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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 441-448, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000377

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A full colonoscopy is currently required in children and adolescents with colorectal polyps, because of their potential of neoplastic transformation and complications such as intussusception. We aimed to analyze the associations of polyp characteristics in children and adolescents with colorectal polyps. Based on these findings, we also aimed to reevaluate the necessity of conducting a full colonoscopy. @*Methods@#Pediatric patients <18 years of age who had undergone a colonoscopic polypectomy and those with <5 colorectal polyps were included in this multicenter, retrospective study. Baseline clinicodemographics, colonoscopic and histologic findings were investigated. @*Results@#A total of 91 patients were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that polyp size was the only factor associated with the presence of any polyps located proximal to the splenic flexure (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 4.28; p=0.007). Furthermore, polyp location proximal to the splenic flexure and sessile morphology were associated with the presence of any adenomatous polyp (OR, 8.51; 95% CI, 1.43 to 68.65; p=0.023; OR, 18.41; 95% CI, 3.45 to 173.81; p=0.002, respectively). @*Conclusions@#In children and adolescents presenting with <5 colorectal polyps, polyp size and the presence of any adenomatous polyp were positively associated with polyp location proximal to the splenic flexure. This finding supports the necessity of a full colonoscopic exam in pediatric patients with colorectal polyps for the detection of polyps before the occurrence of complications such as intussusception or neoplastic transformation.

2.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 34-42, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968503

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to investigate factors that correlate with fecal calprotectin (FC) levels in children and adolescents with colorectal polyps. @*Methods@#Pediatric patients aged <19 years who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy for a juvenile polyps (JPs) and FC tests were simultaneously conducted in a multicenter, retrospective study. Baseline demographics, colonoscopic and histological findings, and laboratory tests, including FC levels, were investigated. Correlations between the factors were investigated, and linear regression analysis revealed factors that correlated with FC levels. FC levels measured after polypectomies were investigated and the FC levels pre- and post-polypectomies were compared. @*Results@#A total of 33 patients were included in the study. According to Pearson correlation analysis, the polyp size was the only factor that showed a statistically significant correlation with FC levels (r=0.75, p<0.001). Furthermore, according to the multivariate linear regression analysis, polyp size was the only factor that showed a statistically significant correlation with FC levels (adjusted R2=0.5718, β=73.62, p<0.001). The median FC level was 400 mg/ kg (interquartile range [IQR], 141.6–1,000 mg/kg), and the median polyp size was 14 mm (IQR, 9–20 mm). Nineteen patients underwent post-polypectomy FC tests. FC levels showed a significant decrease after polypectomy from a median of 445.2 mg/kg (IQR, 225–1,000) to 26.5 mg/kg (11.5–51) ( p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#FC levels significantly correlated with polyp size in children and adolescents with JPs.

3.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition ; : 432-440, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968495

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Eating disorders often result in somatic complications, including cardiac abnormalities. Cardiac abnormalities may involve any part of the heart, including the cardiac conduction system, and can lead to sudden cardiac death. The current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cardiac complications in pediatric patients with eating disorders and their associated factors. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed patients aged 10–18 years who were diagnosed with DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-V) eating disorders and underwent electrocardiography (ECG) and/or echocardiography between January 2015 and May 2020. @*Results@#In total, 127 patients were included, of whom 113 (89.0%) were female. The median body mass index (BMI) was 15.05±3.69 kg/m2 . Overall, 74 patients (58.3%) had ECG abnormalities, with sinus bradycardia being the most common abnormality (91.9%). Patients with ECG abnormalities had significantly lower BMI (14.35±2.78 kg/m2 vs. 16.06± 4.55 kg/m2 , p<0.001) than patients without ECG abnormalities, as well as lower phosphorus and higher cholesterol levels. Among the 46 patients who underwent echocardiographic evaluation, 23 (50.0%) had echocardiographic abnormalities, with pericardial effusion being the most common (60.9%). The median left ventricular mass (LVM) and ejection fraction were 67.97±21.25 g and 66.91±28.76%, respectively. LVM and BMI showed a positive correlation (r=0.604, p<0.001). After weight gain, the amount of pericardial effusion was reduced in 3 patients, and 30 patients presented with normal ECG findings. @*Conclusion@#Cardiac abnormalities are relatively frequent in patients with eating disorders.Physicians should focus on this somatic complication and careful monitoring is required.

