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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874201

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of injury in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). @*Methods@#Patients with SCI who visited the outpatient department between January 2009 and January 2019 were enrolled. Patients’ most recent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images were reviewed. According to the 2007 International Society for Clinical Densitometry guidelines, vertebrae with a local structural change were excluded when deriving spine BMD. If one or no vertebra is suitable for evaluation, spine BMD was judged as “improper for assessment”. Correlation analysis was performed between duration from injury and BMD Z-scores of the hip and spine. @*Results@#Among 83 individuals with SCI, the spines of 44 were judged as improper for assessment. The correlation analysis showed a significant negative relationship between the duration from injury and femur neck BMD (r=-0.40, p<0.01) and total proximal femur BMD (r=-0.39, p<0.01). However, no significant correlation was found between the duration from injury and spine BMD Z-score. @*Conclusion@#The duration of SCI correlated with hip BMD, but not with spine BMD. Further, more than half of the individuals with SCI could not undergo spinal assessment due to local structural changes. Therefore, spine BMD measurement is not an appropriate method for predicting future fracture risk in those with SCI.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903621

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat several acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. This study aimed to investigate the risk of dementia in patients taking PPIs. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the correlation between PPIs and dementia. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for non-randomized studies. Publication bias was assessed. @*Results@#A total of 12 nested, case-control, and cohort studies were identified and analyzed. We obtained hazard ratios (HRs) from five studies and performed a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of four cohort studies and one nested case-control study showed no association between PPIs and dementia (HR, 1.165; 95% CI, 0.912~1.488; P=0.222). Sensitivity analysis revealed consistent results. No publication bias was detected. @*Conclusions@#This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed no statistically significant association between the use of PPIs and dementia.

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 202-210, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897753

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The use of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for treating undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to compare the long-term outcomes of ESD and surgery for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. @*Methods@#The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were used to search for relevant studies comparing ESD and surgery for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. The methodological quality of the included publications was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Nonrandomized Studies. The rates of overall survival, recurrence, adverse event, and complete resection were determined. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were also evaluated. @*Results@#This meta-analysis enrolled five studies with 429 and 1,236 participants undergoing ESD and surgery, respectively. No significant difference was found in the overall survival rate between the ESD and surgery groups (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 0.98–5.36; p=0.06). However, ESD was associated with a higher recurrence rate and a lower complete resection rate. The adverse event rate was similar between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESD with meticulous surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy may be as effective and safe as surgery in patients with undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. Further large-scale, randomized, controlled studies from additional regions are required to confirm these findings.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 563-569, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897738

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic resection (ER) has recently been accepted as the standard treatment modality for superficial nonampullary duodenal tumors (SNADTs). However, the procedure can cause adverse events such as perforation and bleeding. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic clipping in the prevention of delayed complications. @*Methods@#A retrospective review of the medical records of patients who underwent ER for SNADT from 3 centers was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the immediate clipping group (ICG) and the no clipping group (NCG). Various baseline characteristics and factors associated with the appearance of delayed complications, such as size of the lesion, tumor location, histologic type, and co-morbidities, were compared between the two groups. @*Results@#A total of 99 lesions from 99 patients were included in this study. Fifty-two patients were allocated into ICG and 47 patients were allocated into NCG. Delayed bleeding occurred in 1 patient from ICG and in 8 patients from NCG. Delayed perforation occurred in 1 patient from ICG and in 3 patients from NCG. There were no procedure-related deaths in both groups. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of endoscopic clipping seemed to reduce the risk of developing delayed complications, further studies using a prospective design is required.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895917

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat several acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. This study aimed to investigate the risk of dementia in patients taking PPIs. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the correlation between PPIs and dementia. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for non-randomized studies. Publication bias was assessed. @*Results@#A total of 12 nested, case-control, and cohort studies were identified and analyzed. We obtained hazard ratios (HRs) from five studies and performed a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis of four cohort studies and one nested case-control study showed no association between PPIs and dementia (HR, 1.165; 95% CI, 0.912~1.488; P=0.222). Sensitivity analysis revealed consistent results. No publication bias was detected. @*Conclusions@#This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed no statistically significant association between the use of PPIs and dementia.

