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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875082

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report the clinical characteristics and the primary underlying diseases of patients at high risk for failure of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients at high risk of PKP failure among those who visited the ophthalmological clinics of tertiary care hospitals in Korea from April 2019 to April 2020 and who were indicated for PKP were retrospectively enrolled. We epidemiologically investigated 119 eyes of 104 patients via medical chart review. @*Results@#Herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis was the most common primary underlying disease (26.1%). The most common primary cause of poor bilateral visual acuity was Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) (41.7%) followed by chemical burns (19.4%). Of the 119 eyes, 40.3% had a history of previous PKP and 20.2% had undergone three or more PKP. The average number of prior PKPs was 1.02 ± 1.46. Corneal neovascularization and corneal opacity were reported in 82.4 and 92.4% of cases, respectively. As the severity of these conditions increased, the eye distributions became larger. Of all patients, 47.9 and 31.9%, respectively, received the highest corneal neovascularization and corneal opacity scores. @*Conclusions@#Our study of patients at high risk of PKP failure improves our understanding of the relevant clinical characteristics and primary underlying diseases. Such patients require careful observation and aggressive treatment. Possible alternatives to PKP should be considered if PKP consistently fails. This study will aid clinicians in deciding whether to proceed to surgery if a poor postoperative prognosis is predictable.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835018

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the agreement in ocular biometry outcomes measured by three different devices, the IOL Master 500, IOL Master 700, and Lenstar LS900, and compare the refractive outcomes after cataract surgery obtained using those three devices. @*Methods@#Medical records of 178 eyes of 89 patients who underwent ocular biometry with the three devices were retrospectively reviewed, and 124 eyes met the inclusion criteria. Paired comparisons were performed for axial length (AL), mean keratometry (Km), and anterior chamber depth and quantified their agreement using Bland-Altman plots. Subgroup analyses were done according to the AL and the Km. Refractive outcomes were compared with respect to absolute prediction errors after cataract surgery in 54 eyes. @*Results@#Among 124 eyes, 12, 3, and 5 eyes failed to be measured of AL by IOL Master 500, IOL Master 700 and Lenstar LS900, respectively. The AL measured by Lenstar LS900 was longer than that measured by IOL Master 500 and IOL Master 700 (p 25.5 mm). Km measured using the IOL Master 500 was steeper than that measured with the IOL Master 700 or Lenstar LS900 (p = 0.001,p < 0.001, respectively). anterior chamber depth measured by IOL Master 500 was shallower than that measured by IOL Master 700 or Lenstar LS900 (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Ocular biometry measurements by the three devices showed high agreement with narrow 95% limits of agreement. Absolute prediction errors from the 3 devices showed no statistically significant differences after cataract surgery. @*Conclusions@#The IOL Master 700 and Lenstar LS900 demonstrated superior acquisition rates of biometric measurements compared with the IOL Master 500. Ocular biometry using the 3 different devices showed high agreement, although statistically significant differences were observed; however, since there was no difference in predicting the refractive outcomes, those differences are clinically negligible.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760053

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the protective effect of applying an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) to the ocular surface during cataract surgery and its ability to prevent dry eye syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-four patients aged 50 to 75 years who underwent cataract surgery at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and agreed to participate in the study were included and divided into two groups: a study group who underwent cataract surgery after application of an OVD to the ocular surface, and a control group who underwent cataract surgery without application of an OVD. DisCoVisc was used as the OVD in the study group, while other factors including surgical techniques and administration of anesthetic agents were performed in both groups in the same manner. Indicators of dry eye syndrome including ocular staining score, tear break-up time, and tear osmolality were analyzed. Ocular surface disease index and a visual analog scale were analyzed for dry eye symptoms, and the amount of balanced salt solution used during surface irrigation and operation time were also analyzed. RESULTS: Significant improvement in the tear break-up time, corneal ocular staining score, and ocular surface disease index score in the study group compared with the control group one week after operation (by the Mann-Whitney test). Use of OVD was associated with longer operating time. CONCLUSIONS: OVD applied to the ocular surface during cataract surgery had a protective effect on the ocular surface one week after surgery.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Cataract Extraction , Cataract , Dry Eye Syndromes , Humans , Osmolar Concentration , Seoul , Tears , Visual Analog Scale
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760049

