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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937421

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) are novel anti-diabetic drugs whose glucose-lowering effect and cardiovascular and renal benefits were evidenced in clinical trials. We investigated the real-world efficacy and safety of the combination of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. The medical records of 104 patients who maintained the combination for at least 1 year were retrospectively reviewed. The change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) after 6 months and 1 year of treatment was evaluated. The mean age was 51 years, and 41% were female. The mean baseline HbA1c, body mass index, and duration of diabetes were 9.0%, 28.8 kg/m2, and 11.7 years, respectively. Compared with baseline, the HbA1c decreased by 1.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 1.74; P<0.001) after 6 months and by 1.4% (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.70; P<0.001) after 1 year. Over 1 year, the bodyweight change was −2.8 kg (95% CI, −4.21 to −1.47; P<0.001). The combination of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA is effective and tolerable in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in real-world practice.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938093

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, the product of fasting triglycerides and glucose, is a useful and cost-effective marker of insulin resistance (IR). Furthermore, the TyG index is a known IR screening tool in healthy young adults but not in those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the TyG index as a predictor of CVD in healthy young adults. @*Methods@#This study enrolled 6,675,424 adults aged 20–39 years without CVD from the National Health Information Database. We categorized them by TyG index quartile from 2009–2017. The study outcomes were stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and mortality. All outcomes were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis while controlling for baseline covariates. @*Results@#During a mean 7.4 years of follow-up, 8,506 cases of stroke, 12,312 cases of MI, and 22,667 deaths were recorded. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for participants in the highest TyG index quartile demonstrated that they were at higher risk for stroke (HR, 1.253; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.167–1.346), MI (HR, 1.258; 95% CI, 1.187–1.334), and mortality (HR, 1.151; 95% CI, 1.104–1.200) than those in the lowest TyG index quartile independent of age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, body mass index, blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The HRs for outcomes in the highest quartiles were higher when the TyG index was applied than when triglyceride or fasting glucose alone was applied. @*Conclusion@#TyG index, a simple measure reflecting IR, can predict CVD and mortality in young and healthy populations.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924930

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to determine the optimal cut-off values of visceral fat area (VFA) and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) for predicting incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#A total of 10,882 individuals (6,835 men; 4,047 women) free of T2DM at baseline aged between 30 and 79 years who underwent abdominal computed tomography scan between 2012 and 2013 as a part of routine health check-ups were included and followed. VFA, subcutaneous fat area, and VSR on L3 vertebral level were measured at baseline. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 730 (8.1% for men; 4.3% for women) incident cases of T2DM were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off values of VFA and VSR for predicting incident T2DM were 130.03 cm2 and 1.08 in men, respectively, and 85.7 cm2 and 0.48 in women, respectively. Regardless of sex, higher VFA and VSR were significantly associated with a higher risk of incident T2DM. Compared with the lowest quartiles of VFA and VSR, the highest quartiles had adjusted odds ratios of 2.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 3.97) and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.14 to 2.11) in men, respectively, and 32.49 (95% CI, 7.42 to 142.02) and 11.07 (95% CI, 3.89 to 31.50) in women, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Higher VFA and VSR at baseline were independent risk factors for the development of T2DM. Sex-specific reference values for visceral fat obesity (VFA ≥130 cm2 or VSR ≥1.0 in men; VFA ≥85 cm2 or VSR ≥0.5 in women) are proposed for the prediction of incident T2DM.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898061

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this extension study was to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of gemigliptin 50 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM who had completed the initial 24-week study comparing gemigliptin monotherapy with placebo were eligible to enrol. In the open-label, 28-week extension study, all enrolled patients received gemigliptin, regardless of the treatment received during the initial 24-week study period. The mean reduction±standard deviation (SD) in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) observed after 24 weeks of treatment (–0.6%±1.1%) was further decreased for the gemi-gemi group and the mean change in HbA1c at week 52 from baseline was –0.9%±1.2% (P<0.0001). For the pbo-gemi group, HbA1c decreased after they were switched to gemigliptin, and the mean change in HbA1c at week 52 from baseline was –0.7%±1.2% (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the overall incidence of adverse events demonstrated that gemigliptin was safe and well tolerated up to 52 weeks.

