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1.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 171-177, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981249

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infectious diseases (RID) are the major public health problems threatening the people's lives and health.Infection control (IC) is one of the effective tools to contain the occurrence and spread of RID.We collected the articles and data on IC published since January 1,2018 and summarized the achievements,problems,and challenges of IC from administrative control,management control,environment and engineering control,and personal protection in the medical institutions and public places in China.The efforts for IC vary in different regions and medical institutions of different levels.There are still links to be improved for IC from administrative control,management control,environment and engineering control,and personal protection,especially in community-level medical institutions and public areas.It is urgent to strengthen the implementation of IC policies and conduct IC precisely according to local situations.We proposed the following suggestions.First,the existing IC products and tools should be applied to precisely implement the IC measures;second,modern high technology should be employed to develop efficient and convenient IC products and tools;finally,a digital or intelligent IC platform should be built for monitoring infections,so as to contain the occurrence and spread of RID.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Infection Control , Communicable Diseases , China/epidemiology
2.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 406-417, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genotyping characteristics of human fecal Escherichia coli( E. coli) and the relationships between antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and multidrug resistance (MDR) of E. coli in Miyun District, Beijing, an area with high incidence of infectious diarrheal cases but no related data.@*METHODS@#Over a period of 3 years, 94 E. coli strains were isolated from fecal samples collected from Miyun District Hospital, a surveillance hospital of the National Pathogen Identification Network. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the broth microdilution method. ARGs, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and polymorphism trees were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing data (WGS).@*RESULTS@#This study revealed that 68.09% of the isolates had MDR, prevalent and distributed in different clades, with a relatively high rate and low pathogenicity. There was no difference in MDR between the diarrheal (49/70) and healthy groups (15/24).@*CONCLUSION@#We developed a random forest (RF) prediction model of TEM.1 + baeR + mphA + mphB + QnrS1 + AAC.3-IId to identify MDR status, highlighting its potential for early resistance identification. The causes of MDR are likely mobile units transmitting the ARGs. In the future, we will continue to strengthen the monitoring of ARGs and MDR, and increase the number of strains to further verify the accuracy of the MDR markers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Beijing , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Diarrhea , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
3.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 325-339, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001986

ABSTRACT

Renal fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix and inflammatory cells and kidney dysfunction, which is a major pathway in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of CKD via proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling pathways. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging effects. Therefore, we evaluated the antifibrotic effects of fisetin on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced kidneys. Methods: C57BL/6 female mice were subjected to right UUO and intraperitoneally injected every other day with fisetin (25 mg/kg/ day) or vehicle from 1 hour before surgery to 7 days after surgery. Kidney samples were analyzed for renal fibrosis (α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA] expression, collagen deposition, and transforming growth factor [TGF] β1/SMAD3 signaling pathway), oxidative damage (4-HNE and 8-OHdG expression), inflammation (proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine, macrophage, and neutrophil infiltration), and apoptosis (TUNEL staining). Cultured human proximal tubule cells were treated with fisetin before TGF-β to confirm the TGF-β downstream pathway (SMAD2/3 phosphorylation). Results: We found that fisetin treatment protected against renal fibrosis by inhibiting the phosphorylation of SMAD3, oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptotic cell death, and accumulation of profibrotic M2 macrophages in the obstructed kidneys. In cultured human proximal tubular cells, fisetin treatment inhibited TGF-β1–induced phosphorylation of SMAD3 and SMAD2. Conclusion: Fisetin alleviates kidney fibrosis to protect against UUO-induced renal fibrosis, and could be a novel therapeutic drug for obstructive nephropathy.

4.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 312-324, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001973

ABSTRACT

The primary cilium, a microtubule-based cellular organelle present in certain kidney cells, functions as a mechano-sensor to monitor fluid flow in addition to various other biological functions. In kidneys, the primary cilia protrude into the tubular lumen and are directly exposed to pro-urine flow and components. However, their effects on urine concentration remain to be defined. Here, we investigated the association between primary cilia and urine concentration. Methods: Mice either had free access to water (normal water intake, NWI) or were not allowed access to water (water deprivation, WD). Some mice received tubastatin, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which regulates the acetylation of α-tubulin, a core protein of microtubules. Results: WD decreased urine output and increased urine osmolality, concomitant with apical plasma membrane localization of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the kidney. After WD, compared with after NWI, the lengths of primary cilia in renal tubular epithelial cells were shortened and HDAC6 activity increased. WD induced deacetylation of α-tubulin without altering α-tubulin levels in the kidney. Tubastatin prevented the shortening of cilia through increasing HDAC6 activity and consequently increasing acetylated α-tubulin expression. Furthermore, tubastatin prevented the WD-induced reduction of urine output, urine osmolality increase, and apical plasma membrane localization of AQP2. Conclusions: WD shortens primary cilia length through HDAC6 activation and α-tubulin deacetylation, while HDAC6 inhibition blocks the WD-induced changes in cilia length and urine output. This suggests that cilia length alterations are involved, at least in part, in the regulation of body water balance and urine concentration.

