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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 320-325, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926891

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the changing seasonal pattern of suicides in Korea between 2000 and 2019. @*Methods@#We calculated a seasonal pattern of suicides between 2000 and 2019 using a non-stationary cosinor model. In addition, we estimated the effect of each month on the suicide incidence compared to a reference month, using a generalized linear model with a categorical variable of the month. Then, we visualized the rate ratio curves of suicides by gender, age group, and subperiod. @*Results@#We observed a seasonal pattern of suicides in Korea with a spring peak and a winter trough. The seasonal ups and downs were most pronounced in suicides among the elderly ≥65 years. However, the seasonal pattern has not been consistent over the past two decades, with lowering seasonal peaks since 2012. The amplitude of seasonality was also lower in 2010–2019 than in 2000–2009. @*Conclusion@#The seasonal pattern of suicides seems to have diminished in Korea in recent years. Thus, we need further studies to investigate climatic and non-climatic factors influencing the seasonality of suicides and the consequence of the change.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926784

ABSTRACT

Early detection and intervention are necessary to prevent deterioration and promote recovery in patients with schizophrenia. Mindlink is the first community-based early intervention center for young people with mental illness in Korea. This service was introduced in 2012 as a national mental health pilot project in Bukgu, Gwangju Metropolitan City. Due to the increase in the number of young clients, a youth-friendly, early intervention center called Mindlink was established in 2016. Mindlink is a comprehensive mental health service provided throughout multidisciplinary collaboration. It provides intensive case management and group programs, including cognitive behavioural therapy, family intervention, psychoeducation, motivational enhancement, and physical health promotion. The Korean government has stated that the Mindlink model is effective and is currently expanding the model to other areas in Korea. An increasing number of young people with distressing mental illnesses and their family members are approaching Mindlink for help. They are seeking early psychiatric intervention despite the stigma associated with mental illnesses. Our experience with the Mindlink model suggests that investing in improving the mental health in youth and in service delivery can overcome the stigma associated with mental illnesses and other barriers to mental health services. There is currently a lack of comprehensive mental health services for youth, which is a major problem. An accessible, youth-friendly, stigma-free, community mental health center, such as Mindlink, allows early detection and management of mental illnesses in young patients. Therefore, developing early intervention centers at the national level is urgently required.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926006

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Demoralization, which results from the inability to cope, is characterized by hopelessness, helplessness, and loss of the meaning and purpose of life. Although demoralization is prevalent in patients with chronic illness, including cancer, a Korean version of the scale has not been developed and validated. Thus, we translated into Korean and validated a version of the Demoralization Scale-II (DS-II-Kr) for cancer patients. @*Methods@#This cross-sectional study recruited cancer patients and survivors who visited a mental health clinic in a cancer hospital. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of DS-II-Kr were assessed. Additionally, the construct validity of two sub-factors was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The optimal DS-II-Kr cut-off point was determined by logistic regression analysis based on the distress cut-off in the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS). @*Results@#This study included 105 participants. The mean and standard deviation for total DS-IIKr scores were 11.9 and 7.6, respectively. The scale demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Goodness-of-fit analysis was moderate for the Meaning and Purpose subscale, and a good fit was found for the Distress and Coping Ability subscale. The DS-II-Kr cut-off value based on HADS was 10 (≤10 vs. >10). @*Conclusion@#The DS-II-Kr is a useful tool for assessing demoralization in clinical and research settings. However, further studies are needed to confirm the optimal DS-II-Kr cut-off score. External validation in other populations is also needed.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924856