5.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1042-1054, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914261

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is metabolically heterogeneous in terms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, the triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index has been considered for identifying metabolic health and future risk of T2D. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of incident T2D according to obesity status and metabolic health, categorized by four different criteria and the TyG index. @*Methods@#The study included 39,418 Koreans without T2D at baseline. The risk of T2D was evaluated based on four different definitions of metabolic health and obesity status and according to the baseline TyG index within each metabolic health and obesity group. @*Results@#During the median follow-up at 38.1 months, 726 individuals developed T2D. Compared with the metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO) group with low TyG index, the MHO group with high TyG index showed increased risk of T2D in all four definitions of metabolic health with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76 to 3.75), 3.72 (95% CI, 2.15 to 6.43), 4.13 (95% CI, 2.67 to 6.38), and 3.05 (95% CI, 2.24 to 4.15), when defined by Adult Treatment Panel III, Wildman, Karelis, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) criteria, respectively. @*Conclusion@#MHO subjects with high TyG index were at an increased risk of developing T2D compared with MHNO subjects, regardless of the definition of metabolic health. TyG index may serve as an additional factor for predicting the individual risk of incident T2D in MHO subjects.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914196

ABSTRACT

Dulaglutide, a weekly injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, has demonstrated effectiveness when combined with basal insulin. We examined whether the efficacy of dulaglutide is comparable to that of prandial insulin in kidney transplant (KT) recipients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy. Thirty-seven patients, who switched from MDI therapy to basal insulin and dulaglutide, were retrospectively analyzed. Changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, body weight, and basal insulin dose were evaluated over 6 months. Dulaglutide was comparable to three injections of prandial insulin in terms of glycemic control (HbA1c 7.1% vs. 7.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], –0.53 to 0.28; P=0.53). The basal insulin and dulaglutide combination resulted in a reduction in FPG levels by 9.7 mg/dL (95% CI, 2.09 to 41.54; P=0.03), in body weight by 4.9 kg (95% CI, 2.87 to 6.98; P<0.001), and in basal insulin dose by 9.52 IU (95% CI, 5.80 to 3.23; P<0.001). Once-weekly dulaglutide may be an effective alternative for thrice-daily prandial insulin in KT recipients with T2DM currently receiving MDI therapy.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890357

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this extension study was to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of gemigliptin 50 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM who had completed the initial 24-week study comparing gemigliptin monotherapy with placebo were eligible to enrol. In the open-label, 28-week extension study, all enrolled patients received gemigliptin, regardless of the treatment received during the initial 24-week study period. The mean reduction±standard deviation (SD) in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) observed after 24 weeks of treatment (–0.6%±1.1%) was further decreased for the gemi-gemi group and the mean change in HbA1c at week 52 from baseline was –0.9%±1.2% (P<0.0001). For the pbo-gemi group, HbA1c decreased after they were switched to gemigliptin, and the mean change in HbA1c at week 52 from baseline was –0.7%±1.2% (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the overall incidence of adverse events demonstrated that gemigliptin was safe and well tolerated up to 52 weeks.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832364

