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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915494

ABSTRACT

Background@#Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated facial lipoatrophy (FLA) is a stigmatizing side effect associated with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the hyaluronic acid filler mixed with micronized cross-linked acellular dermal matrix (HA/MADM) in HIV-associated FLA. @*Methods@#We conducted an open-label safety and efficacy study in patients with HIVassociated FLA. Fourteen patients received single injection of the HA/MADM, and 13 patients completed the 24-week follow-up evaluation. Treatment efficacy, safety, and patient and physician satisfaction were evaluated. Repeated measure analysis of variance with post-hoc analysis with the Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to compare and incorporate parameters at each time point. @*Results@#All 13 patients maintained a significant improvement of the Carruthers Lipoatrophy Severity Scale grade throughout the study period, along with improvement of the depressed volume due to lipoatrophy measured using a three-dimensional camera system. More than 80% of patients and physicians were satisfied with the treatment, and no treatment-related adverse events were reported, except for one case of transient subcutaneous nodule formation. @*Conclusion@#Our study findings suggest that injectable HA/MADM is a potentially effective and safe treatment option for treating HIV-positive patients with FLA.

2.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 460-474, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926523

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#This study aimed to investigate the association between cardiovascular events and 2 different levels of elevated on-treatment diastolic blood pressures (DBP) in the presence of achieved systolic blood pressure targets (SBP). @*Methods@#A nation-wide population-based cohort study comprised 237,592 patients with hypertension treated. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Elevated DBP was defined according to the Seventh Report of Joint National Committee (JNC7; SBP <140 mmHg, DBP ≥90 mmHg) or to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) definitions (SBP <130 mmHg, DBP ≥80 mmHg). @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 9 years, elevated on-treatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated with an increased risk of the occurrence of primary endpoint compared with achieved both SBP and DBP (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.24) but not in those by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition. Elevated ontreatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18–1.70) and stroke (aHR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08–1.30). Elevated on-treatment DBP by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition was only associated with stroke (aHR, 1.10;95% CI, 1.04–1.16). Similar results were seen in the propensity-score-matched cohort. @*Conclusion@#Elevated on-treatment DBP by the JNC7 definition was associated a high risk of major cardiovascular events, while elevated DBP by the 2017 ACC/AHA definition was only associated with a higher risk of stroke. The result of study can provide evidence of DBP targets in subjects who achieved SBP targets.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925994

ABSTRACT

With the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, several vaccines were developed; messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have recently been widely used worldwide. However, the incidence of myocarditis following mRNA vaccination is increasing;although the cause of myocarditis has not yet been clearly identified, it is presumed to be caused by a problem in the innate immune system. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) after vaccination is rare but has been reported and is also assumed to occur by the same mechanism. We report the first case of simultaneous myocarditis and ITP after mRNA vaccination. A 38-year-old woman presented with chest pain, mild dyspnea, and sweating after vaccination with mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna) 4 days prior to admission.Upon admission to the emergency department, cardiac enzymes were elevated; blood test performed 5 months ago showed normal platelet count, but severe thrombocytopenia was observed upon admission. After administration of intravenous immunoglobulin, the platelet count improved; subsequently, myocarditis was observed on endomyocardial biopsy. Thus, myocarditis and ITP were judged to have occurred simultaneously due to the expression of the innate immune system markers after mRNA vaccination. The patient was discharged on day 6 of admission.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890508

ABSTRACT

Background@#The nature and role of the mitochondrial stress response in adipose tissue in relation to obesity are not yet known. To determine whether the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in adipose tissue is associated with obesity in humans and rodents. @*Methods@#Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was obtained from 48 normoglycemic women who underwent surgery. Expression levels of mRNA and proteins were measured for mitochondrial chaperones, intrinsic proteases, and components of electron-transport chains. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed metabolic phenotypes with a large panel of isogenic BXD inbred mouse strains and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data. @*Results@#In VAT, expression of mitochondrial chaperones and intrinsic proteases localized in inner and outer mitochondrial membranes was not associated with body mass index (BMI), except for the Lon protease homolog, mitochondrial, and the corresponding gene LONP1, which showed high-level expression in the VAT of overweight or obese individuals. Expression of LONP1 in VAT positively correlated with BMI. Analysis of the GTEx database revealed that elevation of LONP1 expression is associated with enhancement of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in VAT. Mice with higher Lonp1 expression in adipose tissue had better systemic glucose metabolism than mice with lower Lonp1 expression. @*Conclusion@#Expression of mitochondrial LONP1, which is involved in the mitochondrial quality control stress response, was elevated in the VAT of obese individuals. In a bioinformatics analysis, high LONP1 expression in VAT was associated with enhanced glucose and lipid metabolism.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890493

