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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900062

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the Korean government launched an unprecedentedly large-scaled latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening project which covered more than a million individuals in congregate settings. A total of 1,047,689 participants of source population (n = 2,336,157) underwent LTBI testing from 2017 to 2018. The overall LTBI test uptake rate during this project was 44.8%. Workers in daycare centers (83.5%) and kindergartens (78.9%) showed high participation rate. A total of 1,012,206 individuals with valid results of interferongamma release assay (IGRA) were selected to constitute the IGRA cohort. Most of the enrolled participants in the IGRA cohort were in their working age. Approximately, threequarters of total enrolled population were female. Investigating the LTBI prevalence, stages of LTBI care cascade, natural history of LTBI, efficacy of LTBI treatment and cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening are feasible within this IGRA cohort.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892358

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the Korean government launched an unprecedentedly large-scaled latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening project which covered more than a million individuals in congregate settings. A total of 1,047,689 participants of source population (n = 2,336,157) underwent LTBI testing from 2017 to 2018. The overall LTBI test uptake rate during this project was 44.8%. Workers in daycare centers (83.5%) and kindergartens (78.9%) showed high participation rate. A total of 1,012,206 individuals with valid results of interferongamma release assay (IGRA) were selected to constitute the IGRA cohort. Most of the enrolled participants in the IGRA cohort were in their working age. Approximately, threequarters of total enrolled population were female. Investigating the LTBI prevalence, stages of LTBI care cascade, natural history of LTBI, efficacy of LTBI treatment and cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening are feasible within this IGRA cohort.

4.
Blood Research ; : 266-278, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913726

ABSTRACT

Background@#Treatment protocols for light chain (AL) amyloidosis have been derived from myeloma treatment. Bortezomib is a key drug used for the treatment of myeloma and AL amyloidosis. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and toxicity of bortezomib-based chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis. @*Methods@#We reviewed the outcomes of newly diagnosed autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT)-ineligible AL amyloidosis patients who received bortezomib-based chemotherapy at a referral center between 2011 and 2017. @*Results@#Of 63 patients who received bortezomib-based chemotherapy, 32 were male, and the median age was 66 years (range, 42‒82 yr). The hematologic overall response rate (ORR) was 65.1%, and the chemotherapy regimen with the best hematologic response was VMP (75.7%, 28/37). Sixty patients had significant organ (heart or kidney) involvement; 28.3% of patients (N=17) had major organ responses after chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 34 months, there was no significant difference in progression-free survival (P =0.49) or overall survival (P =0.67) according to regimen. Most hematologic and non-hematologic problems were manageable. @*Conclusion@#Various chemotherapy combinations based on bortezomib are currently employed in the clinical setting, but no difference was found in terms of efficacy or toxicity.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875547

ABSTRACT

Background@#Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used frequently, and its use continues to increase in lung cancer patients, despite insufficient scientific of its efficacy. To investigate this situation, we analyzed the current awareness and use of CAM in Korean lung-cancer patients. Methods: This prospective survey–based study was performed at seven medical centers in South Korea between August and October 2019. The survey assessed general patient characteristics and the awareness and use of CAM. We analyzed differences in the clinical parameters of patients aware and not aware of CAM and of CAM non-users and users. @*Results@#Of the 434 patients included in this study, 68.8% responded that they were aware of CAM and 30.9% said they had experienced it. In univariate analysis, the patients aware of CAM were younger with poor performance status, had advanced-stage lung cancer, received more systemic therapy, and received concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). By multiple logistic regression, younger age, poor performance status, advanced stage, and prior CCRT were identified as independent risk factors for CAM awareness. There were no significant differences in the general characteristics and cancer-associated clinical parameters of CAM non-users and users. @*Conclusion@#Specific clinical parameters were associated with patients’ awareness of CAM, although there were no significantly different characteristics between CAM users and non-users.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875457