6.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 116-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894535

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause for. It is highly prevalent in the Korean population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogeneous nature of its pathogenesis. We constituted a guidelines development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of FD. @*Methods@#This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta- analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. @*Results@#These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. @*Conclusions@#The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

8.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 202-210, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890049

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The use of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for treating undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer is controversial. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to compare the long-term outcomes of ESD and surgery for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. @*Methods@#The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were used to search for relevant studies comparing ESD and surgery for undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. The methodological quality of the included publications was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Nonrandomized Studies. The rates of overall survival, recurrence, adverse event, and complete resection were determined. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were also evaluated. @*Results@#This meta-analysis enrolled five studies with 429 and 1,236 participants undergoing ESD and surgery, respectively. No significant difference was found in the overall survival rate between the ESD and surgery groups (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 0.98–5.36; p=0.06). However, ESD was associated with a higher recurrence rate and a lower complete resection rate. The adverse event rate was similar between the two groups. @*Conclusions@#ESD with meticulous surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy may be as effective and safe as surgery in patients with undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer. Further large-scale, randomized, controlled studies from additional regions are required to confirm these findings.

9.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 563-569, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890034

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Endoscopic resection (ER) has recently been accepted as the standard treatment modality for superficial nonampullary duodenal tumors (SNADTs). However, the procedure can cause adverse events such as perforation and bleeding. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic clipping in the prevention of delayed complications. @*Methods@#A retrospective review of the medical records of patients who underwent ER for SNADT from 3 centers was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the immediate clipping group (ICG) and the no clipping group (NCG). Various baseline characteristics and factors associated with the appearance of delayed complications, such as size of the lesion, tumor location, histologic type, and co-morbidities, were compared between the two groups. @*Results@#A total of 99 lesions from 99 patients were included in this study. Fifty-two patients were allocated into ICG and 47 patients were allocated into NCG. Delayed bleeding occurred in 1 patient from ICG and in 8 patients from NCG. Delayed perforation occurred in 1 patient from ICG and in 3 patients from NCG. There were no procedure-related deaths in both groups. @*Conclusions@#Although the use of endoscopic clipping seemed to reduce the risk of developing delayed complications, further studies using a prospective design is required.

10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 116-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902239

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause for. It is highly prevalent in the Korean population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogeneous nature of its pathogenesis. We constituted a guidelines development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of FD. @*Methods@#This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta- analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. @*Results@#These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. @*Conclusions@#The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913763

ABSTRACT

The direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) would be the standard treatment for the prevention of stroke and thromboembolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients. The adverse effects of greatest concern are bleeding especially major bleeding. We present a case of a patient with a history of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and pacemaker, who developed severe anemia after massive hemoptysis while taking DOAC; however, he has continued taking DOAC. Through this case, we have summarized the current management of major bleeding associated with anticoagulation and discuss the optimal regimen for restarting of anticoagulation therapy.

13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903616

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic treatment for obesity, especially intragastric balloon insertion, is on the rise in Korea. From 2016 to 2019, we performed intragastric balloon placement for the treatment of obesity in 12 patients at a single tertiary center. One balloon was removed on the next day due to nausea and severe abdominal pain, and the remaining 11 patients were followed up for 6 months. Body weight reduction of 8.9±5.4 kg was achieved, and the body mass index was reduced by 3.3±2.0 kg/m2. Significant effects regarding total body weight loss and excess weight loss were noted. The effect of weight reduction was greatest within 1 month after the procedure. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased by 18.0±18.2 mg/dL, but there were no significant changes in blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Common adverse events were nausea and epigastric pain, but no serious adverse events occurred. Further studies regarding the long-term effects of endoscopic treatment for obesity and the improvement of metabolic syndrome are needed.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837313

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#For systematic screening protocol for the stomach (SSS), 22 gastroscopy images are considered sufficient to avoid blind spots during gastroscopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the number of gastroscopy images taken during the gastroscopy procedure and the detection rate of clinically significant gastric lesions (CSGLs). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the data obtained from a cohort of consecutive subjects at a health promotion center. The primary outcome measure was the detection rate of CSGLs per endoscopist, according to the number of gastroscopy images. We also analyzed whether all the CSGLs were detected via SSS. @*Results@#The mean number of gastroscopy images obtained by eight endoscopists was 27.6±10.5 in 2,912 subjects without CSGLs and without biopsies. Among the 5,970 subjects who underwent gastroscopy by the eight endoscopists, 712 CSGLs were detected in 551 subjects. Fifty-six CSGLs (7.9%) in 55 subjects (10.0%) were not detected during the SSS. Photo-endoscopists who took more images achieved a higher detection rate of CSGLs than those who took fewer images (adjusted OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.41~3.05; P<0.0001). @*Conclusions@#The modified SSS, which included 22 SSS images, the fundus, and the saddle area, detected significantly more CSGLs. This modified SSS should be validated with further prospective studies.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837296

