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1.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 10-17, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002939

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Increasing resistance to clarithromycin (CAM) of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the main causes of recent decrease in eradication rate of standard triple therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of 7-day tailored therapy based on the existence of CAM resistance. @*Methods@#From January 2017 to May 2022, a total of 481 consecutive patients with H. pylori infection were recruited in Daegu Catholic University Medical Center. Treatment regimen was selected based on the result of CAM resistance test. Patients with CAM resistance (R group) were treated with bismuth-based quadruple therapy for 7 days. Patients without CAM resistance (S group) were treated with standard triple therapy for 7 days. @*Results@#The overall H. pylori eradication rate was 89.4% (379 of 424) by per-protocol (PP) analysis. Patients with CAM resistance mutation included 166 patients (34.5%). The eradication rates of each group were 88.8% (135 of 152) and 89.7% (244 of 272) by PP analysis, for R and S group respectively. By intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, the eradication rates were 81.3% (135 of 166) and 77.5% (244 of 315) for R and S group. CAM resistance was identified with a dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex PCR. @*Conclusions@#In spite of this high CAM resistance (34.5%), the eradication rate of 7-day tailored therapy based on the existence of CAM resistance was 89.4%. The 7-day tailored therapy based on CAM resistance could be an acceptable treatment selection strategy for H. pylori eradication.

2.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 145-153, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002923

ABSTRACT

Patients frequently report that stress causes or exacerbates gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, indicating a functional relationship between the brain and the GI tract. The brain and GI tract are closely related embryologically and functionally, interacting in various ways. The concept of the brain–gut axis was originally established in the 19th and early 20th centuries based on physiological observations and experiments conducted in animals and humans. In recent years, with the growing recognition that gut microbiota plays a vital role in human health and disease, this concept has been expanded to the brain–gut–microbiota axis. The brain influences the motility, secretion, and immunity of the GI tract, with consequent effects on the composition and function of the gut microbiota. On the other hand, gut microbiota plays an essential role in the development and function of the brain and enteric nervous system. Although knowledge of the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota influences distant brain function is incomplete, studies have demonstrated communication between these organs through the neuronal, immune, and endocrine systems. The brain–gut–microbiota axis is an essential aspect of the pathophysiology of functional GI disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, and is also involved in other GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review summarizes the evolving concept of the brain–gut–microbiota axis and its implications for GI diseases, providing clinicians with new knowledge to apply in clinical practice.

3.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 460-469, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001439

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#It remains unclear which maintenance treatment modality is most appropriate for mild gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).We aimed to compare on-demand treatment with continuous treatment using a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the maintenance treatment for patients with non-erosive GERD or mild erosive esophagitis. @*Methods@#Patients whose GERD symptoms improved after 4 weeks of standard dose PPI treatment were prospectively enrolled at 25 hospitals.Subsequently, the enrolled patients were randomly assigned to either an on-demand or a continuous maintenance treatment group, and followed in an 8-week interval for up to 24 weeks. @*Results@#A total of 304 patients were randomized to maintenance treatment (continuous, n = 151 vs on-demand, n = 153). The primary outcome, the overall proportion of unwillingness to continue the assigned maintenance treatment modality, failed to confirm the noninferiority of on-demand treatment (45.9%) compared to continuous treatment (36.1%). Compared with the on-demand group, the GERD symptom and health-related quality of life scores significantly more improved and the overall satisfaction score was significantly higher in the continuous treatment group, particularly at week 8 and week 16 of maintenance treatment. Work impairment scores were not different in the 2 groups, but the prescription cost was less in the on-demand group. Serum gastrin levels significantly elevated in the continuous treatment group, but not in the on-demand group. @*Conclusions@#Continuous treatment seems to be more appropriate for the initial maintenance treatment of non-erosive GERD or mild erosive esophagitis than on-demand treatment. Stepping down to on-demand treatment needs to be considered after a sufficient period of continuous treatment.

