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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914203

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication during pregnancy and is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring and maternal complications. For GDM screening and diagnosis, a two-step approach (1-hour 50 g glucose challenge test followed by 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test) has been widely used. After the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study implemented a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in all pregnant women, a one-step approach was recommended as an option for the diagnosis of GDM after 2010. The one-step approach has more than doubled the incidence of GDM, but its clinical benefit in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes remains controversial. Long-term complications of mothers with GDM include type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, and complications of their offspring include childhood obesity and glucose intolerance. The diagnostic criteria of GDM should properly classify women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term complications. The present review summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the one-step and two-step approaches for the diagnosis of GDM based on recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies. We also describe the long-term maternal and offspring complications of GDM.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 433-442, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925026

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#We investigated the effect of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) on future mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a prospective community-based cohort study. @*Methods@#Individuals from two community-based cohorts who were 40 to 70 years old were prospectively followed for 16 years. MAFLD was defined as a high fatty liver index (FLI ≥60) plus one of the following conditions: overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥23 kg/m2), type 2 diabetes mellitus, or ≥2 metabolic risk abnormalities. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was defined as FLI ≥60 without any secondary cause of hepatic steatosis. @*Results@#Among 8,919 subjects (age 52.2±8.9 years, 47.7% of males), 1,509 (16.9%) had MAFLD. During the median follow-up of 15.7 years, MAFLD independently predicted overall mortality after adjustment for confounders (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 1.69) but NAFLD did not (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.53). MAFLD also predicted CVD after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.62), which lost its statistical significance by further adjustments. Stratified analysis indicated that metabolic dysfunction contributed to mortality (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.89) and CVD (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59). Among metabolic dysfunctions used for defining MAFLD, type 2 diabetes mellitus in MAFLD increased the risk of both mortality (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.81) and CVD (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.85). @*Conclusions@#MAFLD independently increased overall mortality. Heterogeneity in mortality and CVD risk of subjects with MAFLD may be determined by the accompanying metabolic dysfunctions.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898116

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined. @*Methods@#The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). @*Results@#BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values. @*Conclusion@#Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.

4.
Blood Research ; : 65-71, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897365

ABSTRACT

Background@#We analyzed cell-free serum Epstein‒Barr virus (EBV) DNA to identify its prognostic role in patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with lymphoma between January 2014 and July 2020. Patients were enrolled according to the following criteria: i) pathologically confirmed lymphomas according to the World Health Organization criteria, ii) age over 18 years, iii) serum EBV DNA measurement using polymerase chain reaction prior to first-line therapy, and iv) receipt of curative standard chemotherapy. In total, 263 patients met these criteria and were included in this study. @*Results@#Serum EBV DNA was detected in 79 patients (30.0%). Patients with positive serum EBV tended to be older (P =0.090), and the proportion of T-cell lineage lymphomas was higher than that of B-cell lymphomas (P =0.003). EBV positivity was significantly associated with more advanced disease based on the Ann Arbor staging system (P =0.008) and the International Prognostic Index (P =0.009). EBV positivity was also associated with higher disease relapse (P =0.038) and death rates (P =0.005). EBV-positive lymphomas further showed inferior long-term survival outcomes in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) (P =0.053) and overall survival (OS) (P =0.014). In the subgroup analyses, serum EBV positivity was a significant prognostic factor for patients with B-cell lineage lymphomas in terms of PFS (P =0.003) and OS (P =0.033). @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated that cell-free serum EBV DNA status at the time of diagnosis has potential as a prognostic biomarker for patients with newly diagnosed malignant lymphomas.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890412

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined. @*Methods@#The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). @*Results@#BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values. @*Conclusion@#Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.