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Granuloma, Pyogenic
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760044

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of bifocal versus trifocal diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on visual quality after phacoemulsification in patients with cataracts. METHODS: Eighty-eight eyes from 63 patients were analyzed. Trifocal (AT LISA tri 839MP), bifocal (AcrySof IQ ReSTOR) and bifocal (Tecnis MF ZLB00) IOLs were implanted into 53, 18, and 17 eyes, respectively. Uncorrected distance, intermediate and near visual acuity, refractive errors, contrast sensitivity, and patient satisfaction were measured at 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Refractive error was converted to a spherical equivalent and compared to predicted refraction calculated by IOL calculation formulas. RESULTS: Uncorrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity did not differ significantly between groups. One month after surgery, the mean refractive errors were −0.07 diopters (D) in the AT LISA tri 839MP group, +0.18 D in the AcrySof IQ ReSTOR group, and +0.31 D in the Tecnis MF ZLB00 group (p < 0.001). The predictive accuracy of IOL calculation formulas did not differ between groups. Contrast sensitivity, satisfaction, and spectacle independence in the trifocal group were comparable with those of the two bifocal groups. CONCLUSIONS: Trifocal IOL and two different types of bifocal IOL implantation were all effective for improving visual quality, although refractive error in patients with trifocal IOL shows myopic tendencies.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Contrast Sensitivity , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Patient Satisfaction , Phacoemulsification , Presbyopia , Refractive Errors , Visual Acuity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features of Korean patients with contact lens-induced limbal stem cell deficiency (CL-LSCD).METHODS: Medical records of 22 patients who were diagnosed with CL-LSCD between 2014 and 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. Outcome measures included demographics, clinical presentation, treatment, clinical course, and pattern of contact lens (CL) wear.RESULTS: Forty-two eyes of 22 patients were found to have typical changes associated with CL-LSCD. Twenty (91%) patients were women and mean age was 36 ± 12 years. All patients had myopia with mean spherical equivalent of −7.52 ± 3.2 diopter. Twenty (91%) patients had bilateral disease and the location of limbal involvement was diffuse in 20 eyes (47.6%) and partial in 22 eyes (52.4%, superior in 20 eyes and inferior in 2 eyes). Fourteen (63.6%) patients complained of decreased visual acuity. Average period of CL wear was 14 ± 9 years. Four patients used cosmetic colored CLs and four patients had a history of overnight CL wear. All 12 patients who completed follow-up (28 ± 42 weeks) showed improvement in visual acuity and ocular surface condition after cessation of CL wear and medical treatment. Of them, five (42%) patients showed full recovery while seven (58%) showed partial recovery.CONCLUSIONS: If a patient with a history of CL wear for an extended period of time presents with decreased visual acuity, practitioners should perform detailed examinations with suspicion of CL-LSCD, including fluorescein staining. CL-LSCD is usually reversible and close follow-up with conservative treatment is recommended as the initial treatment option.


Subject(s)
Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic , Demography , Female , Fluorescein , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Medical Records , Myopia , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Stem Cells , Visual Acuity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#This study aimed to investigate the inf luence of poor sleep quality on clinical features of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS).@*METHODS@#Sleep quality was cross-sectionally assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from 115 Korean patients with pSS. The patients completed questionnaires on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) SS Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI), quality of life (EuroQOL five dimensions questionnaire [EQ-5D]), fatigue (fatigue severity score [FSS]), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] II]). Symptoms and patient global assessment (PGA) were evaluated with a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). The EULAR sicca score (ESS), ESSPRI, and EULAR SS Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) were calculated at study enrollment.@*RESULTS@#Fifty-three patients (46.1%) had poor sleep quality and 32.4% of 71 patients without depression were poor sleepers. Poor sleepers had a significantly lower EQ-5D or ESSDAI and a significantly higher FSS, BDI-II, PGA, ESS, ESSPRI, or VAS scores for extra-glandular symptoms than good sleepers. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher and immunoglobulin G levels tended to decrease in poor sleepers. Additionally, PSQI was negatively correlated with EQ-5D and ESSDAI and positively with ESS, FSS, BDI-II, PGA, VAS scores for their symptoms, and ESSPRI. Multivariate analysis revealed that poor sleep quality remained the independent determinants of the unsatisfactory symptom state (ESSPRI ≥ 5).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results showed that poor sleep quality could significantly affect the patient-oriented outcomes and physician-reported activity index of pSS patients through the various effects of sleep quality on the psychological or somatic symptoms and the immune system.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194887