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55), an emerging epidemic strain, has caused several large outbreaks in the Korean military since 2014, and HAdV-associated acute respiratory illness (HAdV-ARI) has been continuously reported thereafter. @*Methods@#To evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of HAdV-ARI in the Korean military, we analyzed respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction (RV-PCR) results, pneumonia surveillance results, and severe HAdV cases from all 14 Korean military hospitals from January 2013 to May 2018 and compared these data with nationwide RV surveillance data for the civilian population. @*Results@#A total of 14,630 RV-PCRs was performed at military hospitals. HAdV (45.4%) was the most frequently detected RV, followed by human rhinovirus (12.3%) and influenza virus (6.3%). The percentage of the military positive for HAdV was significantly greater than the percentage of civilians positive for HAdV throughout the study period, with a large outbreak occurring during the winter to spring of 2014 to 2015. The outbreak continued until the end of the study, and non-seasonal detections increased over time. The reported number of pneumonia patients also increased during the outbreak. Case fatality rate was 0.075% overall but 15.6% in patients with respiratory failure. The proportion of severe patients did not change significantly during the study period. @*Conclusions@#A large HAdV outbreak is currently ongoing in the Korean military, with a trend away from seasonality, and HAdV-55 is likely the predominant strain. Persistent efforts to control the outbreak, HAdV type-specific surveillance, and vaccine development are required.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874529

ABSTRACT

BackgroundInfluenza is a global public health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection, vaccination coverage is insufficient in people with chronic disease under 65 years, especially diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate influenza vaccination coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccination in Korean diabetic adults under 65 years.MethodsData were obtained from 24,821 subjects in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014 to 2017). Socioeconomic, health-related, and diabetic factors were investigated for their relations with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years using univariate and multivariate analyses.ResultsAmong 24,821 subjects, 1,185 were diabetic patients under 65 years and their influenza vaccination rate was 36.5%. Socioeconomic (older age, female gender, non-smoker, light alcohol drinker, lower educational level, and employed status), health-related factors (lower fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, good self-perceived health status, more comorbidities, recent health screening, more outpatient visits, and diet therapy), and diabetic factors (more awareness and getting treated) were associated with influenza vaccination. In multivariate analysis, more awareness and getting treated for diabetes were associated with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years (odds ratio, 1.496 and 1.413; 95% confidence interval, 1.022 to 2.188 and 1.018 to 2.054, respectively).ConclusionInfluenza vaccination rate was low in diabetic patients under 65 years, especially in those with unawareness and not getting treated for diabetes. Active screening and treatment for diabetes may be helpful to improve the influenza vaccination rate in these patients.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831853

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that plays a key role in Th2-mediated inflammation, both directly by promoting the proliferation of naïve CD4 Th2 cells, and indirectly by activating dendritic cells (DCs). TSLP-activated DCs induce the expansion of chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 (CRTH2)+ CD4+ Th2 memory cells, which undergo a Th2 response and express prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthase. CRTH2, a PGD2 receptor, is a selective Th2-cell surface marker. We investigated the effects of an anti-TSLP antibody (Ab) and a CRTH2 antagonist, as well as their mechanisms of action, in a mouse model of acute asthma. @*Methods@#BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. We then evaluated the effects of the administration of an anti-TSLP Ab either alone or together with a CRTH2 antagonist on cell counts, Th2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, and the levels of epithelium-derived cytokines such as TSLP, interleukin (IL) 33, and IL-25 in lung homogenates, as well as airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). @*Results@#Anti-TSLP Ab and the CRTH2 antagonist significantly attenuated eosinophilic airway inflammation, AHR, and the expression of Th2 cytokines. The expression of GATA-3 and the levels of IL-33 and IL-25 in lung tissues were affected by the combined anti-TSLP and CRTH2 antagonist treatment. @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the dual blockade of TSLP and CRTH2 may serve as an effective treatment target for eosinophilic asthma.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1293-1299, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT) for chronic empyema-associated malignancy (CEAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT images of 33 patients with chronic empyema, and analyzed the following findings: 1) shape of the empyema cavity, 2) presence of fistula, 3) maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the empyema cavity, 4) uptake pattern of the empyema cavity, 5) presence of a protruding soft tissue mass within the empyema cavity, and 6) involvement of adjacent structures. Final diagnosis was determined based on histopathology or clinical follow-up for at least 6 months. The abovementioned findings were compared between the ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT images of CEAM and chronic empyema. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Six lesions were histopathologically proven as malignant; there were three cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, two of squamous cell carcinoma, and one of poorly differentiated carcinoma. Maximum SUV within the empyema cavity (p < 0.001) presence of a protruding soft tissue mass (p = 0.002), and involvement of the adjacent structures (p < 0.001) were significantly different between the CEAM and chronic empyema images. The maximum SUV exhibited the highest diagnostic performance, with the highest specificity (96.3%, 26/27), positive predictive value (85.7%, 6/7), and accuracy (97.0%, 32/33) among all criteria. On ROC analysis, the area under the curve of maximum SUV was 0.994. CONCLUSION: ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT can be useful for diagnosing CEAM in patients with chronic empyema. The maximum SUV within the empyema cavity is the most accurate ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT diagnostic criterion for CEAM.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Diagnosis , Electrons , Empyema , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786459