4.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 312-318, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968108

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sleep duration is associated with various health conditions, including chronic kidney disease. However, the association between sleep duration and decline in kidney function in the South Korean population remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the impact of sleep duration on kidney function decline in adult patients with hypertension. @*Methods@#This cohort study was performed using data obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study; 2,837 patients with hypertension who initially had normal kidney function were included. Glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) were estimated at baseline and throughout the 16 years of follow-up. A person was considered to have a decline in kidney function if they had a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Sleep duration data were obtained through interviewer-assisted questionnaires. Sleep durations were classified as short (<6 hours), normal (≥6 hours but <9 hours), and long (≥9 hours). The Cox proportional hazards model was applied, with adjustments for covariates. @*Results@#After adjusting for covariates, sleep duration was not associated with a decline in kidney function. However, among men with poorly controlled hypertension at baseline, compared to men with normal sleep durations, men with sleep durations <6 hours had a significantly higher risk of kidney function decline (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–2.36). @*Conclusion@#Short sleep duration did not seem to be associated with an increased risk of decline in kidney function; however, it may be a risk factor for the decline in kidney function in men with poorly controlled hypertension.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e72-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925949

ABSTRACT

Background@#Colorectal polyps are the most common cause of isolated hematochezia in children, which requires a colonoscopy for diagnosis. We aimed to investigate the potential utility of fecal calprotectin (FC) in assessing colorectal polyps detected by colonoscopy among children presenting with isolated hematochezia. @*Methods@#Pediatric patients of the age of < 18 years who had undergone both colonoscopy and FC tests for isolated hematochezia from June 2016 to May 2020 were included in the present multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Comparative analysis was conducted between major causes of isolated hematochezia and FC cut-offs for discriminating colorectal polyps were explored. @*Results@#A total 127 patients were included. Thirty-five patients (27.6%) had colorectal polyps, followed by anal fissure (14.2%), ulcerative colitis (UC; 12.6%), and others. A significant difference in FC levels was observed between patients with colorectal polyps (median, 278.7 mg/kg), anal fissures (median, 42.2 mg/kg), and UC (median, 981 mg/ kg) (P < 0.001). According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, among patients diagnosed with colorectal polyp or anal fissure, the most accurate FC cut-off for discriminating colorectal polyps from anal fissures on colonoscopy was 225 mg/kg (sensitivity, 59.4%; specificity, 94.4%; positive predictive value [PPV], 95.0%; negativepredictive value [NPV], 56.7%; area under the curve [AUC], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.678–0.923; P < 0.001), while among patients diagnosed with colorectal polyp or UC, the most accurate FC cut-off for discriminating colorectal polyps from UC on colonoscopy was 879 mg/kg (sensitivity, 81.2%; specificity, 56.2%; PPV, 78.8%; NPV, 60.0%; AUC, 0.687; 95% CI, 0.521–0.852; P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#FC may assist in assessing the cause of lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding in children who present with isolated hematochezia.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 447-455, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875469

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Recent evidence suggests an association between allergic sensitization and metabolic markers. However, this association has rarely been examined in the elderly. Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) is a recently identified adipokine that acts on the muscle and liver affecting insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the association between metabolic parameters and allergic sensitization in the elderly. @*Methods@#We analysed the database of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging cohort study conducted during 2005 to 2006. Atopy was identified by inhalant allergen skin prick test. Metabolic conditions were assessed using anthropometric indices and serum biomarkers such as fasting glucose, lipid, adiponectin, and RBP-4. @*Results@#Among the 854 elderly subjects, 17.2% had atopy. Plasma RBP-4 levels were significantly higher in the atopic elderly than nonatopic elderly (p = 0.003). When RBP-4 percentiles were categorized as under three groups, the prevalence of atopy and current rhinitis increased significantly with percentiles of RBP-4 levels (p = 0.019 and p = 0.007, respectively). Log RBP-4 was associated with atopy (odds ratio [OR], 4.10; p = 0.009) and current rhinitis (OR, 2.73; p = 0.014), but not with current asthma (OR, 1.17; p = 0.824). Higher RBP-4 level in atopic elderly was also observed in current rhinitis patients. Atopy, but not current rhinitis, showed significant relationships with log RBP-4 levels in multivariate analyses adjusted for other metabolic markers including body mass index. @*Conclusions@#RBP-4 positively associated with atopy in the general elderly population irrespective of other metabolic markers.

