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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111393

ABSTRACT

Benign hypervascular hyperplastic nodules (HHN) in liver cirrhosis are very rare. It is important to distinguish between regenerative nodules (hyperplastic nodules) and tumorous nodules (dysplastic or neoplastic nodules) in hepatocellular nodular lesions. The differential diagnosis between HHN and hepatocellular carcinoma on the basis of radiologic imaging is often difficult, and is clinically important when determining the therapeutic plan. Therefore, histological confirmation by needle biopsy sampling of the liver is necessary for a correct diagnosis of HHN. We report herein a case of benign HHN mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma in a 32-year-old male alcoholic liver cirrhosis patient without viral hepatitis infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Humans , Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219562

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with prominent lymphocytic infiltration, which has been described as a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with good prognosis. One case showed lymphoid follicles and dense lymphocytic infiltrates within the tumor and its periphery, and the other case showed marked lymphocytic infiltration in the cancerous tissue. Piecemeal necrosis of cancer cells and atypical reactive changes were evident. The two cases were seronegative for hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to hepatitis C virus, and Epstein-Barr virus DNA. One of the cases showed Clonorchis infestation. The prognostic significance of lymphocytic stroma in hepatocellular carcinoma requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Clonorchiasis/diagnosis , Clonorchis sinensis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lamivudine is an effective, safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate whether early suppression of the viral load predicts HBeAg loss within 1 year during lamivudine therapy. METHODS: This prospective study encompassed 74 patients (mean age: 37.1 years, male/female: 51/23) who were positive HBeAg, their AST or ALT levels were > or =2 times the upper limit of normal and their HBV DNA was > or =10(5) copies/mL. The patients received lamivudine 100 mg for 12 months with monitoring their HBV DNA, AST, ALT, HBeAg and anti-HBe, and all these tests were performed at pretreatment and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. The serum HBV DNA was measured by HBV branched DNA assay. RESULTS: HBeAg loss was observed in 12 patients (16.2%), and 9 patients achieved anti-HBe seroconversion during up to 1 year of lamivudine therapy. The mean time to HBeAg loss was 5.6 months (range: 1-12 months). The posttreatment HBV DNA (<2,000 copies/mL) after 3 month (P=0.008) and 6 month (P=0.012)) were significant predictors of HBeAg loss after 1 year of lamivudine treatment on univariate analysis. Pretreatment HBV DNA, AST/ALT, gender, age and liver cirrhosis had no impact on HBeAg loss. The six-month posttreatment HBV DNA level <2,000 copies/mL was a significant predictor of HBeAg loss on multivariate analysis (P=0.008, odds ratio=0.108). CONCLUSION: We suggest that an HBV DNA level <2,000 copies/mL at 6 month after lamivudine therapy is the most important predictor of HBeAg loss during up to 1 year of lamivudine therapy.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , DNA, Viral/blood , Female , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Lamivudine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Treatment Outcome
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169051

ABSTRACT

Background : Carcinoma of the pancreas is a fatal malignant disease with limited therapeutic options. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and c-erbB-2 are known to be involved in the carcinogenesis, differentiation and invasiveness of various neoplasms. We studied the immunohistochemical expressions of c-erbB-2 and COX-2 and the correlation between these expressions and the clinicopathologic parameters and the relation between the expressions. Methods : Immunohistochemical staining for c-erbB-2 and COX-2 were performed on the paraffin embedded sections of 36 cases of surgically resected ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and 10 cases of non-neoplastic pancreas tissue. Results : The non-neoplastic control group showed a c-erbB-2 expression in the acini (8/10) and ducts (2/10), and a COX-2 expression in the acini (6/10) and ducts (3/10). The overexpression of c-erbB-2 was observed in 58% (21/36) of the carcinoma specimens. No significant correlation was found between c-erbB-2 and age, gender, tumor size, gross type, histologic grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, lymph node metastasis, and the TNM stage. The overexpression of COX-2 was observed in 41.7% (15/36) of the carcinoma specimens. The COX-2 expression was significantly high in the lymph node metastasis group (p<0.05), but it was not correlated with the other clinicopathologic parameters. Also there was no significant correlation between the c-erbB-2 and COX-2 expressions. Conclusions : In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, c-erbB-2 and COX-2 were frequently overexpressed, and COX-2 overexpression was correlated with lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinogenesis , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Paraffin , Receptor, ErbB-2
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177491