4.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 470-477, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001438

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that typically requires long-term maintenance therapy. However, little is known about patient preferences and satisfaction and real-world prescription patterns regarding maintenance therapy for GERD. @*Methods@#This observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study involved patients from 18 referral hospitals in Korea. We surveyed patients who had been prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for GERD for at least 90 days with a minimum follow-up duration of 1 year. The main outcome was overall patient satisfaction with different maintenance therapy modalities. @*Results@#A total of 197 patients were enrolled. Overall patient satisfaction, patient preferences, and GERD health-related quality of life scores did not significantly differ among the maintenance therapy modality groups. However, the on-demand therapy group experienced a significantly longer disease duration than the continuous therapy group. The continuous therapy group demonstrated a lower level of awareness of potential adverse effects associated with PPIs than the on-demand therapy group but received higher doses of PPIs than the on-demand therapy group. The prescribed doses of PPIs also varied based on the phenotype of GERD, with higher doses prescribed for non-erosive reflux disease than erosive reflux disease. @*Conclusion@#Although overall patient satisfaction did not significantly differ among the different PPI maintenance therapy modality groups, awareness of potential adverse effects was significantly different between the on-demand and continuous therapy groups.

5.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 70-92, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938666

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis. Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

6.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 283-290, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926108

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is characterized by intestinal and extra intestinal symptoms associated with the consumption of gluten-containing food. Since biomarkers for non-celiac gluten sensitivity are lacking, its prevalence is estimated based on self-reported symptoms. However, no data exist on self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population. Thus, we aim to investigate the prevalence of self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity in the Korean population and to determine its demographic and clinical characteristics. @*Methods@#This study surveyed Korean participants aged 18-80 years who visited gastroenterology outpatient clinics at 9 tertiary hospitals in South Korea from January 2016 to February 2017. They were questioned regarding symptoms related to gluten ingestion: degree of discomfort (visual analog scale score), frequency, time of symptom onset, and duration. Abdominal discomfort caused by 11 differentkinds of gluten-containing Korean food items was investigated. @*Results@#More non-celiac gluten sensitivity self-reporters were identified among those with irritable bowel syndrome (33.6%) than among controls (5.8%). Major gastrointestinal symptoms included bloating (75.0%), abdominal discomfort (71.3%), and belching (45.0%).Common extra-intestinal symptoms included fatigue (20.0%) and headache (13.7%). More than half of those who self-reported nonceliac gluten sensitivity (66.3%) developed symptoms within 1 hour of food ingestion, and symptoms were localized in the upper abdomen (37.5%) and entire abdomen (30.0%). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that if there are gluten-related symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, the possibility of accompanying non-celiacgluten sensitivity should be considered.

7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 256-262, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925778

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis (Itbc) is often challenging. Therapeutic anti-tubercular trial (TATT) is sometimes used for the diagnosis of Itbc. We aimed to evaluate the changing pattern of fecal calprotectin (FC) levels during TATT in patients with Itbc. @*Methods@#A retrospective review was performed on the data of 39 patients who underwent TATT between September 2015 and November 2018 in five university hospitals in Daegu, South Korea. The analysis was performed for 33 patients with serial FC measurement reports. @*Results@#The mean age of the participants was 48.8 years. The final diagnosis of Itbc was confirmed in 30 patients based on complete mucosal healing on follow-up colonoscopy performed after 2 months of TATT. Before starting TATT, the mean FC level of the Itbc patients was 170.2 μg/g (range, 11.5-646.5). It dropped to 25.4 μg/g (range, 11.5-75.3) and then 23.3 μg/g (range, 11.5-172.2) after one and two months of TATT, respectively. The difference in mean FC before and one month after TATT was statistically significant (p<0.001), and FC levels decreased to below 100 μg/g in all patients after one month of TATT. @*Conclusions@#All Itbc patients showed FC decline after only 1 month of TATT, and this finding correlated with complete mucosal healing in the follow-up colonoscopy after 2 months of TATT.

8.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 111-120, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915750

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are essential for clinical decision making, conduction of clinical research, and drug application acquisition in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study is to develop a PRO instrument and to determine the respondents’ perception of the efficacy of therapeutic agents for functional dyspepsia (FD). @*Methods@#A self-evaluation questionnaire for dyspepsia (SEQ-DYSPEPSIA) was developed and validated through a structured process. The 2-week reproducibility was evaluated, and the construct validity was assessed by correlating the scores of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA (including typical and major FD symptom subscales). Finally, the response to medication was assessed by comparing the changes after 4 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#A total of 193 Korean patients (age 48.5 ± 13.6 years, 69.4% women) completed the questionnaire. SEQ-DYSPEPSIA with 11 items had a good internal consistency (alpha = 0.770-0.905) and an acceptable test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.733-0.859). The self-evaluation questionnaire (SEQ)-major FD score highly correlated with the postprandial fullness/early satiety domain of the Patient Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (correlation coefficient r = 0.741, P < 0.001), Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version (NDI-K) (r = 0.839, P < 0.001), and NDI-K quality of life (r = −0.275 to −0.344, P < 0.001). After medical treatment, decrease in the SEQ-typical FD and SEQ-major FD was significantly greater in the responder group than in nonresponder group (P= 0.019 and P = 0.009, respectively). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the Korean version of SEQ-DYSPEPSIA has good reliability and validity, and can be a useful PRO measurement tool in patients with FD.