7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e136-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900020

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sedative upper endoscopy is similar in pediatrics and adults, but it is characteristically more likely to lead to respiratory failure. Although recommended guidelines for pediatric procedural sedation are available within South Korea and internationally, Korean pediatric endoscopists use different drugs, either alone or in combination, in practice. Efforts are being made to minimize the risk of sedation while avoiding procedural challenges. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on the sedation methods used by Korean pediatric endoscopists to help physicians perform pediatric sedative upper endoscopy (PSUE). @*Methods@#The PSUE procedures performed in 15 Korean pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopic units within a year were analyzed. Drugs used for sedation were grouped according to the method of use, and the depth of sedation was evaluated based on the Ramsay scores. The procedures and their complications were also assessed. @*Results@#In total, 734 patients who underwent PSUE were included. Sedation and monitoring were performed by an anesthesiologist at one of the institutions. The sedative procedures were performed by a pediatric endoscopist at the other 14 institutions. Regarding the number of assistants present during the procedures, 36.6% of procedures had one assistant, 38.8%had 2 assistants, and 24.5% had 3 assistants. The average age of the patients was 11.6 years old. Of the patients, 19.8% had underlying diseases, 10.0% were taking medications such as epilepsy drugs, and 1.0% had snoring or sleep apnea history. The average duration of the procedures was 5.2 minutes. The subjects were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) midazolam + propofol + ketamine (M + P + K): n = 18, average dose of 0.03 + 2.4 + 0.5 mg/kg;2) M + P: n = 206, average dose of 0.06 + 2.1 mg/kg; 3) M + K: n = 267, average dose of 0.09 + 0.69 mg/kg; 4) continuous P infusion for 20 minutes: n = 15, average dose of 6.6 mg/kg; 5) M: n = 228, average dose of 0.11 mg/kg. The average Ramsay score for the five groups was 3.7, with significant differences between the groups (P < 0.001). Regarding the adverse effects, desaturation and increased oxygen supply were most prevalent in the M + K group. Decreases and increases in blood pressure were most prevalent in the M + P + K group, and bag-mask ventilation was most used in the M + K group. There were no reported incidents of intubation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A decrease in oxygen saturation was observed in 37 of 734 patients, and it significantly increased in young patients (P = 0.001) and when ketamine was used (P = 0.014). Oxygen saturation was also correlated with dosage (P = 0.037). The use of ketamine (P < 0.001) and propofol (P < 0.001) were identified as factors affecting the Ramsay score in the logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusion@#Although the drug use by Korean pediatric endoscopists followed the recommended guidelines to an extent, it was apparent that they combined the drugs or reduced the doses depending on the patient characteristics to reduce the likelihood of respiratory failure. Inducing deep sedation facilitates comfort during the procedure, but it also leads to a higher risk of complications.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 588-598, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890742

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) can develop during treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. We aimed to investigate the factors associated with immunogenicity of anti-TNF agents in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and observe the clinical course of ADA-positive patients. @*Methods@#Pediatric IBD patients receiving maintenance treatment with anti-TNF agents who had been tested for ADAs against infliximab (IFX) or adalimumab (ADL) were included in this crosssectional study. Factors associated with ADA positivity were investigated by analyzing clinicodemographic, laboratory, and treatment-related factors. @*Results@#A total of 76 patients (Crohn’s disease, 65; ulcerative colitis, 11) were included. Among these, 59 and 17 patients were receiving IFX and ADL, respectively. ADAs were found in 10 patients (13.2%), all of whom were receiving IFX. According to multivariable logistic regression analysis, the IFX trough level (TL) was associated with ADA positivity (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.51; p=0.002). According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal cutoff of the IFX TLs for stratifying patients based on the presence of ADAs against IFX was 1.88 μg/mL (area under curve, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.873 to 1.000; sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 95.9%; p<0.001). Among the 10 patients with ADAs against IFX, five patients (50%) switched to ADL within 1 year, while five patients (50%) kept receiving IFX. Transient ADAs were observed in three patients (30%). @*Conclusions@#IFX TL was the only factor associated with ADA formation in pediatric IBD patients receiving IFX. Future studies based on serial and proactive therapeutic drug monitoring are required in the future.