ABSTRACT

A model theory of passive-targeted drug delivery in sphere-shaped solid tumors is introduced on the basis of Fick's law of diffusion, with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. For a uniform initial concentration inside the tumor, the concentration is obtained as a function of time and radial position. The concentration is shown to approach the equilibrium distribution as the time elapses, as is expected by the Gedanken Experiment. The time-evolution rate is found to be determined by the diffusion coefficient of the drug in the tissue, the size of the tumor, the volume of the drug-injected region, and the concentration gradient at the boundary.


Subject(s)
Diffusion , Jurisprudence
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59380

ABSTRACT

The mammalian trematode Paragonimus westermani is a typical digenetic parasite, which can cause paragonimiasis in humans. Host tissues and blood cells are important sources of nutrients for development, growth and reproduction of P. westermani. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa hemoglobinase of P. westermani was characterized by sequencing analysis, and its localization was investigated immunohistochemically. The phylogenetic tree prepared based on the hemoglobinase gene showed high homology with hemoglobinases of Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma spp. Moreover, recombinant P. westermani hemoglobinase degradaded human hemoglobin at acidic pH (from 3.0 to 5.5) and its activity was almost completely inhibited by E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P. westermani hemoglobinase was localized in the epithelium of the adult worm intestine implying that the protein has a specific function. These observations suggest that hemoglobinase may act as a digestive enzyme for acquisition of nutrients from host hemoglobin. Further investigations may provide insights into hemoglobin catabolism in P. westermani.


Subject(s)
Sequence Alignment , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Phylogeny , Paragonimus westermani/enzymology , Molecular Sequence Data , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/enzymology , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Astacoidea/parasitology , Antigens, Helminth/genetics , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bougie dilatation is generally considered to be effective treatment of benign esophageal stricture. However, sometimes its therapeutic effect was unsatisfactory, or symptom used to recur after treatment. We reviewed our data to evaluate the efficacy of bougie dilation, and examined the factors associated with the bougienation effect. METHODS: Fifty-five patients, who were diagnosed with a benign esophageal stricture, underwent bougie dilation, and were followed up for more than 6 months, and were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment effects were graded as 'cure', 'fair', 'poor', and 'no effect'. The factors which influenced the treatment effect were analyzed. RESULTS: For the patients of severe pre-dilatation symptoms, long stricture lesion, and severe endoscopic stricture, the therapeutic effect of bougienation was significantly bad (p=0.002, 0.001, 0.019). Therapeutic effect was higher in patients who were treated with large diameter dilator in the first session (p=0.005), and has stronger relation with the length of stricture than the degree of stricture. In the follow-up period, 45 (81.8%) of 56 patients has achieved cure response. In the cure response group, 30 patients (66.7%) needed one, 5 (11.1%) needed two, 5 (11.1%) needed three, 3 (6.7%) needed four, 1 (2.2%) needed five, and the last one (2.2%) needed six sessions of bougienation. CONCLUSIONS: The luminal diameter of the stricture, the length of the stricture and the diameter of the dilator used in the initial session were associated with treatment effect. Bougie dilatation was reconfirmed to be effective treatment modality for benign esophageal stricture.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Dilatation , Esophageal Stenosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Phenobarbital , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-75482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the patient's satisfaction and tolerance of transnasal (TN) and transoral (TO) endoscopy prospectively. METHODS: 120 patients were assigned to undergo TN (age: 49.5, M : F=65 : 55) or TO (age: 47.4, M : F=63 : 57) endoscopy according to their wishes. RESULTS: The patients' satisfaction was higher in the TN group than in the TO group (8.45 vs. 4.95, p <0.05). The degree of choking sensation, nausea, and throat soreness was lower in the TN group than the TO group. There was no difference in endoscopists' satisfaction between the two groups. The duration for TN was longer than for TO. Epistaxis and nasal pain were the common complications in the TN group. All complications were mild and were relieved spontaneously. An endoscopic examination could be completed in all patients in the TO group. In the TN group, examination failure was quite common in the early phase but the incidence decreased with increasing experience. It took the experience of at least 20 cases for the endoscopist to adapt to the TN route. CONCLUSIONS: TN endoscopy is believed to be a comfortable and safe procedure for improving the patients' satisfaction and for reducing the level of inconvenience.