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We developed predictive models using different programming languages and different computing platforms for machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) that classify clinical diagnoses in patients with epiphora. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of these models.METHODS: Between January 2016 and September 2017, 250 patients with epiphora who underwent dacryocystography (DCG) and lacrimal scintigraphy (LS) were included in the study. We developed five different predictive models using ML tools, Python-based TensorFlow, R, and Microsoft Azure Machine Learning Studio (MAMLS). A total of 27 clinical characteristics and parameters including variables related to epiphora (VE) and variables related to dacryocystography (VDCG) were used as input data. Apart from this, we developed two predictive convolutional neural network (CNN) models for diagnosing LS images. We conducted this study using supervised learning.RESULTS: Among 500 eyes of 250 patients, 59 eyes had anatomical obstruction, 338 eyes had functional obstruction, and the remaining 103 eyes were normal. For the data set that excluded VE and VDCG, the test accuracies in Python-based TensorFlow, R, multiclass logistic regression in MAMLS, multiclass neural network in MAMLS, and nuclear medicine physician were 81.70%, 80.60%, 81.70%, 73.10%, and 80.60%, respectively. The test accuracies of CNN models in three-class classification diagnosis and binary classification diagnosis were 72.00% and 77.42%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: ML-based predictive models using different programming languages and different computing platforms were useful for classifying clinical diagnoses in patients with epiphora and were similar to a clinician's diagnostic ability.


Subject(s)
Classification , Dataset , Diagnosis , Humans , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases , Learning , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Nuclear Medicine , Programming Languages , Radionuclide Imaging
11.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 16-22, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764288