ABSTRACT

Background@#There are limited data on the impact of diabetes control on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. @*Methods@#We analyzed 6,434 consecutive asymptomatic individuals without previous history of coronary artery disease who underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) (mean age, 53.7±7.6 years and 4,694 men [73.0%]). The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were assessed by CCTA, and ≥50% diameter stenosis was defined as significant. A cardiac event was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. Study participants were categorized as normal (n=5,319), controlled diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7%, n=747), or uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c ≥7%, n=368), respectively. @*Results@#Compared with normal individuals, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of for any atherosclerotic plaque (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.38; p=0.086) and significant coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.42; p=0.583) in controlled diabetic individuals. In contrast, uncontrolled diabetic individuals had consistently higher risks of any atherosclerotic plaque (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.70 to 2.75; p<0.001) and significant coronary artery stenosis (OR, 3.34; 95% CI, 2.52 to 4.43; p<0.001) than normal individuals. During a follow-up of median 5.4 years, there was no significant difference in cardiac events between normal and controlled diabetic individuals (p=0.365). However, uncontrolled diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cardiac events compared with normal individuals (P<0.001) and controlled diabetic individuals (p=0.023). @*Conclusion@#Asymptomatic uncontrolled diabetes was associated with significant subclinical coronary atherosclerosis with subsequent high risk for cardiac events.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To elucidate longitudinal changes of complex body composition phenotypes and their association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 17,280 (mean age, 48.1±8.2 years) Korean adults who underwent medical check-ups were included. The mean follow-up duration was 5.5±0.5 years. Body compositions were assessed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Four body composition phenotypes were defined using the median of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index and fat mass index: low muscle/low fat (LM/LF); high muscle (HM)/LF; LM/high fat (HF); and HM/HF groups. RESULTS: Of the individuals in the LM/LF or HM/HF groups, over 60% remained in the same group, and over 30% were moved to the LM/HF group. Most of the LM/HF group remained in this group. In the baseline HM/LF group, approximately 30% stayed in the group, and the remaining individuals transitioned to the three other groups in similar proportions. Incident diabetes was significantly lower in participants who remained in the HM/LF group than those who transitioned to the LM/LF or LM/HF group from the baseline HM/LF group in men. ASM index was significantly associated with a decreased risk for incident diabetes in men regardless of obesity status (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.71 per kg/m²; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.97 in non-obese) (adjusted OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98 in obese) after adjusting for other strong risk factors (e.g., baseline glycosylated hemoglobin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). CONCLUSION: Maintenance of ASM may be protective against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men, regardless of obesity status.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Adult , Body Composition , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Electric Impedance , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Homeostasis , Humans , Insulin , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Phenotype , Risk Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on reported results of three large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), we aimed to investigate the overall effect of GLP-1 RAs on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and to identify subpopulations exhibiting the greatest cardiovascular (CV) benefit. METHODS: Three CVOTs reporting effects of long-acting GLP-1 RAs were included: LEADER (liraglutide), SUSTAIN-6 (semaglutide), and EXSCEL (exenatide once weekly). In all studies, the primary endpoint was three-point MACE, comprising CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. Overall effect estimates were calculated as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model; subgroup analyses reported in the original studies were similarly analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, statistically significant risk reductions in MACE and CV death were observed. Subgroup analysis indicated a significant racial difference with respect to CV benefit (P for interaction <0.001), and more substantial risk reductions were observed in subjects of African origin (relative risk [RR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.99) and in Asians (RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.32). However, post hoc analysis (Bonferroni method) revealed that only Asians exhibited a significantly greater CV benefit from treatment, compared with white subjects (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Long-acting GLP-1 RAs reduced risks of MACE and CV deaths in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our findings of a particularly effective reduction in CV events with GLP-1 RA in Asian populations merits further exploration and dedicated trials in specific populations.