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Endoscopy , Epistaxis , Humans , Incidence , Nausea , Pharynx , Prospective Studies , Sensation
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171750

ABSTRACT

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder and it is characterized by neurofibromas and cafe-au-lait spots on the skin. NF-1 affects the gastrointestinal tract in 25% of the cases and the stomach and jejunum are the commonly involved sites. Yet the occurrence of colon NF is very unusual. Several cases of colon involvement of NF-1 have been reported on and their clinical manifestations were massive or occult bleeding, constipation and asymptomatic rectal or perianal nodules. There was a reported case of colon-to-colon intussusception via an isolated colonic neurofibroma. However, the best of our knowledge, there has been no reported case of colon-to-colon intussusception induced by NF-1. We encountered a case of NF-1 involving the cecum that resulted in colon-to-colon intussusception and secondary acute appendicitis. The patient showed the typical skin lesions and bony abnormalities of NF. We report on this case with a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Adult , Appendicitis , Cafe-au-Lait Spots , Cecum , Colon , Constipation , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intussusception , Jejunum , Neurofibroma , Neurofibromatoses , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Skin , Stomach
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72094

ABSTRACT

About 90% of primary gastrointestinal lymphomas originate from the B-cell and less than 10% from the T-cell. In respect of anatomical location, the stomach is the most common site of gastrointestinal lymphomas followed by the ileum, colon, and rectum. However, esophagus and duodenal lymphomas are infrequently involved. Primary T-cell lymphoma of the duodenum is not common and peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the duodenum is very rare. In Korea, there has been no case report of peripheral T-cell lymphoma which simultaneously involved the stomach and duodenum. In this report, we present a case of primary peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the duodenum and stomach. A 63-year-old man was hospitalized complaining of weight loss of 15 kg and dyspepsia for 2 months. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large annular infiltrative lesion in the descending portion of the duodenum. At the posterior side of the upper body of the stomach, an ill-defined, broad, flat, and infiltrative lesion was also noted. Microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen showed that atypical bizzare lymphocytes infiltrated the mucosa of the duodenum and stomach. The lymphocyte was positive for CD3, CD5 and negative for CD20, CD23, and CD56 by immunohistochemistry. We made a diagnosis of primary peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the stomach and duodenum. We report a case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the stomach and duodenum with a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Biopsy , Colon , Diagnosis , Duodenum , Dyspepsia , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagus , Humans , Ileum , Immunohistochemistry , Korea , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, T-Cell , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Middle Aged , Mucous Membrane , Rectum , Stomach , T-Lymphocytes , Weight Loss
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21314

ABSTRACT

A myxedema coma, representing the extreme feature of hypothyroidism is rare. Despite early vigorous treatment, a myxedema coma is associated with a mortality rate as high as 60%. Herein, a case of a myxedema coma, with severe hypoventilation, is described. When the patient arrived at the emergency room, she complained of dyspnea and general weakness, and was of a drowsy mental status. 7 days after admission, she was more confused and disoriented, and respiratory insufficiency had developed. Although levothyroxine was continued and her respiration improved, she still had a confused mentality and seizure developed. Despite medication her consciousness did not improve, so was discharged in despair by her family members. The respiratory abnormality with a myxedema coma is a depressed ventilatory response to hypercapnea, resulting in a decrease in alveolar ventilation, with progressive CO2 retention. An upper airway obstruction, especially during sleep, and neuromuscular dysfunction in breathing may be shown in hypothyroidism. Therefore, a myxedema coma, accompanied by severe hypoventilation, should be intensively treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy and mechanical ventilatory support