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889604

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis through cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and flagellin as pathogen-related molecular patterns (PAMPs), which, in combination with the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of host cells promotes the expression and secretion of inflammation-causing cytokines and activates innate immune responses such as inflammasomes. To identify useful compounds against H. pylori-associated gastric disorders, the effect of chalcone derivatives to activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was examined in an H. pylori-infected human monocytic THP-1 cell line in this study. Among the five synthetic structurally-related chalcone derivatives examined, 2’-hydroxy-4’,6’-dimethoxychalcone (8) and 2’-hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (12) strongly blocked the NLRP3 inflammasome in H. pylori-infected THP-1 cells. At 10 μM, these compounds inhibited the production of active IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1, and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) oligomerization, but did not affect the expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, and pro-caspase-1. The interruption of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by these compounds was found to be mediated via the inhibition of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4)/IκBα/NF-κB signaling pathway. These compounds also inhibited caspase-4 production associated with non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These results show for the first time that certain chalcones could interrupt the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in H. pylori-infected THP-1 cells. Therefore, these chalcones may be helpful in alleviating H. pylori-related inflammatory disorders including chronic gastritis.

7.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 373-376, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889077

ABSTRACT

En coup de sabre variant of linear morphea (LM) is a rare sclerotic skin disorder characterized by disfiguring linear depression of the frontal or frontoparietal forehead. Current attempts for cosmetic correction of atrophic lesions must be preceded by an evaluation of disease activity of LM, either by a sufficient clinical assessment or histologic evidence. Corrective procedures including corrective surgery, autologous fat grafting, hyaluronic acid filler injections were performed with varying degrees of success; still, there is a need for treatment options with non-invasive and long-term maintenance effects. Herein we report the use of micronized acellular dermal matrix filler as a novel and successful treatment for the atrophic defect of LM in a 24-year-old female. Molecular characteristics of the micronized acellular dermal matrix filler give enhanced durability and prolonged volume consistency, which results in a long-term extracellular matrix remodeling effect.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903726

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

9.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 151-160, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902801

ABSTRACT

Under some pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)including MMP-13 have an important role in degrading cartilage materials. When the regulatory effects of some herbal extracts on MMP-13 expression were examined to evaluate the cartilage-protective potential, the ethanolextract of the radix of Viscum album was found to strongly downregulate MMP-13 induction in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes, SW1353 cells. Based on this finding, activity-guided separation was carried out, which yieldedfive constituents identified as 3,5-dihydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)heptane (1), hesperetin-7-glucoside (2),syringin (3), homoflavoyadorinin B (4), and 4,4′-dihydroxy-3,6′-dimethoxychalcone-2′-glucoside (5). Of these, 1 and 5 significantly inhibited MMP-13 expression in SW1353 cells, with 5 being the most potent. Compound 5, a chalcone derivative, showed the downregulation of MMP-13 at 20 – 100 μM. The mechanism study revealed that 5 exerted MMP-13 down-regulatory action, at least in part, by interrupting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation pathway. Furthermore, this compound protected against cartilage degradation in an IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explant culture. All these findings demonstrated for the first time that Viscum album and its constituents, especially chalcone derivative (5), possessed cartilage-protective activity. These natural products may have the potential for alleviating cartilage degradation.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901986

ABSTRACT

Background@#Psoriasis is a chronic disease that can have accompanying comorbidities including arthritis, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with psoriasis tend to frequently visit medical institutions, and their economic burden for medical services is high. @*Objective@#To investigate the economic burden of psoriasis in Korea. @*Methods@#The Korean Society for Psoriasis conducted a multi-center field survey of the patients and analyzed the national insurance claim data. Also, we discussed the medical environment of psoriasis in Korea based on the results. @*Results@#The economic burden of psoriasis patients is substantial and varied by the type of medical institute. Patients also paid the indirect and intangible medical costs. Biological agents, which is used in patients with severe psoriasis, led to an increase in the cost. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study to estimate the economic burden of psoriasis in Korea comprehensively. To improve the medical environment of psoriasis and alleviate the burden of patients, discussion on the more efficient health policy and medical insurance criteria for psoriasis would be needed.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898212