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between tear osmolarity and various parameters for ocular and systemic disease in primary Sjögren's syndrome. METHODS: The medical records of 53 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome were reviewed. Tear osmolarity using a TearLab® (TearLab™ Corp., San Diego, CA, USA) osmometer as well as other dry eye parameters such as tear break-up time, ocular staining score (Sjögren's International Collaboration Clinical Alliance [SICCA] ocular staining score, SICCA score), Schirmer-I score, symptoms with Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were obtained. Systemic laboratory data and medication history were also collected. The correlations between the parameters were analyzed using the Spearman's rank correlation test. RESULTS: 53 patients with a mean age of 54.1 ± 13.2 years and female predominance (96.23%) were enrolled. The majority of patients (28.3%) were receiving systemic therapy for severe Sjögren's syndrome. The tear osmolarity in Sjögren's syndrome patients was 307 ± 13.6 (mOsm/L). Higher tear osmolarity was associated with lower tear film break-up time (BUT) scores and with higher SICCA scores. Tear osmolarity and the Schirmer test results were not significantly related. Higher tear osmolarity was paradoxically associated with lower VAS scores and lower OSDI scores. Neither current medication nor the salivary gland focus score showed significant associations with tear osmolarity. Although tear osmolarity was not associated with the SSA-Ro or SSA-LA titer, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) level and serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) level showed positive correlations with tear osmolarity. CONCLUSIONS: Tear osmolarity is positively correlated with the severity of dry eye and was associated with lower symptom severity. The significant associations of tear osmolarity with IgG and ESR suggest that high tear osmolarity may be correlated with autoantibody load and the systemic inflammatory state.


Subject(s)
Blood Sedimentation , Cooperative Behavior , Dry Eye Syndromes , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Medical Records , Osmolar Concentration , Salivary Glands , Tears , Visual Analog Scale
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of two artificial tears, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronate (HA), was compared in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. The efficacy was compared in terms of the mean change from baseline in tear break-up time. The meta-analysis was conducted using both random and fixed effect models. The quality of the selected studies was assessed for risk of bias. RESULTS: Five studies were included involving 251 participants. Random effect model meta-analysis showed no significant difference between CMC and HA in treating dry eye disease (pooled standardized mean difference [SMD]=-0.452; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.911 to 0.007; P=0.053). In contrast, fixed effect model meta-analysis revealed significant improvements in the CMC group when compared to the HA group (pooled SMD=-0.334; 95% CI, -0.588 to -0.081; P=0.010). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of CMC appeared to be better than that of HA in treating dry eye disease, although meta-analysis results were not statistically significant. Further research is needed to better elucidate the difference in efficacy between CMC and HA in treating dry eye disease.


Subject(s)
Bias , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Eye Diseases , Humans , Lubricant Eye Drops , Tears , Xerophthalmia
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224849

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67-43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97-42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91-45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30-8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80-6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41-9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cataract/complications , Cataract Extraction , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218569

ABSTRACT

Rheumatic diseases are associated various extra-articular manifestations, such as eye, nerve, pericardium, and pleura. The anterior part of the eye has distinguished anatomic structure resembling synovial joints, thus it is a common site of ocular manifestation in rheumatic disease. These changes include sicca syndrome, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and iritis. Some of these findings may be the clues for the diagnosis of the rheumatic diseases, and some ocular manifestations may represent the activity or prognosis of the rheumatic diseases. These ocular complications may leads to severe visual loss. It is crucial to rule out underlying systemic diagnosis in rheumatic disease associated ocular diseases, and when diagnosed, the coordination of the rheumatologist with the ophthalmologist in the treatment is imperative.