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate associations between baseline serum serotonin levels and short- and long-term treatment outcomes in outpatients with depressive disorders in a naturalistic one-year prospective study design. @*Methods@#Patients were recruited at a University hospital in South Korea from March 2012 to April 2017. At baseline, blood samples were obtained from 1,094 patients who received initial antidepressant monotherapy (Step 1). After the Step 1 treatment, further treatment steps (at least Steps 2−4) could be administered every 3 weeks during the acute treatment phase (3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks; n = 1,086), and every 3 months during the continuation treatment phase (6, 9, and 12 months; n = 884). In cases showing an insufficient response or intolerable side effects, patients were asked to choose whether to remain at the current step or enter the next treatment step, with alternative strategies including switching, augmentation, combination, and a mixture of these approaches. Remission was defined as a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of ≤ 7. @*Results@#The remission group had significantly higher baseline serum serotonin levels among patients who received Step 1 monotherapy in both acute and continuation treatment phases. These associations remained significant after adjustment for relevant covariates. No associations were found with any other treatment steps. @*Conclusion@#Baseline serum serotonin levels may be used as a biomarker for predicting short- and long-term treatment outcomes in antidepressant monotherapy-treated patients with depressive disorders in a real-world clinical setting.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 470-479, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938972

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the study was to develop a checklist for mental health clinicians to predict and manage suicidality. @*Methods@#A literature review of the risk and protective factors for suicide was conducted to develop a checklist for evaluating suicidality. @*Results@#The fixed risk factors included sex (male), age (older individuals), history of childhood adversity, and a family history of suicide. Changeable risk factors included marital status (single), economic status (poverty), physical illness, history of psychiatric hospitalization, and history of suicide attempts. Recent discharge from a mental hospital and a recent history of suicide attempts were also included. Manageable risk factors included depression (history and current), alcohol problems (frequent drinking and alcohol abuse), hopelessness, agitation, impulsivity, impaired reality testing, and command hallucinations. Protective factors included responsibility to family, social support, moral objections to suicide, religiosity, motivation to get treatment, ability to cope with stress, and a healthy lifestyle. A final score was assigned based on the sum of the risk and protective factor scores. @*Conclusion@#We believe that the development of this checklist will help mental health clinicians to better assess those at risk for suicidal behavior. Further studies are necessary to validate the checklist.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 551-561, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938963

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was performed to identify factors associated with depression and anxiety among Korean adolescents during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,898 Korean adolescents (55.2% male, 44.8% female) ranging in age from 12 to 17 years (mean±standard deviaion age, 15.4±2.6 years). Depression and anxiety were defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≥10 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score ≥10, respectively. Other questionnaires included sociodemographic data, psychosocial stresses, and experiences in association with COVID-19. Psychiatric scales included Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Perceived Stress Scale-10, and UCLA Loneliness Scale-3. @*Results@#The prevalence rates of depressive and anxiety symptoms among participants were 13.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that female sex, fear of COVID-19 infection, low gratitude were risk factors for depression. Fear of COVID-19 infection, increased TV watching time, and academic-related stress were risk factors for anxiety. @*Conclusion@#Depression and anxiety were prevalent during the pandemic in Korean adolescents, and were associated with fear of COVID-19 infection. Providing appropriate information on COVID-19, helping adolescents manage academic-related stress and maintain daily life patterns, and implementing interventions to foster gratitude are important for preventing depression and anxiety in Korean adolescents.

7.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 316-327, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937665

ABSTRACT

Background@#Throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, not only medical personnel but also paramedics or emergency medical technicians (EMT) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while performing their duties. The current study aimed to evaluate the psychological effects of managing patients with COVID-19 on the paramedics and EMT. @*Materials and Methods@#A survey targeting paramedics and EMT in Korea was conducted in December 2020. An official letter requesting participation and with the link to an onlinebased survey was sent to the Public Emergency Medical Services. Only one response was accepted from each participant. @*Results@#A total of 326 paramedics and EMT responded to the survey. Among them, 66.3% (216/326) had experience in managing patients with COVID-19. No differences in the distribution of sex, age, working area, duration of working experience, and underlying comorbidities were observed between those who did (COVID-19 group) and did not (nonCOVID-19 group) experience managing patients with COVID-19. The percentage of participants who showed severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was significantly higher in the COVID group than in the non-COVID group (11.1% vs. 3.6%P = 0.029). The participants in the COVID group had a significantly higher mean Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale score than those in the non-COVID group (18.7 ± 11.1 vs. 16.1 ± 9.9, P = 0.042). The proportion of paramedics and EMT willing to leave their job if given a chance was higher in the COVID group than the non-COVID group (24.1% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.001). Additionally, paramedics and EMT in the COVID group tended to show concern regarding exposure to COVID-19 infection. @*Conclusion@#The experience of managing patients with COVID-19 resulted in psychological distress among paramedics and EMT in Korea.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891152