9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 116-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902239

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause for. It is highly prevalent in the Korean population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogeneous nature of its pathogenesis. We constituted a guidelines development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of FD. @*Methods@#This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta- analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. @*Results@#These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. @*Conclusions@#The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

10.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 453-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 116-138, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894535

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause for. It is highly prevalent in the Korean population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogeneous nature of its pathogenesis. We constituted a guidelines development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of FD. @*Methods@#This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta- analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. @*Results@#These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. @*Conclusions@#The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

12.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 87-96, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874871

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Prokinetics such as mosapride citrate CR (conventional-release; Gasmotin) are commonly used in functional dyspepsia (FD). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-a-day mosapride citrate SR (DWJ1252), a sustained-release formulation of mosapride citrate, compared with mosapride citrate CR 3 times a day, in patients with FD. @*Methods@#In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study, 119 patients with FD (by the Rome III criteria, 60 for mosapride citrate SR and 59 for mosapride citrate CR) were randomly allocated to mosapride citrate SR once daily or mosapride citrate CR thrice daily for 4 weeks in 16 medical institutions. Primary end point was the change in gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score from baseline, assessed by GIS questionnaires on 5-point Likert scale after 4-week treatment. Secondary end points and safety profiles were also analyzed. @*Results@#The study included 51 and 49 subjects in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively. GIS scores at week 4 were significantly reduced in both groups (mean ± SD: − 10.04 ± 4.45 and − 10.86 ± 5.53 in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively; P < 0.001), and the GIS changes from baseline did not differ between the 2 groups (difference, 0.82 point; 95% CI, − 1.17, 2.81; P = 0.643). Changes in GIS at weeks 2 and 4 and quality of life at week 4, and the improvement rates of global assessments at weeks 2 and 4, did not differ between the groups. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups, and there were no serious adverse events. @*Conclusion@#In patients with FD, mosapride citrate SR once daily is as effective as mosapride citrate CR thrice daily, with a similar safety profile.

13.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 453-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

14.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 29-50, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833852

ABSTRACT

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a chronic upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptom complex that routine diagnostic work-up, such as endoscopy, blood laboratory analysis, or radiological examination, fails to identify a cause. It is highly prevalent in the World population, and its response to the various available therapeutic strategies is only modest because of the heterogenous nature of its pathogenesis. Therefore, FD represents a heavy medical burden for healthcare systems. We constituted a guideline development committee to review the existing guidelines on the management of functional dyspepsia. This committee drafted statements and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of various studies, guidelines, and randomized control trials. External review was also conducted by selected experts. These clinical practice guidelines for FD were developed based on evidence recently accumulated with the revised version of FD guidelines released in 2011 by the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines apply to adults with chronic symptoms of FD and include the diagnostic role of endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori screening, and systematic review and meta-analyses of the various treatment options for FD (proton pump inhibitors, H. pylori eradication, and tricyclic antidepressants), especially according to the FD subtype. The purpose of these new guidelines is to aid the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of FD, and the targets of the guidelines are clinicians, healthcare workers at the forefront of patient care, patients, and medical students. The guidelines will continue to be revised and updated periodically.

15.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 180-203, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833835

ABSTRACT

Esophageal achalasia is a primary motility disorder characterized by insufficient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of esophageal peristalsis. Achalasia is a chronic disease that causes progressive irreversible loss of esophageal motor function. The recent development of high-resolution manometry has facilitated the diagnosis of achalasia, and determining the achalasia subtypes based on high-resolution manometry can be important when deciding on treatment methods. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is less invasive than surgery with comparable efficacy. The present guidelines (the “2019 Seoul Consensus on Esophageal Achalasia Guidelines”) were developed based on evidence-based medicine; the Asian Neurogastroenterology and Motility Association and Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility served as the operating and development committees, respectively. The development of the guidelines began in June 2018, and a draft consensus based on the Delphi process was achieved in April 2019. The guidelines consist of 18 recommendations: 2 pertaining to the definition and epidemiology of achalasia, 6 pertaining to diagnoses, and 10 pertaining to treatments. The endoscopic treatment section is based on the latest evidence from meta-analyses. Clinicians (including gastroenterologists, upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons, general physicians, nurses, and other hospital workers) and patients could use these guidelines to make an informed decision on the management of achalasia.