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ultrasonography plays a supplementary role in detecting breast microcalcifications as localizing these microcalcifications without mammographic aid is not always successful. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical implications of intraoperative sonography (IOUSG) in localized excisions after mammographically guided wire insertion. METHODS: Between May 2011 and December 2017, 90 localized excisional biopsies were included. All excisions were preceded by mammographically guided wire insertion. We divided them into two groups according to the use of IOUSG and compared the surgical outcomes between the two groups. RESULTS: Of the 90 localized excisions analyzed, IOUSG was performed in 40 (the USG group) localized excisions and not in the remaining 50 (the no USG group) localized excisions. The median cluster size of the target microcalcifications and the median specimen volume were smaller in the USG group than that in the no USG group (1.4 cm vs. 2.0 cm, p=0.02; 10.9 cm3 vs. 30.3 cm3, p<0.001, respectively). Additional excisions due to the incomplete coverage of the target microcalcifications on the specimen mammography were more frequent in the no USG group than in the USG group (30% vs. 15%, respectively, p<0.001). In the multivariate analyses, performing an IOUSG was the only significant risk factor, reducing the need for additional excision after adjusting the other risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.203; 95% confidence interval, 0.078–0.529). Performing an IOUSG significantly reduced the specimen volume excised after adjusting the cluster size of the microcalcifications. CONCLUSION: IOUSG could be helpful in improving the accuracy of surgical excision for breast microcalcifications localized with mammographically guided wire insertion.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast , Calcinosis , Mammography , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Surgery, Computer-Assisted , Ultrasonography
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were 76 patients with newly diagnosed myeloma and pretreatment with 18F-FDG PET/CT from four hospitals. The PET/CT features were evaluated and the clinical characteristics were reviewed. Prognostic factors related to poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were identified using a Cox proportional hazards regression model and a prediction scale was developed based on the identified factors. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of 18F-FDG-avid focal bone lesions (≥ 3) was a significant and independent predictor of PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.28, p = 0.007) and OS (HR = 11.78, p = 0.001). The presence of extramedullary disease on PET/CT scan was also a significant predictor of poor PFS (HR = 2.79, p = 0.006) and OS (HR = 3.89, p = 0.003). A prognostic scale was developed using these two predictors. An increase in score on the scale corresponded to a significantly increased risk of poor OS (p = 0.005). In addition, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patient survival varied significantly according to the scale (p < 0.001 for OS and p = 0.001 for PFS). CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG-avid focal lesions and the presence of extramedullary disease on PET/CT scan are significantly associated with poor OS in MM patients. The scale developed according to these predictors represents a potential prognostic tool for evaluation of patients with MM.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Electrons , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multiple Myeloma , Multivariate Analysis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prognosis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of pulmonary resection and mediastinal node dissection (MND) by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) following neoadjuvant therapy for stage IIIA N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: From November 2009 to December 2013, a total of 35 consecutive patients with pathologically or radiologically confirmed stage IIIA N2 lung cancer underwent pulmonary resection and MND, performed by a single surgeon, following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Preoperative patient characteristics, surgical outcomes, postoperative drainage, postoperative complications, and mortality were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: VATS was completed in 17 patients. Thoracotomy was performed in 18 patients, with 13 planned thoracotomies and 5 conversions from the VATS approach. The median age was 62.7±7.9 years in the VATS group and 60±8.7 years in the thoracotomy group. The patients in the VATS group tended to have a lower diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (p=0.077). There were no differences between the 2 groups in the method of diagnosing the N stage, tumor response and size after induction, tumor location, or histologic type. Complete resection was achieved in all patients. More total and mediastinal nodes were dissected in the VATS group than in the thoracotomy group (p < 0.05). The median chest tube duration was 5.3 days (range, 1 to 33 days) for the VATS group and 7.2 days (range, 2 to 28 days) for the thoracotomy group. The median follow-up duration was 36.3 months. The 5-year survival rates were 76% in the VATS group and 57.8% in the thoracotomy group (p=0.39). The 5-year disease-free survival rates were 40.3% and 38.9% in the VATS and thoracotomy groups, respectively (p=0.8). CONCLUSION: The VATS approach following neoadjuvant treatment was safe and feasible in selected patients for the treatment of stage IIIA N2 NSCLC, with no compromise of oncologic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Carbon Monoxide , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chest Tubes , Disease-Free Survival , Drainage , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Methods , Mortality , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thoracotomy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodeling. There is emerging interest in the involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in the pathophysiology of asthma. This study examined whether TRPV1 antagonism alleviates asthma features in a murine model of chronic asthma. METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged by ovalbumin to develop chronic asthma. Capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) or TRPV1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was administered in the treatment group to evaluate the effect of TPV1 antagonism on AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling. RESULTS: The mice displayed increased AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling. Treatment with capsazepine or TRPV1 siRNA reduced AHR to methacholine and airway inflammation. Type 2 T helper (Th2) cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, and IL-13) were reduced and epithelial cell-derived cytokines (thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP], IL-33, and IL-25), which regulate Th2 cytokine-associated inflammation, were also reduced. Airway remodeling characterized by goblet cell hyperplasia, increased α-smooth muscle action, and collagen deposition was also alleviated by both treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment directed at TRPV1 significantly alleviated AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling in a chronic asthma murine model. The TRPV1 receptor can be a potential drug target for chronic bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Animals , Asthma , Collagen , Cytokines , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Inflammation , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Methacholine Chloride , Mice , Ovalbumin , RNA, Small Interfering
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787016