Subject(s)
Asians , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Incretins , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of adding basal insulin to initiating dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and metformin and/or sulfonylurea (SU) in achieving the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This was a single-arm, multicenter, 24-week, open-label, phase 4 study in patients with inadequately controlled (HbA1c ≥7.5%) T2DM despite the use of DPP-4 inhibitor and metformin. A total of 108 patients received insulin glargine while continuing oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of subjects achieving HbA1c ≤7.0%. Other glycemic profiles were also evaluated, and the safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs) and hypoglycemia. RESULTS: The median HbA1c at baseline (8.9%; range, 7.5% to 11.1%) decreased to 7.6% (5.5% to 11.7%) at 24 weeks. Overall, 31.7% subjects (n=33) achieved the target HbA1c level of ≤7.0%. The mean differences in body weight and fasting plasma glucose were 1.2±3.4 kg and 56.0±49.8 mg/dL, respectively. Hypoglycemia was reported in 36 subjects (33.3%, 112 episodes), all of which were fully recovered. There was no serious AE attributed to insulin glargine. Body weight change was significantly different between SU users and nonusers (1.5±2.5 kg vs. −0.9±6.0 kg, P=0.011). CONCLUSION: The combination add-on therapy of insulin glargine, on metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors with or without SU was safe and efficient in reducing HbA1c levels and thus, is a preferable option in managing T2DM patients exhibiting dysglycemia despite the use of OADs.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Body Weight Changes , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin Glargine , Insulin , Metformin , Morinda
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Combination of metformin to reduce the fasting plasma glucose level and an α-glucosidase inhibitor to decrease the postprandial glucose level is expected to generate a complementary effect. We compared the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of voglibose plus metformin (vogmet) with metformin monotherapy in drug-naïve newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 187 eligible patients aged 20 to 70 years, with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7.0% to 11.0%, were randomized into either vogmet or metformin treatments for 24 weeks. A change in the HbA1c level from baseline was measured at week 24. RESULTS: The reduction in the levels of HbA1c was −1.62%±0.07% in the vogmet group and −1.31%±0.07% in the metformin group (P=0.003), and significantly more vogmet-treated patients achieved the target HbA1c levels of <6.5% (P=0.002) or <7% (P=0.039). Glycemic variability was also significantly improved with vogmet treatment, estimated by M-values (P=0.004). Gastrointestinal adverse events and hypoglycemia (%) were numerically lower in the vogmet-treated group. Moreover, a significant weight loss was observed with vogmet treatment compared with metformin (−1.63 kg vs. −0.86 kg, P=0.039). CONCLUSION: Vogmet is a safe antihyperglycemic agent that controls blood glucose level effectively, yields weight loss, and is superior to metformin in terms of various key glycemic parameters without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Metformin , Weight Loss
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between depression and diabetes mellitus (DM), accentuating a need for more intensive depression screening in DM patients. There is a relative paucity of data on the mortality of depressed DM patients in Korea. METHODS: Retrospective data from January 2003 to December 2013 were collected for adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients older than 30 years using the National Health Information database maintained by the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). Demographic characteristics were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and the annual prevalence of depression was estimated. Mortality rates and hazard ratios for each age group (stratified into six age groups) of patients diagnosed with T2DM in 2003 were estimated using a Cox proportional hazard method, with the Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curve showing the overall survival rates according to the T2DM status until the given year of 2013. RESULTS: The annual prevalence of depression was consistently higher in T2DM group from 2003 to 2013. The mortality hazard ratio was higher in the depressed in all age groups, and the risk was higher in male groups and in younger-aged groups. CONCLUSION: Depression was significantly associated with a high mortality risk in T2DM patients; hence, a more systematic surveillance of T2DM patients to identify risk factors for depression might contribute significantly to reducing mortality risk in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cohort Studies , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Korea , Male , Mass Screening , Methods , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prevalence , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors is increasing among renal transplant patients with diabetes. However, the glucose-lowering efficacies of various DPP-4 inhibitors and their effects on blood cyclosporine levels have not been fully investigated. We compared the glucose-lowering efficacies of DPP 4 inhibitors and evaluate their effects on the blood levels of cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients with diabetes. METHODS: Sixty-five renal allograft recipients who received treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, or linagliptin) following kidney transplant were enrolled. The glucose-lowering efficacies of the DPP-4 inhibitors were compared according to the changes in the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels after 3 months of treatment. Changes in the trough levels of the cyclosporine were also assessed 2 months after treatment with each DPP-4 inhibitor. RESULTS: HbA1c significantly decreased in the linagliptin group in comparison with other DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin –0.38%±1.03%, sitagliptin –0.53%±0.95%, and linagliptin –1.40±1.34; P=0.016). Cyclosporine trough levels were significantly increased in the sitagliptin group compared with vildagliptin group (30.62±81.70 ng/mL vs. –24.22±53.54 ng/mL, P=0.036). Cyclosporine trough levels were minimally changed in patients with linagliptin. CONCLUSION: Linagliptin demonstrates superior glucose-lowering efficacy and minimal effect on cyclosporine trough levels in comparison with other DPP-4 inhibitors in kidney transplant patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Cyclosporine , Diabetes Mellitus , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation , Pilot Projects , Transplantation
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (EHH) is characterized by an inappropriately high plasma insulin level, despite a low plasma glucose level. Most of the EHH cases are caused by insulinoma, whereas nesidioblastosis and insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) are relatively rare. METHODS: To evaluate the relative frequencies of various causes of EHH in Korea, we retrospectively analyzed 84 patients who were diagnosed with EHH from 1998 to 2012 in a university hospital. RESULTS: Among the 84 EHH patients, 74 patients (88%), five (6%), and five (6%) were diagnosed with insulinoma, nesidioblastosis or IAS, respectively. The most common clinical manifestation of EHH was neuroglycopenic symptoms. Symptom duration before diagnosis was 14.5 months (range, 1 to 120 months) for insulinoma, 1.0 months (range, 6 days to 7 months) for nesidioblastosis, and 2.0 months (range, 1 to 12 months) for IAS. One patient, who was diagnosed with nesidioblastosis in 2006, underwent distal pancreatectomy but was later determined to be positive for insulin autoantibodies. Except for one patient who was diagnosed in 2007, the remaining three patients with nesidioblastosis demonstrated severe hyperinsulinemia (157 to 2,719 microIU/mL), which suggests that these patients might have had IAS, rather than nesidioblastosis. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of IAS may be higher in Korea than previously thought. Therefore, measurement of insulin autoantibody levels is warranted for EHH patients, especially in patients with very high plasma insulin levels.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases , Blood Glucose , Diagnosis , Humans , Hyperinsulinism , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Insulin Antibodies , Insulinoma , Korea , Nesidioblastosis , Pancreatectomy , Plasma , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165775