Subject(s)
Corneal Ulcer , Diagnosis , Eye Diseases , Iritis , Joints , Pericardium , Pleura , Prognosis , Rheumatic Diseases , Scleritis , Sjogren's Syndrome
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189735

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the accuracy of intraocular lens power calculations using simulated keratometry (simK) of dual Scheimpflug analyzer and 5 types of formulas in cataract patients. METHODS: The keratometry (K), axial length (AXL) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured using ultrasound biometry (USB) combined with auto-keratometry (Auto-K), parital coherence interferometry (PCI; IOL master®) and dual Scheimpflug analyzer (DSA; Galilei®) in 39 eyes of 39 patients. Predicted refraction was calculated using Auto-K, mean K of PCI, and simK and total corneal power (TCP) of DSA in the Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK-T) formula. The SRK-II, SRK-T, Holladay II, Haigis, and Hoffer-Q formula were used to calculate predicted refraction with the simK of DSA and AXL of USB. Manifest refraction, mean numerical error (MNE) and mean absolute error were evaluated 1, 3 and 6 months after cataract surgery. RESULTS: TCP of DSA was lower compared with other keratometric values (p < 0.05). The MNE was not different among Auto-K, mean K and simK. The MNE using TCP was larger compared with Auto-K, mean K and simK at 1 month after surgery (p < 0.05). There was a difference in MNE between simK and TCP of DSA at 6 months after surgery (p < 0.05). The MNE of SRK-T formula was the smallest in the intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation using the simK of DSA. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest using IOL power calculations with simK of DSA and SRK-T formula rather than TCP of DSA in cataract patients with normal corneas.


Subject(s)
Anterior Chamber , Biometry , Cataract , Cornea , Humans , Interferometry , Lenses, Intraocular , Ultrasonography
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical features, surgical treatments, and their outcomes in conjunctival squamous papilloma. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 31 patients with 32 eyes that were treated for conjunctival papilloma from October 2000 to February 2015 in Seoul National University Hospital and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. RESULTS: Among the 31 patients, 9 patients had papilloma which recurred after previous surgical excision at another hospital. Twenty-five eyes had one papilloma lesion, 2 eyes had 2 lesions, and 5 eyes had more than 3 lesions. The most affected location of papilloma was the tarsal conjunctiva. The recurrent group displayed a tendency to have multiple lesions. Surgical excision without any adjuvant therapy was performed in 13 eyes; surgical excision and cryotherapy in 15 eyes; surgical excision, cryotherapy, and topical interferon alfa-2b in 3 eyes; and surgical excision and amniotic membrane transplantation in 1 eye. The mean postoperative follow up period was 11.1 months. There were 5 cases of recurrence and the mean time of recurrence after surgical excision was 4.22 months (range, 3 days to 9 months). Among 5 cases of recurrence, 3 cases were after surgical excision only, 1 case was after surgical excision and cryotherapy, and 1 case was after surgical excision, cryotherapy, and topical interferon alfa-2b. These 5 recurred cases were retreated with surgical excision and cryotherapy, surgical excision and topical interferon alfa-2b, or surgical excision, cryotherapy, and topical interferon alfa-2b. CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival squamous papilloma is likely to recur even though the tumor is completely removed. Therefore, long-term postoperative follow up may be necessary for recurrence.