Subject(s)
Airway Obstruction , Coma , Consciousness , Dyspnea , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Hypothyroidism , Hypoventilation , Mortality , Myxedema , Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency , Seizures , Thyroid Gland , Thyroxine , Ventilation
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81367

ABSTRACT

Microscopic polyangiitis is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis that is primarily associated with necrotizing glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis. Lung involvement is characterized by a diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. However, rarely central nervous system involvement has been reported to be occurred with the microscopic polyangiitis. Relapse of microscopic polyangiitis are reported to be more frequent than those of polyarteritis nodosa, often after a reduction or discontinuation of the therapy. We would like to report two patients with microscopic polyangiitis. One presented with clinical manifestations of both lung and central nervous system involvements and the other was a case of recurrence during steroid tapering following the steroid pulse therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Central Nervous System , Glomerulonephritis , Hemorrhage , Humans , Lung , Microscopic Polyangiitis , Polyarteritis Nodosa , Recurrence , Vasculitis , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30152

ABSTRACT

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a relatively rare hereditary disease, which is characterized by multiple bone fractures and spine scoliosis, due to the fragility of bone, and is often associated with blue sclerae, deafness and dentinogenesis imperfecta. Four types of OI can be distinguished, according to the clinical findings. Although mutations affecting type I collagen are responsible for the disease in most patients, the mechanism by which the genetic defects cause abnormal bone development remains to be fully understood. Here, the clinical characteristics of 10 OI patient cases are reported, with a review of the literature. All the cases, including 4 type I, 4 type III and 2 type IV, inherited OI as an autosomal dominant trait. All the subjects had multiple old fractures and decreased bone densities. In this study, the biochemical marker of bone formation, serum alkaline phosphatase, was found to be increased only in the pediatric OI patients, while the biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline, was increased in all cases. The mobility score was found to correlate with the severity of the type on diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Biomarkers , Bone Density , Bone Development , Bone Resorption , Collagen Type I , Deafness , Dentinogenesis Imperfecta , Diagnosis , Fractures, Bone , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Humans , Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Osteogenesis , Sclera , Scoliosis , Spine
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The glucose uptake rate is the limiting step in glucose utilization and storage. The failure of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in muscle appears to be a primary defect of insulin resistance. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR-beta), insulin receptor substrate (IRS), Akt kinase and GSK-3 in isolated skeletal muscle, in people with type 2 diabetes (n=9) and control subjects (n=11). METHODS: 75g OGTT and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test were done. And vastus lateralis muscle was obtained before and 30 min into the euglycemic clamp. Western blots were performed for tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and phosphorylation of the insulin receptor(IR-beta), Akt and GSK-3. RESULT: There were no statistical differences in the mean age, BMI and body fat between the control subjects and diabetic patients. The fasting blood sugar and HbA1c in controls and diabetic patients were 98.+/-1.3 and 208.1+/-16.5 ng/dl, and 5.4+/-0.5 and 9.2+/-0.6%, and 1.4+/-0.2 in the control subjects, and 72.2+/-52.3% (p<0.01) and 10.2+/-6.3 (p<0.01) in the diabetic patients, respectively. The insulin resistance from the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp tests were 8.2+/-0.6 mg/kg/min and 3.7+/-1.1 ng/kg/min in the control subjects and in the diabetic patients, respectively (p<0.01). Compared with the normal controls, insulin-stimulated IR phosphorylation was no different to that in the diabetic patients. However, insulin-stimulated IRS phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated GSK-3 phosphorylation were reduced in the diabetic patients compared with the normal controls by 24, 43 and 25%, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: In korean type 2 diabetic patients, the insulin resistance may be due to the impairment of the upstream insulin signal molecular network. Further studies will focus on determining whether these signaling defects are the cause of the development of insulin resistance, or secondary to the altered metabolic state, associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Blood Glucose , Blotting, Western , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glucose , Glucose Clamp Technique , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Humans , Hyperinsulinism , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Muscle, Skeletal , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Quadriceps Muscle , Receptor, Insulin , Signal Transduction , Tyrosine
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