9.
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine ; : 379-392, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913498

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop and evaluate the Korean version of a hospital-based transitional rehabilitation program (TRP), using daily living home for spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. @*Methods@#In this study, we developed the Korean version of a hospital-based TRP through domestic and overseas surveys and focus group meetings. By applying this to chronic SCI patients, we observed the functional and quality of life (QOL) changes and evaluated the degree of achievement of the core goals set for each patient during hospital-based TRP. @*Results@#Hospital-based TRP, for 21.8±3.9 days on average, was applied to four chronic SCI patients (two patients with long-term hospital stays and two homebound disabled individuals) with an average injury period of 736.8±185.4 days. The Korean version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (49.3±6.9 vs. 62.5±6.0; p<0.05) showed functional improvement at the end of TRP, when compared to that before the TRP. The Korean version of the World Health Organization’s QOL scale, abbreviated version (159.8±36.6 vs. 239.8±36.1; p<0.05), showed improvement in QOL. Goal attainment scaling showed a significant degree of achievement for the core goals through TRP (33.6±4.4 vs. 70.0±2.8; p<0.05). These results confirmed that the effect was maintained 1 month after the end of TRP. Additionally, two patients were successfully discharged after TRP completion, and the other two could start social activities. @*Conclusion@#The Korean version of the hospital-based TRP, applied to chronic SCI patients, showed the potential to improve the patients’ functioning and QOL and appeared to be effective in successful discharge and social participation.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 615-621, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904239

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The concept of hidden hearing loss can explain the discrepancy between a listener’s perception of hearing ability and hearing evaluation using pure tone audiograms. This study investigated the utility of the suprathreshold auditory brainstem response (ABR) for the evaluation of hidden hearing loss in noise-exposed ear with normal audiograms. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 15 patients (24 ears) with normal auditory thresholds and normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions were included in a retrospective analysis of medical records of 80 patients presenting with histories of acute noise exposure. The control group included 12 subjects (24 ears) with normal audiograms and no history of noise exposure. Pure tone audiometry and suprathreshold ABR testing at 90 dB peSPL were performed. The amplitudes and latencies of ABR waves I and V were compared between the noise-exposed and control groups. @*Results@#We found no significant difference in the wave I or V amplitude, or the wave I/V ratio, between the two groups. The latencies of ABR wave I, V, and I–V interpeak interval were compared, and no significant intergroup difference was observed. @*Conclusion@#The results suggest that either hidden hearing loss may not be significant in this cohort of patients with acute noise exposure history, or the possible damage by noise exposure is not reflected in the ABRs. Further studies are needed to inquire about the role of ABR in identification of hidden hearing loss.

11.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 213-224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children at admission and during hospitalization in South Korea. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#This first cross-sectional nationwide “Pediatric Nutrition Day (pNday)” survey was conducted among 872 hospitalized children (504 boys, 368 girls; 686 medical, 186 surgical) from 23 hospitals in South Korea. Malnutrition risk was screened using the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) and the Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth. Nutritional status was assessed by z-scores of weight-for-age for underweight, weight-for-height for wasting, and height-for-age for stunting as well as laboratory tests. @*RESULTS@#At admission, of the 872 hospitalized children, 17.2% were underweight, and the prevalence of wasting and stunting was 20.2% and 17.3%, respectively. During hospitalization till pNday, 10.8% and 19.6% experienced weight loss and decreased oral intake, respectively.During the aforementioned period, fasting was more prevalent in surgical patients (7.5%) than in medical patients (1.6%) (P < 0.001). According to the PYMS, 34.3% and 30% of the children at admission and on pNday, respectively, had a high-risk of malnutrition, requiring consultation with the nutritional support team (NST). However, only 4% were actually referred to the NST during hospitalization. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Malnutrition was prevalent at admission and during hospitalization in pediatric patients, with many children experiencing weight loss and poor oral intake. To improve the nutritional status of hospitalized children, it is important to screen and identify all children at risk of malnutrition and refer malnourished patients to the multidisciplinary NST for proper nutritional interventions.

