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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 129-135, 2002.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308153


<p><b>PURPOSE</b>To review evidence-based management of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.</p><p><b>DATA SOURCES</b>A literature search (MEDLINE 1966 to 2000) was performed using the key word "diabetic nephropathy". Relevant book chapters were also reviewed.</p><p><b>STUDY SELECTION</b>Well-controlled, prospective landmark studies and expert review articles on diabetic nephropathy were selected.</p><p><b>DATA EXTRACTION</b>Data and conclusions from the selected articles that provide solid evidence to the optimal management of diabetic nephropathy were extracted and interpreted in light of our clinical research experience with many thousands of Hong Kong Chinese patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Hypertension, long diabetes duration, poor glycaemic control and central obesity are the most important risk factors. Microalbuminuria is a practical marker to predict overt nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Risk factor modification, renal function monitoring and combined therapies are the current integrated approaches to manage patients with diabetic kidney disease. Optimal glycaemic control is the mainstay of treatment but effective antihypertensive therapy is also key to delaying the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists have important renoprotective actions independent of their blood pressure lowering actions.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Monitoring renal function and screening for microalbuminuria will allow the identification of patients with nephropathy at a very early stage for intervention. Tight glycaemic control and aggressive antihypertensive treatment as well as the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors should substantially delay the progression of nephropathy.</p>

Albuminuria , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Epidemiology , Therapeutics , Dietary Proteins , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Therapeutics , Hypertension , Therapeutics
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 897-899, 2002.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302279


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relative effects of degree and distribution of body fat with several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in elderly Chinese subjects.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and thirty-five elderly Chinese individuals (age range, 60-65 y) without any history of significant renal, hepatic or cardiac disease were recruited. Seated blood pressure, anthropometric and fasting plasma biochemical parameters were measured. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in biochemical and anthropometric markers between cohorts.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Males were heavier (64.6 +/- 8.6, 57.2 +/- 8.2kg, P < 0.001), taller (1.65 +/- 0.06, 1.51 +/- 0.05 m, P < 0.001) and their greater body fat was predominantly deposited centrally (Waist-to- hip ratio, 0.91 +/- 0.06, 0.88 +/- 0.07, P < 0.05). Females were more generally obese with increased body mass index (BMI, 23.8 +/- 4.6, 25.0 +/- 3.5 kg/m2, P < 0.05) and percentage body fat [26.3% (24.5%-28.1%) vs 37.2% (36.0%-38.9%), P < 0.001] than the males. However, despite an 11% higher proportion of body fat in females, no significant differences were identified in blood pressure, lipid profile, indices of insulin resistance or albumin-to-creatinine ratios.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It is likely that central adiposity contributes disproportionately to these metabolic disorders in males even though they are much leaner than elderly Chinese females.</p>

Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Risk Factors