Subject(s)
Amnion , Conjunctiva , Cryotherapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Interferons , Papilloma , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Seoul
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50645

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare oxidative stress status in the aqueous humor of highly myopic eyes and control eyes. METHODS: Aqueous humor samples were collected from 15 highly myopic eyes (high myopia group) and 23 cataractous eyes (control group) during cataract surgery. Central corneal thickness, corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality of corneal endothelial cells, and cell area of corneal endothelial cells were measured using specular microscopy. Axial length was measured using ultrasound biometry. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: 8-OHdG level was lower in the aqueous humor of myopic patients than in that of control group (p = 0.014) and was positively correlated with central corneal thickness and negatively correlated with axial length (r = 0.511, p = 0.02; r = -0.382, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between 8-OHdG level and corneal endothelial cell density, hexagonality, or cell area. Malondialdehyde level did not show any correlation with any parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: 8-OHdG might be a sensitive biomarker for evaluating oxidative stress status in the eye. Oxidative stress level was lower in the aqueous humor of highly myopic eyes compared to that in control eyes, which indicates lower metabolic activity in these eyes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aqueous Humor/metabolism , Deoxyguanosine/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Middle Aged , Myopia/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226696

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical significance of the internal lens signal measured using dual Scheimpflug anterior segment analyzer (Galilei(TM), Ziemer, Switzerland) in patients receiving cataract surgery. METHODS: The present study included 151 eyes of 148 patients who received surgery for senile cataracts from February 2012 to January 2013. Preoperative internal lens signals were measured preoperatively. The depth of anterior chamber and anterior angles were measured using dual Scheimpflug anterior segment analyzer preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) were measured. The relationships between preoperative internal lens signal and the changes in BCVA or anterior angles were evaluated. RESULTS: Internal lens signal and preoperative BCVA (log MAR) or preoperative anterior chamber depth were highly correlated (r = 0.287, p = 0.001 and r = -0.271, p = 0.004, respectively). Anterior angles increased 1 month after surgery compared with the preoperative values (p < 0.001). The amount of change between preoperative and postoperative anterior angles correlated with preoperative anterior angles (p < 0.001). However, no statistically significant correlation was observed between internal lens signal and preoperative anterior angles or postoperative BCVA. Internal lens signal correlated with changes in postoperative anterior angles (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Internal lens signal correlated with preoperative visual acuity and may help evaluate the cataract severity quantitatively and objectively. Internal lens signal may aid in understanding the structure of anterior segments by predicting the lens volume. Knowing the effect of visual impairment due to cataracts and predicting visual improvement after cataract surgery is necessary.


Subject(s)
Anterior Chamber , Cataract , Humans , Vision Disorders , Visual Acuity
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190053

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the changes in meibomian glands associated with aging in a normal Korean population and to estimate the differences between the upper and lower eyelid in each age group. METHODS: We performed meibography on adult subjects using an infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Each eyelid was scored based on the loss of meibomian glands, and the meiboscores of the upper and lower eyelids were summed to obtain a score for each eye. Meiboscores were evaluated according to age, sex, and upper and lower eyelid meiboscores in each age group. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen eyes of 117 people were enrolled in this study. The study subjects had an average age of 50.4 +/- 19.1 years (range, 20-92; male, 56; female, 61). There was a significant positive correlation between age and total meiboscore, upper and lower eyelid meiboscore (r = 0.578, p < 0.001; r = 0.550, p < 0.001; r = 0.524, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the meiboscores of the upper and lower eyelids in any age group, though meiboscores were significantly higher since 40 year-old group than 20 year-old group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Based on noncontact meibography in normal adult eyes, the authors concluded that prevalence of changes in the meibomian glands was about 60% and changes in meibomian glands increase with age.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Eyelids , Female , Humans , Male , Meibomian Glands , Prevalence
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65432

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of cysteamine on mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)-chemically injured keratocytes reaction (mixed lymphocyte-keratocyte reaction; MLKR). METHODS: PBMC stimulation assay was performed after keratocytes were chemically injured with 0.05 N NaOH for 60 seconds. MLKR was treated with various concentrations of cysteamine (0-10 mM). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was measured using the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe, 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). Proliferation rate of PBMCs stimulated by NaOH-treated keratocytes and secretion profiles of matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were determined using the bromodeoxyuridine proliferation assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. RESULTS: Proliferation rate of PMBCs was suppressed by cysteamine in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.019). Fluorescence of DCF-DA decreased depending on cysteamine concentration (p < 0.001). MMP-9, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels were suppressed by cysteamine in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), whereas MIF levels increased with cysteamine concentration of 0.5-10 mM (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: These study results indicate that cysteamine induced the ROS-mediated inhibition of inflammatory cytokine release and proliferation of PBMCs stimulated by chemically injured keratocytes. Thus, cysteamine can be used in the treatment of chemical corneal burns.