5.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 188-201, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001967

ABSTRACT

Diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activator, exerts anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in a variety of human chronic diseases. However, the role of DIZE in kidney fibrosis and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of DIZE on the progression of renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), a well-established model of chronic kidney disease. Methods: C57BL/6 female or male mice were subjected to right UUO. Mice received 15 mg/kg DIZE or vehicle (saline) daily. On the 7th day after UUO, kidneys were collected for analysis of renal fibrosis (α-smooth muscle actin, phosphorylated SMAD3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Masson’s trichrome, and Sirius red staining), inflammation (macrophage infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines/ chemokines), apoptosisecrotic cell death (TUNEL and periodic acid-Schiff staining), and ACE2 activity and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Results: Treatment with DIZE exacerbated renal fibrosis by upregulating the profibrotic TGF-β/SMAD3 pathway, proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) levels, M2 macrophage accumulation (CD206, IL-4, IL-10, and CX3CL1), and apoptoticecrotic cell death in the obstructed kidneys of female mice but not male mice. However, DIZE treatment had no effect on ACE2 activity or mRNA expression. Conclusion: DIZE exacerbates UUO-induced renal fibrosis by aggravating tubular damage, apoptosis, and inflammation through independent of angiotensin (1–7), angiotensin II levels, and ACE2 expression/activity, rather than protecting against renal fibrosis after UUO. DIZE also has powerful effects on recruiting macrophages, including the M2-polarized subtype, in female UUO mice.

6.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 279-284, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995287

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the clinical and epidemiological features of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection in adult patients with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in Nanjing.Methods:Epidemiological data of adult patients with URTI in Nanjing from October 2021 to September 2022 were collected. Clinical specimens were collected and subjected to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for the detection of 14 common respiratory viruses. The VP4/VP2 genes in HRV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Then a phylogenetic tree was constructed.Results:A total of 399 pharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with URTI. The overall positive rate of respiratory viruses was 28.07% (112/399) with HRV accounting for most at 9.52% (38/399). Thirty-seven VP4/VP2 sequences were successfully obtained from the 38 HRV-positive specimens. Three genotypes involving 25 serotypes were identified with 13 strains belonging to HRV-A, 14 belonging to HRV-B, and 10 belonging to HRV-C. The three genotypes of HRV showed alternate prevalence or co-prevalence.Conclusions:HRV was the main pathogen causing URTI in adult patients in Nanjing from October 2021 to September 2022, and three genotypes of HRV-A, B and C were prevalent alternatively or together.

7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 324-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993331

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the safety and feasibility of hepatic pedicle-first approach laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy for central segments.Methods:The clinical data of 19 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatic pedicle-first approach laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy for the central segments in the Faculty of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital from September 2020 to January 2023 were retrospectively analyzed. In this procedure, hepatic pedicles of the central segments were divided first to delineate the ischemic demarcation and guide the liver parenchymal transection. The methods of operation, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications and hospital-stay were analyzed.Results:Hepatic pedicle-first approach laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy for the central segments was successfully performed in all patients, including 5 cases of segment Ⅳ, 2 cases of segment Ⅳ+ Ⅷ, 3 cases of segment Ⅳ+ ventral segment Ⅷ, 3 cases of segment Ⅳa+ Ⅴ+ Ⅷ and 6 cases of segment Ⅴ+ Ⅷ. The mean operation time, intraoperative blood loss and postoperative hospital stay was (253.1±86.1) min, [ M( Q1, Q3)] 100.0(100.0, 250.0) ml, and (5.1±1.2) d respectively. There was no intraoperative blood transfusion and postoperative complications. Conclusion:Hepatic pedicle-first approach can help delineate the segemental demarcation in laparoscopic anatomical hepatectomy for the central segments, which is technically feasible and worth more practice.