ABSTRACT

Background@#The nature and role of the mitochondrial stress response in adipose tissue in relation to obesity are not yet known. To determine whether the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in adipose tissue is associated with obesity in humans and rodents. @*Methods@#Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was obtained from 48 normoglycemic women who underwent surgery. Expression levels of mRNA and proteins were measured for mitochondrial chaperones, intrinsic proteases, and components of electron-transport chains. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed metabolic phenotypes with a large panel of isogenic BXD inbred mouse strains and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data. @*Results@#In VAT, expression of mitochondrial chaperones and intrinsic proteases localized in inner and outer mitochondrial membranes was not associated with body mass index (BMI), except for the Lon protease homolog, mitochondrial, and the corresponding gene LONP1, which showed high-level expression in the VAT of overweight or obese individuals. Expression of LONP1 in VAT positively correlated with BMI. Analysis of the GTEx database revealed that elevation of LONP1 expression is associated with enhancement of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in VAT. Mice with higher Lonp1 expression in adipose tissue had better systemic glucose metabolism than mice with lower Lonp1 expression. @*Conclusion@#Expression of mitochondrial LONP1, which is involved in the mitochondrial quality control stress response, was elevated in the VAT of obese individuals. In a bioinformatics analysis, high LONP1 expression in VAT was associated with enhanced glucose and lipid metabolism.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898197

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897308

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis through cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and flagellin as pathogen-related molecular patterns (PAMPs), which, in combination with the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of host cells promotes the expression and secretion of inflammation-causing cytokines and activates innate immune responses such as inflammasomes. To identify useful compounds against H. pylori-associated gastric disorders, the effect of chalcone derivatives to activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was examined in an H. pylori-infected human monocytic THP-1 cell line in this study. Among the five synthetic structurally-related chalcone derivatives examined, 2’-hydroxy-4’,6’-dimethoxychalcone (8) and 2’-hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (12) strongly blocked the NLRP3 inflammasome in H. pylori-infected THP-1 cells. At 10 μM, these compounds inhibited the production of active IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1, and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) oligomerization, but did not affect the expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, and pro-caspase-1. The interruption of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by these compounds was found to be mediated via the inhibition of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4)/IκBα/NF-κB signaling pathway. These compounds also inhibited caspase-4 production associated with non-canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These results show for the first time that certain chalcones could interrupt the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in H. pylori-infected THP-1 cells. Therefore, these chalcones may be helpful in alleviating H. pylori-related inflammatory disorders including chronic gastritis.

14.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 373-376, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896781

ABSTRACT

En coup de sabre variant of linear morphea (LM) is a rare sclerotic skin disorder characterized by disfiguring linear depression of the frontal or frontoparietal forehead. Current attempts for cosmetic correction of atrophic lesions must be preceded by an evaluation of disease activity of LM, either by a sufficient clinical assessment or histologic evidence. Corrective procedures including corrective surgery, autologous fat grafting, hyaluronic acid filler injections were performed with varying degrees of success; still, there is a need for treatment options with non-invasive and long-term maintenance effects. Herein we report the use of micronized acellular dermal matrix filler as a novel and successful treatment for the atrophic defect of LM in a 24-year-old female. Molecular characteristics of the micronized acellular dermal matrix filler give enhanced durability and prolonged volume consistency, which results in a long-term extracellular matrix remodeling effect.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896022

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

16.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 151-160, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895097

ABSTRACT

Under some pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)including MMP-13 have an important role in degrading cartilage materials. When the regulatory effects of some herbal extracts on MMP-13 expression were examined to evaluate the cartilage-protective potential, the ethanolextract of the radix of Viscum album was found to strongly downregulate MMP-13 induction in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes, SW1353 cells. Based on this finding, activity-guided separation was carried out, which yieldedfive constituents identified as 3,5-dihydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)heptane (1), hesperetin-7-glucoside (2),syringin (3), homoflavoyadorinin B (4), and 4,4′-dihydroxy-3,6′-dimethoxychalcone-2′-glucoside (5). Of these, 1 and 5 significantly inhibited MMP-13 expression in SW1353 cells, with 5 being the most potent. Compound 5, a chalcone derivative, showed the downregulation of MMP-13 at 20 – 100 μM. The mechanism study revealed that 5 exerted MMP-13 down-regulatory action, at least in part, by interrupting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation pathway. Furthermore, this compound protected against cartilage degradation in an IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explant culture. All these findings demonstrated for the first time that Viscum album and its constituents, especially chalcone derivative (5), possessed cartilage-protective activity. These natural products may have the potential for alleviating cartilage degradation.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894282