ABSTRACT

Tumors that metastasize to the pituitary gland are unusual and metastasis of neuroendocrine neoplasm to the sellar region is extremely rare. We report a 59-yearold man with pituitary metastasis from pulmonary carcinoid tumor who presented with left progressive deterioration of visual field. Sellar dynamic magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing sellar mass invading the left cavernous sinus. We report this unusual case with a review of the relevant literature.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890189

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To identify factors predicting remission of depression during acute (12 weeks) and continuation treatment (12 months) using a 1-year, naturalistic prospective study design. @*Methods@#Patients with depressive disorders were recruited from Chonnam National University Hospital in South Korea from March 2012 to April 2017. At baseline, 1,262 patients received outpatient therapy, and sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained. Clinical visits took place every 3 weeks during the acute treatment phase (at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks; n = 1,246), and every 3 months during the continuation treatment phase (at 6, 9, and 12 months;n = 1,015). Remission was defined as a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≤ 7. @*Results@#The remission rate was 43.3% at 12 weeks and 70.4% at 12 months. In multivariate analyses, remission during the acute treatment phase was more likely in patients with a shorter-duration present episode, higher functioning, and good social support. Remission during the continuation treatment phase was more likely in patients with fewer previous depressive episodes and/or a lower baseline stress score. @*Conclusion@#Factors predicting depressive disorder remission may differ between the acute and continuation treatment phases.

10.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 126-131, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889793

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the associations between various types of childhood trauma and suicidal behavior in the general population in South Korea. This mental health survey included a total of 1,490 general citizens living in a metropolitan South Korean city who completed a questionnaire that assessed respondents’ histories of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years, including bullying victimization, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and physical abuse, as well as suicidal behavior, including current suicidal ideation and histories of suicide planning and attempts. The following psychiatric scales were administered: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (R-SES), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and visual analogue scale of EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D). Participants who experienced any childhood trauma had significantly higher HADS and PSS scores, and significantly lower EQ-5D scores. Additionally, participants with any type of childhood trauma were significantly more likely to have current suicidal ideation and histories of planned and attempted suicide. Multivariate analyses adjusted for confounding variables indicated that bullying victimization and sexual abuse were associated significantly with all types of suicidal behavior. Physical abuse was associated significantly with histories of suicide planning and attempts. The present findings showed that any type of childhood trauma was associated with higher levels of suicidality, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress, as well as lower health-related quality of life, in the general population. In particular, associations between childhood trauma and suicidality were identified after adjustment for confounding variables.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892236

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while carrying out their duties. In this study, we examined the experiences of specific groups of HCWs during the pandemic. @*Methods@#From 18 November to 30 December 2020, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with four groups of 14 HCWs in three cities (Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju) in South Korea. The HCWs who participated in the focus groups included physicians, nurses, medical practitioners, and cleaning staff who directly or indirectly cared for patients during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. @*Results@#Our qualitative data analysis revealed four main domains: work-related struggles, personal life-related struggles, psychological stress, and health-related struggles. Health care providers were challenged by working in critical situations and were overwhelmed by heavy workloads, fear of infection, lifestyle changes, and psychological and physical struggles. @*Conclusion@#Our findings could serve as a foundation for establishing health care systems and policies that help HCWs cope with occupational stress, thus increasing their ability to adapt to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 172-178, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875358