8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 321-323, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993330

ABSTRACT

With the continuous development of laparoscopic hepatectomy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in recent years, laparoscopic anatomical hepatic segmentectomy has become increasingly improved, including anatomical segmentectomy, subsegmentectomy and combined segmentectomy. The above surgical procedures involve a variety of technical means, requiring the surgeon to be familiar with intrahepatic anatomy and possess extensive experience in ultrasound technology and laparoscopic surgery. This article discussed the key techniques of laparoscopic anatomical hepatic segmentectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma based on our clinical practice.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 434-443, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977393

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although a management fee for hospitalist service was established in Korea, the number of hospitalists required for the system to run remains outmatched. @*Methods@#In January 2020 and February 2022, before and after the establishment of the hospitalist fee system respectively, cross-sectional online surveys were conducted among internal medicine board-certified hospitalists. @*Results@#There were 59 and 64 respondents in the 2020 and 2022 surveys, respectively. The percentage of respondents who cited financial benefits as a motive for becoming a hospitalist was higher in the 2022 survey than in the 2020 survey (34.4% vs. 10.2%; p = 0.001). The annual salary of respondents was also higher in the 2022 survey than in the 2020 survey (mean, 182.9 vs. 163.0 million in South Korean Won; p = 0.006). A total of 81.3% of the respondents were willing to continue a hospitalist career in the 2022 survey. In multivariate regression analysis, the possibility of being appointed as a professor was found to be an independent predictive factor of continuing a hospitalist career (odds ratio, 4.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–14.75; p = 0.037). @*Conclusions@#Since the establishment of the hospitalist fee system, monetary compensation has improved for hospitalists. The possibility of being appointed as a professor could predict long-term work as hospitalists.

10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 172-178, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the change in the distribution of memory B cell subsets in children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) during the course of the disease.@*METHODS@#A total of 35 children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) who attended the Department of Pediatrics of the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from October 2020 to October 2021 were enrolled as subjects in this prospective study. According to the response to glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and frequency of recurrence, the children were divided into two groups: FRNS (n=20) and non-FRNS (NFRNS; n=15). Fifteen children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. The change in memory B cells after GC therapy was compared between groups, and its correlation with clinical indicators was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Before treatment, the FRNS and NFRNS groups had significantly increased percentages of total B cells, total memory B cells, IgD+ memory B cells, and IgE+ memory B cells compared with the control group, and the FRNS group had significantly greater increases than the NFRNS group (P<0.05); the FRNS group had a significantly lower percentage of class-switched memory B cells than the NFRNS and control groups (P<0.05). After treatment, the FRNS and NFRNS groups had significant reductions in the percentages of total B cells, total memory B cells, IgM+IgD+ memory B cells, IgM+ memory B cells, IgE+ memory B cells, IgD+ memory B cells, and IgG+ memory B cells (P<0.05) and a significant increase in the percentage of class-switched memory B cells (P<0.05). The FRNS group had a significantly higher urinary protein quantification than the NFRNS and control groups (P<0.05) and a significantly lower level of albumin than the control group (P<0.05). In the FRNS group, urinary protein quantification was negatively correlated with the percentage of class-switched memory B cells and was positively correlated with the percentage of IgE+ memory B cells (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Abnormal distribution of memory B cell subsets may be observed in children with FRNS, and the percentages of IgE+ memory B cells and class-switched memory B cells can be used as positive and negative correlation factors for predicting recurrence after GC therapy in these children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin M , Nephrotic Syndrome/immunology , Prospective Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 455-464, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970482

