the neuropsychological functioning in patients with IGCT. Neuropsychological functioning should be closely monitored from the time of diagnosis in IGCT patients.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia , Brain Neoplasms , Checklist , Child Behavior , Child , Cognition , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Germ Cells , Humans , Intelligence , Korea , Memory , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Pineal Gland , Proton Therapy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Duodenitis is not infrequent finding in patient undergoing endoscopy. However, hospitalized patients have a higher incidence of secondary duodenal mucosal lesions that might be related with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, tuberculosis, immunologic disorders, or other rare infections. We aimed to identify clinicopathologic features of duodenal mucosal lesions in hospitalized patients. METHODS: All hospitalized patients having duodenal mucosal lesions were identified by endoscopic registration data and pathologic data query from 2011 to 2014. The diagnostic index was designed to be sensitive; however, a detailed review of medical record and endoscopic findings was undertaken to improve specificity. Secondary duodenal lesion was defined as having specific reason to explain the duodenal lesion. RESULTS: Among 6,334 hospitalized patients have undergone upper endoscopy, endoscopic duodenal mucosal lesions was detected in 475 patients. Secondary duodenal lesions was 21 patients (4.4%) and the most frequent secondary cause was IBD (n = 7). The mean age of secondary group was significantly lower than that in primary group (42.3 ± 18.9 years vs. 58.5 ± 16.8 years, p = 0.00), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were less frequently used in secondary group, but there was no differences of gender or presence of Helicobacter pylori. The involvement of distal part of duodenum including postbulbitis or panduodenitis was more frequently detected in secondary group than in primary group. By multivariate regression analysis, younger age of 29 years and the disease extent were significant predictors for the secondary mucosal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary duodenal mucosal lesions with different pathophysiology, such as IBD or CMV infection, are rare. Disease extent and age seems the most distinctive feature of secondary duodenal mucosal lesions.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus , Duodenal Ulcer , Duodenitis , Duodenum , Endoscopy , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Medical Records , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis
17.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 94-99, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-156762

ABSTRACT

Liver cancer is more complex to treat compared to cancers in other organs, since liver function should be considered. In addition, only a few patients can be applied curative treatment due to advanced stage at diagnosis. Therefore, early stage detection is important and has been increased through screening and surveillance programs using image modalities recently. However, it is still difficult to diagnose small or hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) even using advanced image modalties. In particular, hypovascular HCCs do not show arterial contrast enhancement which is a typical finding of HCC on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Those also account for a considerable portion of early HCC. We present 54 yearsold man who had recurrent hypervascular and hypovascular nodules on three phase CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. The nodules were removed by surgical resection and confirmed as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma and well differentiated HCC respectively.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cholangiocarcinoma , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Liver , Liver Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mass Screening
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms and there is no well-elucidated biomarker to stratify their detection and prognosis. Previous studies have reported that progesterone receptor (PR) expression status was associated with poorer survival in PanNET patients. METHODS: To validate previous studies, PR protein expression was assessed in 21 neuroendocrine microadenomas and 277 PanNETs and compared with clinicopathologic factors including patient survival. RESULTS: PR expression was gradually decreased from normal islets (49/49 cases, 100%) to neuroendocrine microadenoma (14/21, 66.6%) to PanNETs (60/277, 21.3%; p < .001). PanNETs with loss of PR expression were associated with increased tumor size (p < .001), World Health Organization grade (p = .001), pT classification (p < .001), perineural invasion (p = .028), lymph node metastasis (p = .004), activation of alternative lengthening of telomeres (p = .005), other peptide hormonal expression (p < .001) and ATRX/DAXX expression (p = .015). PanNET patients with loss of PR expression (5-year survival rate, 64.1%) had significantly poorer recurrence-free survival outcomes than those with intact PR expression (90%) by univariate (p = .012) but not multivariate analyses. Similarly, PanNET patients with PR expression loss (5-year survival rate, 76%) had significantly poorer overall survival by univariate (p = .015) but not multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of PR expression was noted in neuroendocrine microadenomas and was observed in the majority of PanNETs. This was associated with increased grade, tumor size, and advanced pT and pN classification; and was correlated with decreased patient survival time by univariate but not multivariate analyses. Loss of PR expression can provide additional information on shorter disease-free survival in PanNET patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Classification , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Progesterone , Prognosis , Receptors, Progesterone , Survival Rate , Telomere , World Health Organization
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184069

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the most efficient method for infectious disease prevention. Parenteral injections such as intramuscular, intradermal, and subcutaneous injections have several advantages in vaccine delivery, but there are many drawbacks. Thus, the development of a new vaccine delivery system has long been required. Recently, microneedles have been attracting attention as new vaccination tools. Microneedle is a highly effective transdermal vaccine delivery method due to its mechanism of action, painlessness, and ease of use. Here, we summarized the characteristics of microneedles and the possibilities as a new vaccine delivery route.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Injections, Subcutaneous , Methods , Vaccination , Vaccines
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Approximately 10%–15% of the CRC cases have defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Although the high level of microsatellite instability status is a predictor of favorable outcome in primary CRC, little is known about its frequency and importance in secondary CRC. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for MMR proteins (e.g., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) has emerged as a useful technique to complement polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. METHODS: In this study, comparison between the MMR system of primary CRCs and paired liver and lung metastatic lesions was done using IHC and the correlation with clinical outcomes was also examined. RESULTS: Based on IHC, 7/61 primary tumors (11.4%) showed deficient MMR systems, while 13/61 secondary tumors (21.3%) showed deficiencies. In total, 44 cases showed proficient expression in both the primary and metastatic lesions. Three cases showed deficiencies in both the primary and paired metastatic lesions. In 10 cases, proficient expression was found only in the primary lesions, and not in the corresponding metastatic lesions. In four cases, proficient expression was detected in the secondary tumor, but not in the primary tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Although each IHC result and the likely defective genes were not exactly matched between the primary and the metastatic tumors, identical results for primary and metastatic lesions were obtained in 77% of the cases (47/61). These data are in agreement with the previous microsatellite detection studies that used PCR and IHC.

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