12.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 107-111, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902305

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To assess the prevalence and progression of a stage 0 macular hole in the fellow eye of patients with an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole. @*Methods@#The fellow eyes of 189 patients who underwent idiopathic full-thickness macular hole surgery were examined by biomicroscopy and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A subset of 21 fellow eyes with a stage 0 macular hole was observed. Changes in the macular hole were evaluated by biomicroscopy and SD-OCT for an average of 29 months. @*Results@#Among the 21 eyes, 15 showed no change in perifoveal vitreous detachment (71.4%). Two eyes (9.5%) developed complete vitreofoveal separation, and one of the two developed a separation after progression to stage 1A. Among 21 eyes, 5 (23.8%) developed above stage 1A, and one of the five progressed to stage 1B after five years, which was successfully treated with vitrectomy and gas tamponade. @*Conclusions@#Perifoveal vitreous detachment in the fellow eye on SD-OCT, defined as a stage 0 macular hole, occurred at an earlier phase than stage 1A macular holes and may progress to an advanced stage. Therefore, patients who undergo macular hole surgery and have a stage 0 macular hole or perifoveal vitreous detachment in the fellow eye should be followed closely.

13.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 382-389, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902088

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to explore the relationship between fruit intake, changes in fruit intake, and changes in cardiometabolic factors in people with obesity. @*Methods@#A total of 21,270 subjects (8,718 men, 12,552 women) aged 40 years and over, from the Korean-based Genome and Epidemiology Study, were followed up for an average of 4.4 years. Fruit intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and the second follow-up. The beta coefficient and confidence intervals for changes in cardiometabolic risk factors according to fruit consumption were calculated using a linear regression model. @*Results@#In men, the abdominal circumference decreased with changes in fruit intake (P=0.029). Fruit intake and increased fruit intake in men were associated with a lower systolic blood pressure (P=0.012 and P=0.02, respectively) and lower triglyceride levels (P=0.002 and P<0.001, respectively). In women, abdominal circumference decreased with both fruit intake and increased fruit intake (P<0.001 and P=0.013, respectively). Systolic blood pressure and triglycerides tended to decrease only with fruit intake (P=0.048 and P<0.001, respectively). Unlike in men, fasting blood glucose tended to decrease in women with both fruit intake and increased fruit intake (P=0.011 and P=0.005, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Fruit intake and increased fruit intake may have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals who are obese.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 588-598, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898446

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) can develop during treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. We aimed to investigate the factors associated with immunogenicity of anti-TNF agents in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and observe the clinical course of ADA-positive patients. @*Methods@#Pediatric IBD patients receiving maintenance treatment with anti-TNF agents who had been tested for ADAs against infliximab (IFX) or adalimumab (ADL) were included in this crosssectional study. Factors associated with ADA positivity were investigated by analyzing clinicodemographic, laboratory, and treatment-related factors. @*Results@#A total of 76 patients (Crohn’s disease, 65; ulcerative colitis, 11) were included. Among these, 59 and 17 patients were receiving IFX and ADL, respectively. ADAs were found in 10 patients (13.2%), all of whom were receiving IFX. According to multivariable logistic regression analysis, the IFX trough level (TL) was associated with ADA positivity (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.51; p=0.002). According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal cutoff of the IFX TLs for stratifying patients based on the presence of ADAs against IFX was 1.88 μg/mL (area under curve, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.873 to 1.000; sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 95.9%; p<0.001). Among the 10 patients with ADAs against IFX, five patients (50%) switched to ADL within 1 year, while five patients (50%) kept receiving IFX. Transient ADAs were observed in three patients (30%). @*Conclusions@#IFX TL was the only factor associated with ADA formation in pediatric IBD patients receiving IFX. Future studies based on serial and proactive therapeutic drug monitoring are required in the future.