ABSTRACT

This study explores the effect of total flavonoids of Rhododendra simsii(TFR) on middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)-induced cerebral injury in rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation(OGD/R) injury in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. The MCAO method was used to induce focal ischemic cerebral injury in rats. Male SD rats were randomized into sham group, model group, and TFR group. After MCAO, TFR(60 mg·kg~(-1)) was administered for 3 days. The content of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1(IL-1), and interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The pathological changes of brain tissue and cerebral infarction were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC) staining. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of calcium release-activated calcium channel modulator 1(ORAI1), stromal interaction molecule 1(STIM1), stromal intera-ction molecule 2(STIM2), protein kinase B(PKB), and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 3(caspase-3) in brain tissues. The OGD/R method was employed to induce injury in PC12 cells. Cells were randomized into the normal group, model group, gene silencing group, TFR(30 μg·mL~(-1)) group, and TFR(30 μg·mL~(-1))+gene overexpression plasmid group. Intracellular Ca~(2+) concentration and apoptosis rate of PC12 cells were measured by laser scanning confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The effect of STIM-ORAI-regulated store-operated calcium entry(SOCE) pathway on TFR was explored based on gene silencing and gene overexpression techniques. The results showed that TFR significantly alleviated the histopathological damage of brains in MCAO rats after 3 days of admini-stration, reduced the contents of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 in the serum, down-regulated the expression of ORAI1, STIM1, STIM2, and caspase-3 genes, and up-regulated the expression of PKB gene in brain tissues of MCAO rats. TFR significantly decreased OGD/R induced Ca~(2+) overload and apoptosis in PC12 cells. However, it induced TFR-like effect by ORAI1, STIM1 and STIM2 genes silencing. However, overexpression of these genes significantly blocked the effect of TFR in reducing Ca~(2+) overload and apoptosis in PC12 cells. In summary, in the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and OGD/R-induced injury in PC12 cells TFR attenuates ischemic brain injury by inhibiting the STIM-ORAI-regulated SOCE pathway and reducing Ca~(2+) overload and inflammatory factor expression, and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-6 , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Rhododendron/chemistry
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3046-3054, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981435

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to explore the mechanism of ligustilide, the main active constituent of essential oils of traditional Chinese medicine Angelicae Sinensis Radix, on alleviating oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R) injury in PC12 cells from the perspective of ferroptosis. OGD/R was induced in vitro, and 12 h after ligustilide addition during reperfusion, cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay. DCFH-DA staining was used to detect the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS). Western blot was employed to detect the expression of ferroptosis-related proteins, glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4), transferrin receptor 1(TFR1), and solute carrier family 7 member 11(SLC7A11), and ferritinophagy-related proteins, nuclear receptor coactivator 4(NCOA4), ferritin heavy chain 1(FTH1), and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3). The fluorescence intensity of LC3 protein was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. The content of glutathione(GSH), malondialdehyde(MDA), and Fe was detected by chemiluminescent immunoassay. The effect of ligustilide on ferroptosis was observed by overexpression of NCOA4 gene. The results showed that ligustilide increased the viability of PC12 cells damaged by OGD/R, inhibited the release of ROS, reduced the content of Fe and MDA and the expression of TFR1, NCOA4, and LC3, and improved the content of GSH and the expression of GPX4, SLC7A11, and FTH1 compared with OGD/R group. After overexpression of the key protein NCOA4 in ferritinophagy, the inhibitory effect of ligustilide on ferroptosis was partially reversed, indicating that ligustilide may alleviate OGD/R injury of PC12 cells by blocking ferritinophagy and then inhibiting ferroptosis. The mechanism by which ligustilide reduced OGD/R injury in PC12 cells is that it suppressed the ferroptosis involved in ferritinophagy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , PC12 Cells , Ferroptosis/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species , Transcription Factors , Glutathione
13.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 407-412, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935959

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of primary preventive treatment under endoscope for esophageal and gastric varices on bleeding rate and its relevant factors. Methods: 127 cases with liver cirrhosis accompanied with esophageal and gastric varices without bleeding history were included in the endoscopic and non-endoscopic treatment group, respectively. Informed consent was obtained from both groups. Gastric varices (Lgf) and esophageal varices (Leg) were diagnosed according to LDRf classification criteria, and the corresponding treatment scheme was selected according to the recommended principle of this method.The incidence rate of bleeding from ruptured esophageal varices were observed at 3, 6 months, and 1, and 2 years in the treated and the untreated group, and the patients with different Child-Pugh scores were followed-up for 2 years. Gender, age, etiology, varicose degree, Child-Pugh grade, platelet count, prothrombin activity, portal vein thrombosis, collateral circulation, portal vein width and other factors affecting the bleeding rate were assessed. Measurement data were described as mean ± standard deviation (x¯±s), and qualitative data of categorical variables were expressed as percentage (%), and χ2 test was used. Results: 127 cases were followed up for 2 years. There were 55 cases in the endoscopic treatment group (18 cases underwent band ligation, 2 cases underwent band ligation combined with tissue adhesive embolization, 28 cases underwent sclerotherapy, and 7 cases underwent sclerotherapy combined with tissue adhesive embolization). Recurrent bleeding and hemorrhage was occurred in 5 (9.1%) and 28 cases (38.9%), respectively (P<0.05). In addition, there were 72 cases in the untreated group (P<0.05). Severe varicose veins proportions in treated and untreated group were 91.1% and 85.1%, respectively (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in liver cirrhosis-related medication and β-blocker therapy between the treated and untreated group (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the bleeding rate between the different treated groups (P>0.05). The bleeding rates at 3, 6 months, 1, and 2 years in endoscopic treated and untreated group were 2.00% vs. 2.59% (P>0.05), 2.30% vs. 5.88% (P>0.05), 3.10% vs. 7.55% (P>0.05) and 4.00% vs. 21.62% (P<0.05), respectively. All patients with Child-Pugh grade A, B and C in the treated and the untreated group were followed-up for 2 years, and the bleeding rates were 1.8% vs. 8.1% (P<0.05), 1.1% vs. 9.4% (P<0.05) and 9.1% vs. 10.1% (P>0.05), respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the rupture and bleeding of esophageal and gastric varices, varices degree, Child-Pugh grade and presence or absence of thrombosis formation in portal vein (P<0.05); however, no statistically significant differences in gender, age, etiology, platelet count, prothrombin activity, collateral circulation and portal vein width (P>0.05). There was no intraoperative bleeding and postoperative related serious complications in the treated group. Conclusion: The risk of initial episodes of bleeding from esophageal and gastric varices is significantly correlated with the varices degree, Child-Pugh grade, and portal vein thrombosis. Primary preventive treatment under endoscope is safe and effective for reducing the long-term variceal bleeding risk from esophageal and gastric varices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endoscopes , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Ligation , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Prothrombin , Sclerotherapy , Tissue Adhesives , Varicose Veins , Venous Thrombosis/complications
14.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 208-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920626