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to develop a brief self-report measure of depressive and anxiety symptoms in victims of sexual violence. @*Methods@#The sample, which consisted of 215 victims and 255 healthy controls, was recruited between December 2016 and November 2018 from eight Sunflower Centers. Eligible items were selected from existing scales of depression (CES-DC and CES-D) and anxiety (SAI-C and BAI) symptoms by item-total correlation coefficients and item response theory (IRT) analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were computed and the receiver operating characteristics curve was inspected to assess the validity of the brief scale and determine optimal cutoff scores. @*Results@#The brief scales showed high internal consistency across all age groups. The optimal cutoff score of brief depression scale was 1.5 for children, 2.5 for adolescents, and 2.5 for the adults. That of brief anxiety scale was 8.5, 6.5, and 3.5, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results underscore the need for age-appropriate screening measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms in victims of sexual violence.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875090

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The turnover rate of mental health workers in community mental health institutes is remarkably high.We explored the mediating effects of perceived work value on the relationship between burnout and turnover intention among mental health professionals working for community mental health centers and addiction centers. @*Methods@#:A total of 161 mental health workers completed this survey. We administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire (MOAQ) (which explores turnover intention). Perceived work value was assessed using two items of the Scale of Resilience to Burnout.Associations were sought using the t-test, analysis of variance, correlation analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses. @*Results@#:The burnout level was significantly negatively correlated with perceived work value. Burnout was significantly positively correlated with turnover intention, and perceived work value significantly negatively correlated. Bootstrapping showed that perceived work value partially mediated the relationship between burnout and turnover intention. @*Conclusion@#:Perceived work value may buffer turnover intention caused by burnout. Creation of an environment in which mental health workers feel that their work is valuable is important to prevent resignations.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874788

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The treatment rate for mental illness is low in Korea (22%) compared to Western countries (40–50%). Thus, Gwangju city commenced a mental health project termed “Mind Doctor” in 2016. Psychiatrists regularly visit mental health centers to provide services, including counseling. This paper summarizes the achievements and significance of the project. @*Methods@#The project has been in progress for four years. This study evaluated 7,483 clients assisted by 322 center staff and 55 participating psychiatrists. The characteristics of the mental health center and addiction management center clients were identified. The center staff opinions and satisfaction were analyzed. @*Results@#Psychiatrists placed in community mental health services played a variety of roles as counselors, supervisors, lecturers, and program organizers. During the time since the project commenced, referral rates to mental health clinics after in-center counseling increased from 9.4% to 41.6%. Half of the psychiatrists worked in psychiatric hospitals (45.5%), and were in their 30s (43.6%). Of those seen by psychiatrists in mental health centers, 42% were aged under 30 years, and almost half were male (46%). Most clients were satisfied with their consultations (90%) and were willing to recommend the project to others (88%). More than 85% of center staff responded positively to the project, particularly in 2019. @*Conclusion@#“Mind Doctor” readily identified the mental problems of community residents and provided smooth referrals to mental health clinics. Collaboration between the psychiatrists and mental health workers in mental health centers contributed to mental health promotion and early intervention to treat mental problems.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874482

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric side effects of oseltamivir can result in accident-proneness and suicide. Reportedly, such adverse psychiatric events are more common in children than in adults, but other risk factors are not known. We present a 13-year-old girl with influenza infection who developed manic symptoms after taking oseltamivir and receiving the human papillomavirus vaccination. While other research has found that psychiatric side effects associated with oseltamivir generally occur within 48 hours after beginning administration, in this case the manic symptoms developed on the fourth day after cessation of 5-day course of oseltamivir administration. Based on our review of this case, we recommend that clinicians should carry out vigilant monitoring of each patient’s mental state when the patient is young, has a family history of psychiatric disorder, has drug sensitivity and has received medical treatments such as vaccination before or after taking oseltamivir. In addition, as side effects of oseltamivir may occur more than 48 hours after administration, it will be necessary to observe patients for several days after the prescription of oseltamivir.