15.
Blood Research ; : 141-149, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897380

ABSTRACT

Background@#There is lack of data on admitted hemophilia patients in Korea. For this reason, this study was intended to analyze the hospitalization data of hemophilia patients in a regional Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) for the first time in Korea. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, we surveyed hospitalized patients with Hemophilia A (HA) in a HTC for 14 years. Medical records of these hemophiliacs were reviewed and data regarding demographic characteristics, cause of admissions and their outcomes in each patient were obtained. In addition, the data of admitted days, type and amount of Coagulation factor concentrate (CFC) used, treatments other than CFC infusion during the admission days were also obtained from the medical record of each patient. @*Results@#A total 107 patients with hemophilia A were admitted during 14 years. Annual rate of admission of patients with HA was 8%. Mean age on admission was 29.63±19.51 years old and mean admission days were 11.28±5.46 days. Most admissions were occurred in severe and moderate hemophilia patients. The most common cause of admission was bleed control followed by surgery and other reasons. With modified WFH CFC supplementation guideline, all the bleeds were successfully controlled and all surgeries were also successfully conducted with less total CFC consumption compared to the consumed dose of other reports. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that it is necessary to develop more specified regimens different from WFH.

16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 615-621, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896535

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The concept of hidden hearing loss can explain the discrepancy between a listener’s perception of hearing ability and hearing evaluation using pure tone audiograms. This study investigated the utility of the suprathreshold auditory brainstem response (ABR) for the evaluation of hidden hearing loss in noise-exposed ear with normal audiograms. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 15 patients (24 ears) with normal auditory thresholds and normal distortion product otoacoustic emissions were included in a retrospective analysis of medical records of 80 patients presenting with histories of acute noise exposure. The control group included 12 subjects (24 ears) with normal audiograms and no history of noise exposure. Pure tone audiometry and suprathreshold ABR testing at 90 dB peSPL were performed. The amplitudes and latencies of ABR waves I and V were compared between the noise-exposed and control groups. @*Results@#We found no significant difference in the wave I or V amplitude, or the wave I/V ratio, between the two groups. The latencies of ABR wave I, V, and I–V interpeak interval were compared, and no significant intergroup difference was observed. @*Conclusion@#The results suggest that either hidden hearing loss may not be significant in this cohort of patients with acute noise exposure history, or the possible damage by noise exposure is not reflected in the ABRs. Further studies are needed to inquire about the role of ABR in identification of hidden hearing loss.

17.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 213-224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children at admission and during hospitalization in South Korea. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#This first cross-sectional nationwide “Pediatric Nutrition Day (pNday)” survey was conducted among 872 hospitalized children (504 boys, 368 girls; 686 medical, 186 surgical) from 23 hospitals in South Korea. Malnutrition risk was screened using the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS) and the Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional status and Growth. Nutritional status was assessed by z-scores of weight-for-age for underweight, weight-for-height for wasting, and height-for-age for stunting as well as laboratory tests. @*RESULTS@#At admission, of the 872 hospitalized children, 17.2% were underweight, and the prevalence of wasting and stunting was 20.2% and 17.3%, respectively. During hospitalization till pNday, 10.8% and 19.6% experienced weight loss and decreased oral intake, respectively.During the aforementioned period, fasting was more prevalent in surgical patients (7.5%) than in medical patients (1.6%) (P < 0.001). According to the PYMS, 34.3% and 30% of the children at admission and on pNday, respectively, had a high-risk of malnutrition, requiring consultation with the nutritional support team (NST). However, only 4% were actually referred to the NST during hospitalization. @*CONCLUSIONS@#Malnutrition was prevalent at admission and during hospitalization in pediatric patients, with many children experiencing weight loss and poor oral intake. To improve the nutritional status of hospitalized children, it is important to screen and identify all children at risk of malnutrition and refer malnourished patients to the multidisciplinary NST for proper nutritional interventions.

18.
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology ; : 107-111, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894601

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To assess the prevalence and progression of a stage 0 macular hole in the fellow eye of patients with an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole. @*Methods@#The fellow eyes of 189 patients who underwent idiopathic full-thickness macular hole surgery were examined by biomicroscopy and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A subset of 21 fellow eyes with a stage 0 macular hole was observed. Changes in the macular hole were evaluated by biomicroscopy and SD-OCT for an average of 29 months. @*Results@#Among the 21 eyes, 15 showed no change in perifoveal vitreous detachment (71.4%). Two eyes (9.5%) developed complete vitreofoveal separation, and one of the two developed a separation after progression to stage 1A. Among 21 eyes, 5 (23.8%) developed above stage 1A, and one of the five progressed to stage 1B after five years, which was successfully treated with vitrectomy and gas tamponade. @*Conclusions@#Perifoveal vitreous detachment in the fellow eye on SD-OCT, defined as a stage 0 macular hole, occurred at an earlier phase than stage 1A macular holes and may progress to an advanced stage. Therefore, patients who undergo macular hole surgery and have a stage 0 macular hole or perifoveal vitreous detachment in the fellow eye should be followed closely.