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of AIDS control knowledge among students in a university in Hangzhou City, so as to provide the evidence for evaluating the effectiveness of AIDS control in universities.@*Methods@#The knowledge, attitudes and practice towards AIDS control were investigated among students in a university in Hangzhou City using self-designed questionnaires in 2020, and were descriptively analyzed.@*Results@#Totally 6 300 questionnaires were allocated, and 6 164 valid ones were recovered, with an effective recovery rate of 97.84%. The respondents included 2 837 male students ( 46.03% ) and 3 327 female students ( 53.97% ), and had a mean age of ( 18.20±0.76 ) years. The overall awareness of AIDS control knowledge was 73.49%. The awareness rates of “The rights of marriage, employment and school admission are protected among HIV-infected individuals by Chinese laws” ( 61.11% ) and “Homosexual contact in men is the current main transmission pattern among young students in China” ( 66.37% ) were relatively low. There were 768 university students with a history of sexual behaviors ( 12.46% ), and regular sex partners were the predominant sex partners at the first sexual contact ( 679 students, 90.78% ) and at the sexual behaviors during the past one year ( 402 students, 71.91% ). There were 515 students (67.14%) using condoms during the first sexual contact, and there were 300 ( 63.83% ) and 16 students ( 40.00% ) using condoms with regular and casual sex partners during the past one year, respectively. Among 20 men who had sex with men, only 5 students ( 25.00% ) used condoms at each sexual contact. Of students with sexual behaviors, there were 355 (46.22%) and 354 ( 46.09% ) students that considered to be infected with AIDS and other sex-transmitted diseases, and among the university students with sexual behaviors, there were 614 ( 79.95% ) students that were willing to receive HIV testing, and 409 ( 53.26% ) and 305 ( 39.71% ) students that were willing to receive HIV testing in hospitals and disease control and prevention institutions, respectively.@*Conclusions@# The awareness of AIDS control knowledge is low among students in the university in Hangzhou City, which does not reach the national goal of supervision and assessment for AIDS control in China. There are high-risk sexual behaviors and the rate of condom use is low.

15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2008-2014, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928139

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine dispensing granules, the result of the efforts to transform Chinese medicinal decoction pieces in China, features portability and ease of storage. Thus, it is destined to be an indispensible dosage form in the modernization drive of Chinese medicine. The Announcement on Ending the Pilot Project of Chinese Medicine Dispensing Granules was released in February 2021 and relevant regulations went into force in November 2021, which marks the a new journey for the development of Chinese medicine dispensing granules and the beginning of the "post-pilot era". However, it faces the challenges in quality and standard. This study reviewed the history of Chinese medicine dispensing granules, analyzed the technical progress, market, and main problems in development, and proposed suggestions and prospects for its development in the "post-pilot era", which is expected to serve as a reference for its industry development and rational use.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Industrial Development , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pilot Projects
16.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 322-333, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927668