6.
Blood Research ; : 65-71, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889661

ABSTRACT

Background@#We analyzed cell-free serum Epstein‒Barr virus (EBV) DNA to identify its prognostic role in patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with lymphoma between January 2014 and July 2020. Patients were enrolled according to the following criteria: i) pathologically confirmed lymphomas according to the World Health Organization criteria, ii) age over 18 years, iii) serum EBV DNA measurement using polymerase chain reaction prior to first-line therapy, and iv) receipt of curative standard chemotherapy. In total, 263 patients met these criteria and were included in this study. @*Results@#Serum EBV DNA was detected in 79 patients (30.0%). Patients with positive serum EBV tended to be older (P =0.090), and the proportion of T-cell lineage lymphomas was higher than that of B-cell lymphomas (P =0.003). EBV positivity was significantly associated with more advanced disease based on the Ann Arbor staging system (P =0.008) and the International Prognostic Index (P =0.009). EBV positivity was also associated with higher disease relapse (P =0.038) and death rates (P =0.005). EBV-positive lymphomas further showed inferior long-term survival outcomes in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) (P =0.053) and overall survival (OS) (P =0.014). In the subgroup analyses, serum EBV positivity was a significant prognostic factor for patients with B-cell lineage lymphomas in terms of PFS (P =0.003) and OS (P =0.033). @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated that cell-free serum EBV DNA status at the time of diagnosis has potential as a prognostic biomarker for patients with newly diagnosed malignant lymphomas.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919168

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the pediatric-inspired regimen of the adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Working Party, the Korean Society of Hematology. @*Methods@#Data of 99 patients with newly diagnosed ALL, who were treated with the KALLA 1406/1407 protocol, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients equally received age-adjusted daunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone. L-asparaginase was additionally administered to Philadelphia (Ph)-negative patients according to age, whereas Ph-positive patients received 600 mg/day of imatinib. @*Results@#A total of 99 patients were enrolled in this study, of whom 62 (62.6%) were diagnosed with Ph-negative ALL and 37 (37.3%) were diagnosed with Ph-positive ALL. The median age of patients in the Ph-negative ALL group was 46 years, and that of patients in the Ph-positive ALL group was 49 years. In patients with Ph-negative ALL, 57 (92%) patients achieved complete remission (CR) and CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates at 2 years were estimated to be 42% and 63%, respectively. In patients with Ph-positive ALL, 32 (86%) patients achieved CR/CRi, and 2-year DFS and OS were 31.2% and 49.1%, respectively. Patients who were able to proceed to the allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and younger patients showed significantly superior survival in both Ph-negative ALL and Ph-positive ALL. Neutropenic fever and bacterial infection were the most common and severe adverse events. @*Conclusions@#The KALLA 1406/1407 protocol showed tolerable toxicities in adult ALL patients. Especially, younger patients had more survival benefits with KALLA 1406/1407 protocol.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 452-459, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833364

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with optimal conditioning has helped better long-term survival in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study investigated the efficacy and safety of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with busulfan and fludarabine in adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation. @*Materials and Methods@#Records of 78 patients who underwent HSCT with RIC consisting of 3.2 mg/kg/day of busulfan for 2 or 3 days and 30 mg/m2/day of fludarabine for 5 or 6 days were analyzed. @*Results@#The median age at diagnosis was 49 years. Over a median follow-up of 22 months, 2-year estimates of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were 57.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a trend of improved RFS in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.26–1.08; p=0.080). The cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 42.9% and 19.6%, respectively and one case of central nervous system relapse was noted. No hepatic veno-occlusive disease was reported. Grade II–IV acute GVHD and any grade chronic GVHD occurred in 21.1% and 41.7%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#RIC with busulfan and fludarabine is an effective and safe conditioning regimen for adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831839