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As there were few previous studies with a small number of subjects, the purpose of this was to evaluate the prognostic significance of ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in patients with distal bile duct cancer undergoing curative surgery.METHODS: The study included 40 patients (M/F = 24:16; age 68.0 ± 8.0 years) who underwent preoperative ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT followed by curative surgical resection. The participant's age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance-status score, baseline serum CA 19-9 level, stage, pathologic T and N stages, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor growth pattern, R0 resection, and adjuvant therapy were included as clinicopathological variables for predicting overall survival. The PET variables were maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)), average SUV (SUV(avg)), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the tumor. The Kaplan-Meyer method and Cox proportional hazards model were used for the survival analysis.RESULTS: A total of 15 of 40 patients (37.5%) died during the follow-up period. In univariate analysis, low SUVmax (≤ 2.7, p = 0.0005) and low SUV(avg) (≤ 2.6, p = 0.0034) were significant predictors of poor overall survival. In multivariate analyses, only low SUV(max) (HR = 6.7016, 95% CI 1.9961–22.4993, p = 0.0047) was an independent prognostic factor associated with poor overall survival.CONCLUSION: The SUVmax of the primary tumor measured by ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT was an independent significant prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with distal bile duct cancer. However, different results from a previous study warrant further large sample-sized study.


Subject(s)
Bile Duct Neoplasms , Bile Ducts , Bile , Cholangiocarcinoma , Follow-Up Studies , Glycolysis , Humans , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Tumor Burden
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786991

ABSTRACT

Bone is a common metastatic site of cancer. Bone metastasis reduces life expectancy and results in serious symptoms and complications such as bone pain, pathological fractures, and spinal cord compression, decreasing quality of life by restricting sleep and mobility. Treatment for bone metastasis includes drugs (pure analgesics, hormones, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and bisphosphonates, among others), external radiation therapy, surgery, and radionuclide therapy using bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals. Particulate radiation with α- or β-rays is used as a bone-targeting radiopharmaceutical in radionuclide therapy. β-Emitters have lower energy and a longer range than α-emitters and have less tumoricidal activity and deliver more radiation to adjacent normal tissue. Therefore, the main therapeutic effect of bone-targeting β-emitters such as ⁸⁹Sr-dichloride is bone pain palliation rather than enhanced survival. In contrast, α-emitters such as ²²³Ra-dichloride have high energy and a short range, resulting in greater tumoricidal activity and less radiation damage to adjacent normal tissue. Treatment with bone-targeting α-emitters can improve survival and decrease bone pain. This review focuses on the principles and clinical utility of several clinically available bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals in metastatic bone disease.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Bone Diseases , Diphosphonates , Drug Therapy , Fractures, Spontaneous , Life Expectancy , Neoplasm Metastasis , Quality of Life , Radiopharmaceuticals , Spinal Cord Compression
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786982