16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 563-567, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904247

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system infections caused by free-living amoeba are very rare, but often fatal. The typical image findings of amebic meningoencephalitis are non-specific, showing ring-like enhancement. We report the first case of fulminant disseminating fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an immunocompetent patient in South Korea. Our case exhibited two interesting features: one was the unusual clinical course and the other was additional image findings. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a rim-enhancing lesion with intralesional blooming dark signal intensity on susceptibility weighted imaging and low signal intensity on diffusion weighted images and on apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Differential diagnosis was started from a tumor or non-tumorous lesion, and diagnosis was difficult due to the rarity of the disease. Following the clinical and diagnostic courses of our case, we recommend inspecting image findings of granulomatous amebic encephalitis for early diagnosis.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903726

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Hypertension (HT) has a significant impact on public health and medical expenses. However, HT is a chronic disease that requires the long-term follow-up of a large number of patients. @*Methods@#The Korean Hypertension Cohort (KHC) study aimed to develop a model for calculating cardiovascular risk in HT patients by linking and utilizing the detailed clinical and longitudinal data from hospitals and the national health insurance claim database, respectively. This cohort had a planned sample size of over 11,000 HT patients and 100,000 non-HT controls. Eligible patients were hypertensive patients, who were presenting for the first time and were diagnosed with HT as a main disease from 2006 to 2011. Long-term survival data over a period of approximately 9 years were obtained from the national health insurance claim and national health examination data. @*Results@#This cohort enrolled 11,083 patients with HT. The mean age was 58.87 ± 11.5 years, 50.5% were male, and 31.4% were never-treated HT. Of the enrolled patients, 32.9% and 37.7% belonged to the high and moderate cardiovascular risk groups, respectively. Initial blood pressures were 149.4 ± 18.5/88.5 ± 12.5 mmHg. During the 2 years hospital data follow-up period, blood pressures lowered to 130.8 ± 14.1/78.0 ± 9.7 mmHg with 1.9 ± 1.0 tablet doses of antihypertensive medication. Cardiovascular events occurred in 7.5% of the overall patients; 8.5%, 8.8%, and 4.7% in the high, moderate, and low risk patients, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The KHC study has provided important information on the long-term outcomes of HT patients according to the blood pressure, comorbid diseases, medication, and adherence, as well as health behaviors and health resource use.

18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 825-830, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903245

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To prevent the spread of infection in Korea during the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, real-time warnings have been sent to all residents via mobile phones. This study examined the factors associated with the negative emotional response to media news and emergency text alerts in the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#A survey was completed by 1,500 adults from an online public panel in three regions. We used Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10) to assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. Questionnaires related to COVID-19 included fear of infection, and fear of disclose of contact-tracing information. @*Results@#The negative emotional response on both news media information and emergency alert text messages about COVID-19 was associated with fear of COVID-19 infection and high anxiety. The biggest outbreak city, Daegu was associated with the less negative emotional response on emergency alert text messages. Fear of disclose of contact-tracing information was significantly associated with negative emotional perception on emergency alter text messages. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that effective information providing services with considering vulnerable groups are needed to promote acceptance and eliminate negative emotion for disease related information.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899940

ABSTRACT

Background@#During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) have faced multiple physical and psychological challenges while carrying out their duties. In this study, we examined the experiences of specific groups of HCWs during the pandemic. @*Methods@#From 18 November to 30 December 2020, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with four groups of 14 HCWs in three cities (Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju) in South Korea. The HCWs who participated in the focus groups included physicians, nurses, medical practitioners, and cleaning staff who directly or indirectly cared for patients during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research approach. @*Results@#Our qualitative data analysis revealed four main domains: work-related struggles, personal life-related struggles, psychological stress, and health-related struggles. Health care providers were challenged by working in critical situations and were overwhelmed by heavy workloads, fear of infection, lifestyle changes, and psychological and physical struggles. @*Conclusion@#Our findings could serve as a foundation for establishing health care systems and policies that help HCWs cope with occupational stress, thus increasing their ability to adapt to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898856

ABSTRACT

Tumors that metastasize to the pituitary gland are unusual and metastasis of neuroendocrine neoplasm to the sellar region is extremely rare. We report a 59-yearold man with pituitary metastasis from pulmonary carcinoid tumor who presented with left progressive deterioration of visual field. Sellar dynamic magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing sellar mass invading the left cavernous sinus. We report this unusual case with a review of the relevant literature.

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