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is usually incorporated in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to reduce the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This study aimed to find optimal ATG doses in patients undergoing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched allogeneic HSCT. @*Methods@#We retrospectively collected medical records from 352 consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (n = 214), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 62), or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 76) in eight centers of Korea between 2005 and 2015. All patients received busulfan-based conditioning without total body irradiation (TBI) and received stem cells from HLA-mismatched donors. @*Results@#In the current study, 5-year overall survival rates of patients receiving low to medium doses of ATG (2.5 to 7.5 mg/kg) were higher than those receiving other doses of ATG (hazard ratio [HR], 0.528; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.311 to 0.897; p = 0.018). The incidence rates of extensive chronic GVHD (ecGVHD) after administration of low to medium doses of ATG were lower than those after other doses of ATG (HR, 0.447; 95% CI, 0.224 ton 0.889; p = 0.022). @*Conclusions@#The low to medium doses of ATG may be associated with improving survival outcomes and reducing incidence of ecGVHD without enhancing the chances of relapse in patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing non-TBI-based HLA-mismatched allogeneic HSCT.

10.
Blood Research ; : 99-106, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830996

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study attempted to identify novel prognostic factors in patients with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). @*Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated 67 patients diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. The enrollment criteria were as follows: i) pathologic diagnosis of CNS lymphoma, ii) no evidence of systemic involvement, iii) no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection or other immunodeficiencies, and iv) MRI scans available at diagnosis. Fifty-two patients met these criteria and were enrolled. @*Results@#The 3-year overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival rates were 69.7% and 45.6%, respectively, with a median follow-up duration of 36.2 months. OS of patients with low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was lower than those with higher ADC. Multivariate analysis revealed that old age (>60 yr) [hazard ratio (HR), 20.372; P=0.001], Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥2 (HR, 10.429; P < 0.001), higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (HR, 7.408; P =0.001), and low ADC (HR, 0.273; P=0.009) were associated with lower OS. We modified the conventional prognostic scoring system using low ADC, old age (>60 yr), ECOG PS ≥2, and higher LDH. The risk of death was categorized as high (score 3-4), intermediate-2 (score 2), intermediate- 1 (score 1), and low (score 0), with three-year OS rates of 33.5%, 55.4%, 88.9%, and 100%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#ADC demonstrated significant prognostic value for long-term survival in patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL. Low ADC was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor, suggesting that ADC obtained from MRI can improve the current prognostic scoring system.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893099

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex, chronic illness requiring continuous medical care with multifactorial riskreduction strategies besides glycemic control. The pathophysiology of type 2 DM is characterized by a combination of insulin resistance in peripheral organs, including the liver, adipose tissues, and muscle, and inadequate insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells to compensate for insulin resistance, which eventually leads to β-cell failure. DM is accompanied by micro- and macro-vascular complications, including cardiovascular events and renal complications, resulting in high mortality rates. After insulin was first discovered in 1922, many antidiabetic agents including metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and α-glucosidase inhibitors have been developed. Among them, metformin is the preferred pharmacologic agent for the initial treatment of DM. Recently, novel antidiabetic agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, were introduced and are currently available for clinical practice. Studies with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors showed non-inferiority compared with placebo, in terms of cardiovascular safety. Some glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide, semaglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide) showed favorable results in both cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin) also showed beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal outcomes. It is important for clinicians to study novel DM medications and prescribe them accordingly to improve patients’ clinical outcomes.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900803