Subject(s)
Bromodeoxyuridine , Burns , Cysteamine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescence , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Reactive Oxygen Species , Transforming Growth Factor beta1
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150682

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the epidemiology of contact lens (CL)-related complications in Korea. METHODS: A questionnaire regarding CL-related complications including patient's gender, age, causative factors, and signs and symptoms was distributed to members of the Korean Ophthalmological Society by The Korean Contact Lens Study Society and the results of the questionnaire analyzed. RESULTS: Responses to the questionnaire written by ophthalmologists from 22 institutes and clinics were collected from 499 subjects over a 20-month period starting in October 2008 and analyzed. The mean age of respondents was 22.9 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1:8.1. The soft CL and cosmetic colored lens comprised the majority (46.6% and 42.1%, respectively) of the reported cases, followed by the rigid gas permeable lens (RGP lens; 10.6%) and orthokeratology lens (0.8%). In subjects using a cosmetic colored lens, 62.2% showed emmetropia and 89.1% of the lenses were prescribed by opticians. The main complications included corneal erosion, sterile corneal infiltrate, allergic disease, conjunctival injection, corneal ulcer, and dry eye syndrome. The most common causative factor of complications was excessive lens wear. Comparing main causative factors according to the RGP lens prescriber, the most common factor was poor lens fit. CONCLUSIONS: The number of cosmetic colored lens-related complications in the emmetropic eyes of young patients is increasing rapidly. Considering opticians are the main CL prescribers in CL-related complications, Korean ophthalmologists need to pay more attention to CL fitting and constant education of patients regarding proper CL wear and care.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Conjunctival Diseases , Corneal Ulcer , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dry Eye Syndromes , Emmetropia , Epidemiology , Humans , Korea , Patient Education as Topic
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147481

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess current practice patterns for dry eye patients in South Korea and to evaluate the preference according to the ages and clinic types of physicians. METHODS: Dry eye patients (n = 1,612) were enrolled in this multicenter cross-sectional, observational study. The severity level of dry eye patients was classified based on the Korean guidelines for dry eye treatment. The medical records of the enrolled dry eye patients were evaluated, and the practice styles and the preferences were analyzed according to the ages and clinic types of physicians. RESULTS: Of all patients, dry eye level 1 was most common (47.5%), followed by level 2 (33.5%), level 3 (9.1%), and level 4 (1.1%). Topical anti-inflammatory agents were used in 70.7% of patients with dry eye level 2 and in 80.6% of patients at levels 3 and 4. Topical anti-inflammatory agents were also used in 48.7% of patients with dry eye level 1. Preservative-free artificial tears were preferred at all dry eye levels. The use of topical anti-inflammatory agents did not differ with investigator ages, but older physicians preferred preserved artificial tears more than younger ones. Physicians at referral hospitals also tended to use topical anti-inflammatory agents and preservative-free artificial tears earlier, beginning at dry eye level 1, than those who worked at private eye clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Topical anti-inflammatory agents were commonly prescribed for the treatment of dry eye patients in South Korea, even from dry eye level 1. Preservative-free artificial tears were preferred at all dry eye levels. Practice styles differed somewhat depending on the ages and clinic types of physicians.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Dry Eye Syndromes/drug therapy , Fatty Acids, Essential/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Lubricant Eye Drops/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Ointments/therapeutic use , Ophthalmology/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Professional Practice , Referral and Consultation , Republic of Korea , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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