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the mobile health applications (apps) developed by a single tertiary hospital in Korea with a particular focus on quality and patient safety. METHODS: Twenty-three mobile health apps developed by Asan Medical Center were selected for analysis after exclusion of the apps without any relationship with healthcare or clinical workflow, the apps for individual usage, and the mobile Web apps. Two clinical informaticians independently evaluated the apps with respect to the six aims for quality improvement suggested by the United States Institute of Medicine. All discrepancies were resolved after discussion by the two reviewers. The six aims observed in the apps were reviewed and compared by target users. RESULTS: Eleven apps targeted patients, the other 12 were designed for healthcare providers. Among the apps for patients, one app also had functions for healthcare providers. 'My cancer diary' and 'My chart in my hand' apps matched all the six aims. Of the six aims, Timeliness was the most frequently observed (20 apps), and Equity was the least observed (6 apps). Timeliness (10/11 vs. 10/12) and Patient safety (10/11 vs. 9/12) were frequently observed in both groups. In the apps for patients, Patient-centeredness (10/11 vs. 2/12) and Equity (6/11 vs. 0/12) were more frequent but Efficiency (5/11 vs. 10/12) was less frequent. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the six aims were observed in the apps, but the extent of coverage varied. Further studies, evaluating the extent to which they improve quality are needed.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Korea , Patient Safety , Patient-Centered Care , Quality Improvement , Telemedicine , Tertiary Care Centers , United States
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum total bilirubin levels are inversely associated with CAD. However, no studies have examined whether this can be used as a biochemical marker for identifying asymptomatic diabetic patients at higher risk for having obstructive CAD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 460 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and their serum total bilirubin levels were measured. Obstructive CAD was defined as > or =50% diameter stenosis in at least one coronary artery. RESULTS: Serum total bilirubin tertiles showed an inverse association with the prevalence of obstructive CAD. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total bilirubin was 0.227 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.398), and an increment of 1 micromol/L in serum total bilirubin level was associated with a 14.6% decrease in obstructive CAD after adjustment for confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) plus serum total bilirubin level was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.668 to 0.753), which is significantly greater than that of the FRS alone (P=0.0028). CONCLUSION: Serum total bilirubin level is inversely associated with obstructive CAD and provides additive risk information over the FRS. Serum total bilirubin may be helpful for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk for obstructive CAD.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Bilirubin , Biomarkers , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Coronary Vessels , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Humans , Logistic Models , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , ROC Curve
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is known to be associated with progression of diabetic kidney disease. Ceruloplasmin acts as a pro-oxidant under conditions of severe oxidative stress. Thus, we conducted a longitudinal observational study to evaluate whether the serum ceruloplasmin level is a predictive biomarker for progression of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 643 Korean men with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Serum ceruloplasmin was measured using a nephelometric method. Progression of diabetic nephropathy was defined as transition in albuminuria class (i.e., normoalbuminuria to microalbuminuria, microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria, or normoalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria) and/or a greater than 2-fold increase of serum creatinine at follow-up compared with the baseline value. RESULTS: During the follow-up period (median, 2.7 years; range, 0.3 to 4.4 years), 49 of 643 patients (7.6%) showed the progression of diabetic nephropathy and three patients (0.5%) developed end-stage renal disease. Baseline ceruloplasmin levels were higher in the progressors than in the nonprogressors (262.6+/-40.9 mg/L vs. 233.3+/-37.8 mg/L, P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly higher incidence of nephropathy progression according to ceruloplasmin tertile (log-rank test, P<0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) for progression of diabetic nephropathy was significantly higher in the highest ceruloplasmin tertile category compared with the lowest ceruloplasmin tertile category, even after adjusting for confounding variables (HR, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 8.61; P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Baseline serum ceruloplasmin is an independent predictive factor for the progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Ceruloplasmin , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Male , Observational Study , Oxidative Stress
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110658