ABSTRACT

Background@#Psoriasis is a chronic disease that can have accompanying comorbidities including arthritis, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with psoriasis tend to frequently visit medical institutions, and their economic burden for medical services is high. @*Objective@#To investigate the economic burden of psoriasis in Korea. @*Methods@#The Korean Society for Psoriasis conducted a multi-center field survey of the patients and analyzed the national insurance claim data. Also, we discussed the medical environment of psoriasis in Korea based on the results. @*Results@#The economic burden of psoriasis patients is substantial and varied by the type of medical institute. Patients also paid the indirect and intangible medical costs. Biological agents, which is used in patients with severe psoriasis, led to an increase in the cost. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study to estimate the economic burden of psoriasis in Korea comprehensively. To improve the medical environment of psoriasis and alleviate the burden of patients, discussion on the more efficient health policy and medical insurance criteria for psoriasis would be needed.

18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919783

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The study was aimed to examine components and provider’s characteristics of non-pharmacological intervention that affect delirium prevention in elderly inpatients. Additional effects on delirium prevention based on identified characteristics were explored. @*Methods@#Studies were searched by using seven electronic databases and examined through Preferred Reporting Items Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) flow diagram. The Risk of Bias (ROB) and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Study (RoBANS) were used to evaluate the quality of each included study. @*Results@#Seven studies were selected for the systematic review. Most of the selected studies had a low risk of bias. Interventions of each study and delirium outcome were heterogeneous. Each multi-component non-pharmacological intervention consisted on average of five interventions. Giving orientation and promoting early mobilization were included in every study. Interventions that included giving orientation, promoting early mobilization, and supporting nutrition significantly decreased delirium incidence. Moreover, when health care providers who have an intimate relationship with patients provided non-pharmacological interventions, delirium incidence has significantly decreased. @*Conclusion@#Non-pharmacological intervention, such as giving orientation, promoting early mobilization, should be included to prevent delirium for elderly inpatients. It is important to include healthcare providers who have an intimate relationship or regular contact with patients in order to decrease delirium incidence.

19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918915

ABSTRACT

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, one of the most prescribed second-line antidiabetic drugs in South Korea, have been available since 2006. Many studies focusing on the safety profiles of DPP4 inhibitors have been reported. DPP4 inhibitors were associated with a small increased incidence of acute pancreatitis in placebo-controlled trials, although most observational studies did not support this hypothesis. There were no significant differences in major cardiovascular events in a large prospective cardiovascular outcomes trial with DPP4 inhibitors, although a higher risk of hospitalization for heart failure was reported with saxagliptin. Additionally, the safety data of DPP4 inhibitors for diabetes management during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic have been provided recently.

20.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 265-273, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#SC-E3 is a polyherbal formula that contains five medicinal herbs used frequently in traditional herbal medicine. In our previous study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of SC-E3. The present study examined the effects of SC-E3 in a mouse model of type-II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).@*METHODS@#In vivo, male DBA/1J mice were immunized by intradermal injection of bovine type-II collagen and complete or incomplete Freund's adjuvant, to induce arthritis. SC-E3 was orally administered daily for 23 days. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were treated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in the absence or presence of SC-E3.@*RESULTS@#Administrations of SC-E3 were found to have anti-arthritic effects in the joints of CIA mice, as evidenced by reduced paw swelling, bone erosion and deformation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inflammation in synovial membrane. SC-E3 also reduced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Furthermore, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclast numbers in the joints were significantly lower in SC-E3-treated CIA mice than in CIA mice. In addition, the differentiations of BMMs to multinucleated osteoclasts induced by M-CSF and RANKL stimulation were dose-dependently reduced by SC-E3.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that SC-E3 possesses substantial anti-arthritic activity because it inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines and osteoclastogenesis, and that SC-E3 has potential therapeutic use for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

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