19.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 382-389, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894384

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to explore the relationship between fruit intake, changes in fruit intake, and changes in cardiometabolic factors in people with obesity. @*Methods@#A total of 21,270 subjects (8,718 men, 12,552 women) aged 40 years and over, from the Korean-based Genome and Epidemiology Study, were followed up for an average of 4.4 years. Fruit intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and the second follow-up. The beta coefficient and confidence intervals for changes in cardiometabolic risk factors according to fruit consumption were calculated using a linear regression model. @*Results@#In men, the abdominal circumference decreased with changes in fruit intake (P=0.029). Fruit intake and increased fruit intake in men were associated with a lower systolic blood pressure (P=0.012 and P=0.02, respectively) and lower triglyceride levels (P=0.002 and P<0.001, respectively). In women, abdominal circumference decreased with both fruit intake and increased fruit intake (P<0.001 and P=0.013, respectively). Systolic blood pressure and triglycerides tended to decrease only with fruit intake (P=0.048 and P<0.001, respectively). Unlike in men, fasting blood glucose tended to decrease in women with both fruit intake and increased fruit intake (P=0.011 and P=0.005, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Fruit intake and increased fruit intake may have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals who are obese.

20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e136-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892316

ABSTRACT

Background@#Sedative upper endoscopy is similar in pediatrics and adults, but it is characteristically more likely to lead to respiratory failure. Although recommended guidelines for pediatric procedural sedation are available within South Korea and internationally, Korean pediatric endoscopists use different drugs, either alone or in combination, in practice. Efforts are being made to minimize the risk of sedation while avoiding procedural challenges. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data on the sedation methods used by Korean pediatric endoscopists to help physicians perform pediatric sedative upper endoscopy (PSUE). @*Methods@#The PSUE procedures performed in 15 Korean pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopic units within a year were analyzed. Drugs used for sedation were grouped according to the method of use, and the depth of sedation was evaluated based on the Ramsay scores. The procedures and their complications were also assessed. @*Results@#In total, 734 patients who underwent PSUE were included. Sedation and monitoring were performed by an anesthesiologist at one of the institutions. The sedative procedures were performed by a pediatric endoscopist at the other 14 institutions. Regarding the number of assistants present during the procedures, 36.6% of procedures had one assistant, 38.8%had 2 assistants, and 24.5% had 3 assistants. The average age of the patients was 11.6 years old. Of the patients, 19.8% had underlying diseases, 10.0% were taking medications such as epilepsy drugs, and 1.0% had snoring or sleep apnea history. The average duration of the procedures was 5.2 minutes. The subjects were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1) midazolam + propofol + ketamine (M + P + K): n = 18, average dose of 0.03 + 2.4 + 0.5 mg/kg;2) M + P: n = 206, average dose of 0.06 + 2.1 mg/kg; 3) M + K: n = 267, average dose of 0.09 + 0.69 mg/kg; 4) continuous P infusion for 20 minutes: n = 15, average dose of 6.6 mg/kg; 5) M: n = 228, average dose of 0.11 mg/kg. The average Ramsay score for the five groups was 3.7, with significant differences between the groups (P < 0.001). Regarding the adverse effects, desaturation and increased oxygen supply were most prevalent in the M + K group. Decreases and increases in blood pressure were most prevalent in the M + P + K group, and bag-mask ventilation was most used in the M + K group. There were no reported incidents of intubation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A decrease in oxygen saturation was observed in 37 of 734 patients, and it significantly increased in young patients (P = 0.001) and when ketamine was used (P = 0.014). Oxygen saturation was also correlated with dosage (P = 0.037). The use of ketamine (P < 0.001) and propofol (P < 0.001) were identified as factors affecting the Ramsay score in the logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusion@#Although the drug use by Korean pediatric endoscopists followed the recommended guidelines to an extent, it was apparent that they combined the drugs or reduced the doses depending on the patient characteristics to reduce the likelihood of respiratory failure. Inducing deep sedation facilitates comfort during the procedure, but it also leads to a higher risk of complications.

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