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex, chronic illness requiring continuous medical care with multifactorial riskreduction strategies besides glycemic control. The pathophysiology of type 2 DM is characterized by a combination of insulin resistance in peripheral organs, including the liver, adipose tissues, and muscle, and inadequate insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells to compensate for insulin resistance, which eventually leads to β-cell failure. DM is accompanied by micro- and macro-vascular complications, including cardiovascular events and renal complications, resulting in high mortality rates. After insulin was first discovered in 1922, many antidiabetic agents including metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and α-glucosidase inhibitors have been developed. Among them, metformin is the preferred pharmacologic agent for the initial treatment of DM. Recently, novel antidiabetic agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, were introduced and are currently available for clinical practice. Studies with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors showed non-inferiority compared with placebo, in terms of cardiovascular safety. Some glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide, semaglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide) showed favorable results in both cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin) also showed beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal outcomes. It is important for clinicians to study novel DM medications and prescribe them accordingly to improve patients’ clinical outcomes.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the postpartum metabolic factors that were associated with the development of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In addition, we examined the role of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the prediction of future diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 179 subjects who previously had GDM but did not have diabetes at 2 months postpartum. The initial postpartum examination including a 75-g OGTT and the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed 12 months after delivery, and annual follow-up visits were made thereafter. RESULTS: The insulinogenic index (IGI30) obtained from the OGTT was significantly correlated with the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) obtained from the FSIVGTT. The disposition indices obtained from the OGTT and FSIVGTT were also significantly correlated. Women who progressed to diabetes had a lower insulin secretory capacity including IGI30, AIRg, and disposition indices obtained from the FSIVGTT and OGTT compared with those who did not. However, the insulin sensitivity indices obtained from the OGTT and FSIVGTT did not differ between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the 2-hour glucose and disposition index obtained from the FSIVGTT were significant postpartum metabolic risk factors for the development of diabetes. CONCLUSION: We identified a crucial role of β-cell dysfunction in the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM. The 2-hour glucose result from the OGTT is an independent predictor of future diabetes. Therefore, the OGTT is crucial for better prediction of future diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Logistic Models , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Blood Research ; : 189-197, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) compared with consolidation chemotherapy alone in intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with wild-type nucleophosmin/negative or a low level of Fms related tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (NPM1(wt)/FLT3-ITD(neg/low)) has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively investigated 88 patients newly diagnosed with AML who received intensive induction chemotherapy at Kyungpook National University Hospital from March 2015 to July 2017. The selection criteria included the presence of results on genetic abnormalities including NPM1 and FLT3-ITD. RESULTS: According to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) risk classification, 25 patients (28%) were categorized as favorable, 44 (50%) as intermediate, and 19 (22%) as adverse risk. Among the intermediate-risk patients, 40 were identified as NPM1 wt/FLT3-ITDneg/low. Among the patients with NPM1(wt)/FLT3-ITD(neg/low), complete remission (CR) was achieved in 26 patients out of 40 (65%). One-year overall survival (OS) rate was 100% in the favorable-risk group and 87.9% in the NPM1(wt)/FLT3-ITD(neg/low) group (P=0.233). Among the intermediate-risk NPM1(wt)/FLT3-ITD(neg/low) patients, there was no survival benefit with allo-HCT (N=19) compared to consolidation chemotherapy (N=21; P=0.372). In the multivariate analysis, the ELN risk group [hazard ratio (HR), 6.36; P=0.019] and the achievement of CR (HR, 2.95; P=0.017) were both identified as factors affecting OS of patients with newly diagnosed AML. CONCLUSION: Among the AML patients, intermediate-risk NPM1(wt)/FLT3-ITD(neg/low) patients and favorable-risk patients showed similar OS rates. Our results suggested that allo-HCT might have limited clinical benefit for the intermediate-risk NPM1(wt)/FLT3-ITD(neg/low) patients. Well controlled studies are needed to confirm the current results.