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and progression to proliferative DR (PDR) in Korean patients. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and followed for more than 5 years at a university-based clinic since 2000 were consecutively enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Based on the DR classification at the initial and final visits, the incidence and progression of DR was determined and patient characteristics were compared according to DR progression. Hazard ratios of each putative risk factor for DR progression were calculated with a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Rate of DR development and progression to PDR were 32.1/1,000 and 26.2/1,000 person-years, respectively. A longer duration of diabetes and higher mean HbA1c level were significant risk factors for the development of DR. Regarding progression to PDR, higher mean HbA1c level, higher standard deviation of HbA1c, and higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were significant risk factors. The rates of development of DR and progression to PDR in Koreans with type 2 diabetes are lower than those reported over the last decade. An inadequate blood glycemic control is the common risk factor for development and progression of DR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Causality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Retinopathy/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103499

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, and a major public health problem that is rapidly increasing in prevalence. Although a wide range of pharmacotherapies for glycemic control is now available, management of T2DM remains complex and challenging. The kidneys contribute immensely to glucose homeostasis by reabsorbing glucose from the glomerular filtrate. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetic agents that inhibit glucose absorption from the kidney independent of insulin, offer a unique opportunity to improve the outcomes of patients with T2DM. In this review, we provide an overview of two globally-approved SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, and discuss their effects and safety. This information will help clinicians to decide whether these drugs will benefit their patients.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Kidney , Prevalence , Public Health , Canagliflozin
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