ABSTRACT

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas most commonly occur in the stomach and rarely in the duodenum. Gastric MALT lymphoma is usually associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection that may be cured by eradication. However, duodenal MALT lymphoma is not associated with H. pylori infection. Moreover, the pathophysiology and treatment methods for duodenal MALT lymphoma have not yet been established because the disease is rare. Here, we report a case of duodenal MALT lymphoma. A 58-year-old man was treated for a refractory duodenal ulcer. Based on repeated biopsy, a diagnosis of MALT lymphoma was made. The patient achieved complete remission after chemotherapy and was followed up without recurrence for three years.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837289

ABSTRACT

Aortoduodenal fistula is a rare but life-threatening condition that can cause gastrointestinal bleeding. Due to its rarity, it is often overlooked as a cause of gastrointestinal blood loss. Notably, the mortality rate of aortoduodenal fistula is nearly 100% in undiagnosed and untreated cases. We report a case of aortoduodenal fistula, which resulted in the patient’s death. This report highlights the importance of considering even extremely rare causes of gastrointestinal bleeding in the differential diagnosis in patients with such a presentation.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897395

ABSTRACT

This study investigated how physical and cognitive function and psychological factors affected the health-related quality of life (HRQoL, hereafter HQ) of stroke patients in South Korea. The study enrolled 32 right-handed subjects with chronic cerebral infarction with disability and preserved cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 20). Physical disability was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Korean modified Barthel Index (KMBI). Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated form (WHOQOL-BREF, hereafter WB) and the 36-Item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36) in face-to-face interviews. Psychological distress was investigated using the Beck Depression Inventory Scale-II. The associations of each domain of WB and SF-36 were investigated using Pearson correlation analyses. Physical disability was negatively correlated with HQ in the SF-36. The physical function and bodily pain scales of the SF-36 were negatively correlated with physical disability. The general health domain of the SF-36 was negatively correlated with psychological scores. Emotional status was associated with physical health, social relationships, and general health in HQ. In summary, the severity of physical disability was associated with the patient's general and physical health and body pain. These findings suggest the importance of psychological, cognitive, and physiological interventions for improving the quality of life of patients after cerebral infarction.

18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895912

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic treatment for obesity, especially intragastric balloon insertion, is on the rise in Korea. From 2016 to 2019, we performed intragastric balloon placement for the treatment of obesity in 12 patients at a single tertiary center. One balloon was removed on the next day due to nausea and severe abdominal pain, and the remaining 11 patients were followed up for 6 months. Body weight reduction of 8.9±5.4 kg was achieved, and the body mass index was reduced by 3.3±2.0 kg/m2. Significant effects regarding total body weight loss and excess weight loss were noted. The effect of weight reduction was greatest within 1 month after the procedure. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased by 18.0±18.2 mg/dL, but there were no significant changes in blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Common adverse events were nausea and epigastric pain, but no serious adverse events occurred. Further studies regarding the long-term effects of endoscopic treatment for obesity and the improvement of metabolic syndrome are needed.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889691

ABSTRACT

This study investigated how physical and cognitive function and psychological factors affected the health-related quality of life (HRQoL, hereafter HQ) of stroke patients in South Korea. The study enrolled 32 right-handed subjects with chronic cerebral infarction with disability and preserved cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 20). Physical disability was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Korean modified Barthel Index (KMBI). Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated form (WHOQOL-BREF, hereafter WB) and the 36-Item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36) in face-to-face interviews. Psychological distress was investigated using the Beck Depression Inventory Scale-II. The associations of each domain of WB and SF-36 were investigated using Pearson correlation analyses. Physical disability was negatively correlated with HQ in the SF-36. The physical function and bodily pain scales of the SF-36 were negatively correlated with physical disability. The general health domain of the SF-36 was negatively correlated with psychological scores. Emotional status was associated with physical health, social relationships, and general health in HQ. In summary, the severity of physical disability was associated with the patient's general and physical health and body pain. These findings suggest the importance of psychological, cognitive, and physiological interventions for improving the quality of life of patients after cerebral infarction.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830144

ABSTRACT

Background@#It has been reported that low education levels are associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between education level and the prevalence of diabetes. @*Methods@#This study was based on the original data of the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016–2017). In total, 4,819 adults over 30 years of age participated in this study, and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to derive the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to assess the relationship between education level and diabetes. The influence of sex, age, obesity, depression, drinking, smoking, and occupation was analyzed to determine the net influence of education level on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. @*Results@#The level of education and prevalence of diabetes were significantly correlated. When the level of education was high, the possibility of diabetes mellitus was higher than that in university graduates (odds ratios=1.836, P<0.05); however, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was not significantly different from that in college graduates. The effect of correction variables on the prevalence of diabetes showed significant differences (P<0.05) in sex, age, obesity, and occupation. @*Conclusion@#There was a statistically significant association between the low level of education and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in this study; therefore, active intervention for diabetes is required in people with low education.

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