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Learning
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A ground-glass nodule (GGN) represents early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. However, there is still no consensus for preoperative staging of GGNs. Therefore, we evaluated the need for the routine use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during staging. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken in 72 patients with 74 GGNs of less than 3 cm in diameter, which were confirmed via surgery as malignancy, at the Samsung Medical Center between May 2010 and December 2011. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 59 years. The median GGN diameter was 18 mm. Pure and part-solid GGNs were identified in 35 (47.3%) and 39 (52.7%) cases, respectively. No mediastinal or distant metastasis was observed in these patients. In preoperative staging, all of the 74 GGNs were categorized as stage IA via chest CT scans. Additional PET/CT scans and brain MRIs classified 71 GGNs as stage IA, one as stage IIIA, and two as stage IV. However, surgery and additional diagnostic work-ups for abnormal findings from PET/CT scans classified 70 GGNs as stage IA, three as stage IB, and one as stage IIA. The chest CT scans did not differ from the combined modality of PET/CT scans and brain MRIs for the determination of the overall stage (94.6% vs. 90.5%; kappa value, 0.712). CONCLUSION: PET/CT scans in combination with brain MRIs have no additional benefit for the staging of patients with GGN lung adenocarcinoma before surgery.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Brain , Consensus , Electrons , Humans , Lung , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Solitary Pulmonary Nodule , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematologic malignancy that typically presents in the form of skin manifestations with or without lymph node and bone marrow involvement. Given its rarity and recent recognition as a distinct pathological entity, no standard of treatment exists for this aggressive disease and its prognosis is particularly dismal. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients who were diagnosed with BPDCN between 2000 and 2014. RESULTS: Ten patients had a median age at diagnosis of 41 years (range, 18 to 79), and seven patients were male. Sites of disease involvement were the skin (n = 7), lymph node (n = 5), bone marrow (n = 2), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), and soft tissue (n = 1). Intensified chemotherapy regimens such as hyperCVAD regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone, methotrexate, cytarabine), and VPDL (vincristine, methylprednisolone, daunorubicin, L-asparaginase) were used as a first-line treatment. Although all patients treated with intensified chemotherapy showed an objective response (five patients with complete response) with median progression-free survival of 11.2 months (range 6.2 to 19.4), complete remission was not sustained for more than 2 years in any case. The response was relatively long-lived compared with previously reported CHOP (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone)-like regimens, but the above regimens do not result in long-term remission. CONCLUSIONS: All patients treated with hyperCVAD or VPDL showed an objective response, but the duration of response was relatively short. Thus, the development of more effective induction as well as consolidation treatment strategy should be warranted to improve this rare disease entity.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Cyclophosphamide , Daunorubicin , Dendritic Cells , Dexamethasone , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Korea , Liver , Lymph Nodes , Male , Methotrexate , Methylprednisolone , Prognosis , Rare Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Skin Manifestations , Spleen , Vincristine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that the expression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family increases in patients with colon cancer. We evaluated the expression of the IAP family and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in normal colon mucosa from patients with advanced colorectal adenoma and investigated their features according to characteristics of advanced colorectal adenoma. METHODS: While resections of polyps were performed in patients (n = 80) diagnosed with advanced colorectal adenoma or carcinoma in situ, additional normal tissues were obtained from the sigmoid colon. In healthy patients (n = 16), blind biopsies were performed on the sigmoid colon. The expression of the IAP family, including survivin, XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2, and hTERT, were analyzed by real-time PCR in both groups. RESULTS: A total of 80 advanced colorectal adenoma patients (71.3% male, mean age of 60.4 years) and 16 control patients were enrolled in this study. The mean ranking of cIAP2 was higher in the control group (68.88 vs. 44.43, P = 0.001). The expression levels of hTERT, survivin, XIAP, and cIAP from both groups showed no differences. The expression of survivin, XIAP, cIAP1, cIAP2, and hTERT depending on certain factors of advanced adenoma, including the number (two or fewer vs. three or more), size (smaller than 1 cm vs. larger than 1 cm), grade of dysplasia (low grade adenoma vs. high grade adenoma), pathology (tubular adenoma vs. villous adenoma), and presence of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasms, showed no significant correlations in the Mann-Whitney U-test. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the IAP family and hTERT, except cIAP2, in the normal mucosa of patients with advanced colorectal adenoma were not different from those of the control group. There were no differences in the IAP family and hTERT according to the characteristics of advanced adenoma.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Biopsy , Carcinoma in Situ , Colon , Colon, Sigmoid , Colonic Neoplasms , Humans , Humans , Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins , Male , Mucous Membrane , Pathology , Polyps , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Telomerase
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