Subject(s)
Cell Transplantation , Classification , Consolidation Chemotherapy , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Multivariate Analysis , Patient Selection , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Retrospective Studies , Transplants
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Elderly patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are vulnerable to adverse events (AEs). This study evaluated adherence to chemotherapy and treatment outcomes in elderly patients treated with a frontline bortezomib (BTZ), melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) regimen and regimens without BTZ.@*METHODS@#One-hundred and forty elderly patients who were diagnosed with MM from March 2007 to March 2015 were included in this retrospective study. To evaluate regimen adherence, patients who were treated with more than 4 cycles were assigned to the good adherence group.@*RESULTS@#Among the 140 patients, 71 were treated with a frontline VMP and 69 with non-BTZ regimens. The median age was 71 years (range, 65-90 years). The VMP group showed a higher complete response rate than the non-BTZ group: 26.8% vs. 7.2%. More patients in the VMP group achieved ≥ very good partial response (VGPR) and ≥ PR. In the VMP group, 27 patients (38.0%) received less than 4 cycles. The VMP good adherence group showed a higher 3-year overall survival (OS) rate (70.9%) than the poor adherence group (60.2%, p=0.059). In the multivariate analysis, treatment with ≥ 4 cycles of VMP was a favorable factor for OS.@*CONCLUSION@#A good adherence to a frontline VMP regimen resulted in favorable long-term survival. Adequate management of AEs will be needed to achieve favorable outcomes in elderly patients with MM.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elderly patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are vulnerable to adverse events (AEs). This study evaluated adherence to chemotherapy and treatment outcomes in elderly patients treated with a frontline bortezomib (BTZ), melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) regimen and regimens without BTZ.METHODS: One-hundred and forty elderly patients who were diagnosed with MM from March 2007 to March 2015 were included in this retrospective study. To evaluate regimen adherence, patients who were treated with more than 4 cycles were assigned to the good adherence group.RESULTS: Among the 140 patients, 71 were treated with a frontline VMP and 69 with non-BTZ regimens. The median age was 71 years (range, 65-90 years). The VMP group showed a higher complete response rate than the non-BTZ group: 26.8% vs. 7.2%. More patients in the VMP group achieved ≥ very good partial response (VGPR) and ≥ PR. In the VMP group, 27 patients (38.0%) received less than 4 cycles. The VMP good adherence group showed a higher 3-year overall survival (OS) rate (70.9%) than the poor adherence group (60.2%, p=0.059). In the multivariate analysis, treatment with ≥ 4 cycles of VMP was a favorable factor for OS.CONCLUSION: A good adherence to a frontline VMP regimen resulted in favorable long-term survival. Adequate management of AEs will be needed to achieve favorable outcomes in elderly patients with MM.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bortezomib , Drug Therapy , Humans , Medication Adherence , Melphalan , Multiple Myeloma , Multivariate Analysis , Prednisone , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study evaluated the role of hypomethylating agents (HMA) compared to best supportive care (BSC) for patients with high or very-high (H/VH) risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System. METHODS: A total of 279 H/VH risk MDS patients registered in the Korean MDS Working Party database were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: HMA therapy was administered to 205 patients (73.5%), including 31 patients (11.1%) who then received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), while 74 patients (26.5%) received BSC or allo-HCT without HMA. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 53.1% ± 10.7% for allo-HCT with HMA, 75% ± 21.7% for allo-HCT without HMA, 17.3% ± 3.6% for HMA, and 20.8% ± 6.9% for BSC groups (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, only allo-HCT was related with favorable OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.356; p = 0.002), while very poor cytogenetic risk (HR, 5.696; p = 0.042), age ≥ 65 years (HR, 1.578; p = 0.022), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) 2 to 4 (HR, 2.837; p < 0.001), and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (HR, 1.901; p = 0.001) all had an adverse effect on OS. CONCLUSIONS: For the H/VH risk group, very poor cytogenetic risk, age ≥ 65 years, ECOG PS 2 to 4, and AML transformation were poor prognostic factors. HMA showed no benefit in terms of OS when compared to BSC. Allo-HCT was the only factor predicting a favorable long-term outcome. The use of HMA therapy did not seem to have an adverse effect on the transplantation outcomes. However, the conclusion of this study should be carefully interpreted and proven by large scale research in the future.


Subject(s)
Cell Transplantation , Cytogenetics , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Multivariate Analysis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Retrospective Studies , Transplants
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225715

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Breast Feeding , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes, Gestational , Diet , Epidemiology , Female , Glucose , Glucose Intolerance , Humans , Incidence , Insulin , Life Style , Maternal Age , Motor Activity , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
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