16.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 276-285, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832169

ABSTRACT

The area of endoscopic application has been continuously expanded since its introduction in the last century and the frequency of its use also increased stiffly in the last decades. Because gastrointestinal endoscopy is naturally exposed to diseased internal organs and contact with pathogenic materials, endoscopy mediated infection or disease transmission becomes a major concern in this field. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is not for single use and the proper reprocessing process is a critical factor for safe and reliable endoscopy procedures. What needed in these circumstances is a practical guideline for reprocessing the endoscope and its accessories which is feasible in the real clinical field to guarantee acceptable prevention of pathogen transmission. This guideline contains principles and instructions of the reprocessing procedure according to the step by step. And it newly includes general information and updated knowledge about endoscopy-mediated infection and disinfection. Multiple societies and working groups participated to revise; Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, the Korean Society of Gastroenterology, Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Nurses and Associates and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Through this cooperation, we enhanced communication and established a better concordance. We still need more researches in this field and fill up the unproven area. And our guidelines will be renewed accordingly.

17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 425-430, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938635

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is increasing worldwide. Obesity has been linked to gastroesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and various FGIDs. However, the relationship between obesity and FGIDs remains unclear. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the published studies on this topic and clarify the relationship between obesity and the pathophysiology of various FGIDs.

18.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 77-83, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742138

ABSTRACT

Dyspepsia is a common problem, and when dyspeptic symptoms develop within a short period of time, organic diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer diseases, pancreatoduodenal diseases, and gastrointestinal cancers should be suspected. Furthermore, functional dyspepsia (FD) should be considered if chronic or recurrent symptoms persist after eliminating underlying disease. FD is classified as epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) or postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), but these two conditions may overlap. Patients with the EPS subtype can be treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), whereas patients with the PDS subtype may be managed primarily with prokinetics, and patients with EPS and PDS can be co-administered PPIs and prokinetics. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy can be administered on a test-and-treat basis when PPIs and prokinetics are ineffective or to younger patients with chronic dyspepsia, and tricyclic antidepressants can be used as a secondary treatment because they are effective in patients with the EPS subtype. In addition, because the pathophysiology of FD is diverse, dietary education and stress management are required in addition to medical therapy, and should substantially aid treatment and long-term management. Here, we introduce and summarize recently published guidelines for the treatment of FD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , Dyspepsia , Education , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Helicobacter pylori , Peptic Ulcer , Proton Pump Inhibitors
19.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 425-430, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759959

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is increasing worldwide. Obesity has been linked to gastroesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and various FGIDs. However, the relationship between obesity and FGIDs remains unclear. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the published studies on this topic and clarify the relationship between obesity and the pathophysiology of various FGIDs.


Subject(s)
Dyspepsia , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Obesity , Prevalence
20.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 544-550, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Appropriate interval for performing follow-up endoscopy among dyspeptic patients without abnormal findings on previous endoscopy is unclear. We analyzed the multicenter-collected data from the Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. METHODS: We collected clinical data of the patients who visited the gastroenterology department and underwent 2 or more sessions of upper endoscopy during 2012–2017 at 6 university hospitals in Korea. Patients with endoscopic interval between 90 days and 760 days were included. For those with multiple endoscopic sessions, only the first 2 were analyzed. Positive outcome was defined as adenoma or cancer in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To identify the point of change and estimate the properties of the stochastic process before and after the change, we used Bayesian regression with Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. RESULTS: There were 1595 patients. Mean age was 58.8 years (standard deviation, 12.8). Median interval of endoscopy was 437 days (standard deviation, 153). On follow-up endoscopy, there were 12 patients (0.75%) who had neoplasia (4 with gastric cancer and 8 with gastric adnoma). As with the prior hypothesis, we presumed the change point (CP) of increase in frequency of organic lesion as 360 days. After random-walk Metropolis-Hastings sampling with Markov-Chain Monte Carlo iterations of 5000, the CP was 560 days (95% credible interval, 139–724). Estimated average of frequency of dysplastic lesions increased by a factor of 4.4 after the estimated CP. CONCLUSION: To rule out dysplastic lesions among dyspeptic patients who had previously normal endoscopy, a 2-year interval could be offered as follow-up interval for repeat upper endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoma , Bayes Theorem , Dyspepsia , Endoscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroenterology , Gastroscopy , Hospitals, University , Korea , Stomach Neoplasms , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
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