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to identify internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) in the open reading frame (ORF) of the Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) genome.@*Methods@#The sequences of P1, P2, or P3 of the CVB3 genome or the truncated sequences from each antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to the end of the P1, P2, or P3 gene were inserted into the pEGFP-N1 vector. After transfection, possible IRES-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused proteins were detected by anti-GFP western blotting. The sequences of possible IRESs were inserted into specific Fluc/Rluc bicistronic vectors, in which the potential IRESs were determined according to the Fluc/Rluc activity ratio. Expression of Fluc and Rluc mRNA of the bicistronic vector was detected by RT-qPCR.@*Results@#After transfection of full length or truncated sequences of the P1, P2, or P3 plasmids, six GFP-fused protein bands in P1, six bands in P2 and nine bands in P3 were detected through western blotting. Two IRESs in VP2 (1461-1646 nt) and VP1 (2784-2983 nt) of P1; one IRES in 2C (4119-4564 nt) of P2; and two IRESs in 3C (5634-5834 nt) and 3D (6870-7087 nt) of P3 were identified according to Fluc/Rluc activity ratio. The cryptic promoter was also excluded by RT-qPCR.@*Conclusion@#Five IRESs are present in the CVB3 coding region.


Subject(s)
Internal Ribosome Entry Sites/genetics , Open Reading Frames , RNA, Messenger/genetics
17.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 310-316, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934048

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and genotypes of human rhinovirus (HRV) in patients with upper respiratory tract infection in Qingdao in the winter of 2020.Methods:Throat swab samples were collected from 101 patients with upper respiratory tract infection in Qingdao from November 2020 to January 2021. Quantitative PCR was used to detect 15 common respiratory viruses in the samples. HRV-positive samples were further analyzed with RT-PCR to amplify and sequence HRV VP4/VP2 gene. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the sequencing results and homology analysis was conducted.Results:Six common respiratory viruses were detected in the 101 patients. Thirty-four cases (34/101, 33.66%) were single pathogen infection and two cases were multiple infection (2/101, 1.98%). The positive rate of HRV was the highest (21.78%, 22/101). Twenty HRV VP4/VP2 sequences were successfully amplified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there were 16 strains of HRV-A subtype and four strains of HRV-C subtype and 14 serotypes were involved.Conclusions:HRV was one of the leading viral pathogens causing upper respiratory tract infection in Qingdao in the winter of 2020 and the predominant subtype was HRV-A.

18.
Chinese Journal of Hepatobiliary Surgery ; (12): 15-20, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932727

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and antiangiogenic targeted drugs (AATDs) in converting 41 patients with initially unresectable to resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods:The data of 41 patients with initially unresectable HCC treated with immunotherapy combined with targeted therapy from December 2018 to April 2021 in Chinese PLA General Hospital were analysed. There were 34 males and 7 females, aged (51.8±10.7) years. The clinical characteristics, conversion to resectable HCC, adverse drug reactions, surgical data and postoperative complications were analysed. Patients were followed-up by outpatients clinics or telephone calls.Results:There were 5 patients with Chinese Liver Cancer Staging (CNLC)-Ⅰb, 4 with CNLC-Ⅱ, 28 with CNLC-Ⅲa and 4 with CNLC-Ⅲb before the treatment protocol. Among them, 28 patients had portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and 4 had retroperitoneal lymph node metastases. All patients had a mean tumor diameter of (9.16±4.43) cm before and (6.49±4.69) cm after the treatment protocol. The latter was based on the last assessment before hepatectomy. The efficacy of the treatment protocol in converting unresectable to resectable HCC was assessed by the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors after 3-15 cycles (median dose cycles, 5) of protocal therapy: 15 patients achieved a complete response; 15 patients achieved a partial response; 6 patients had a stable disease, and 5 patients had a progressive disease. 21 patients (51.2%) experienced adverse reactions associated with drug treatment, which resolved with symptomatic treatment or brief discontinuation of the therapy. All patients underwent successful hepatectomy. Postoperative complications of grade Ⅱ or higher occurred in 9 patients (22.0%). The cumulative overall survival rates at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years from diagnosis were 100.0%, 92.6% and 64.7% respectively. The cumulative overall survival rates at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after surgery were 95.1%, 74.7% and 60.8%, and the recurrence-free survival rates at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after surgery were 87.8%, 56.7% and 48.6%, respectively.Conclusions:This study provided preliminary evidences that surgical resection after immunotherapy combined with targeted therapy in patients with initially unresectable HCC was safe and efficacious.

19.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 955-956, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941027

ABSTRACT

As a member of the dibenzyl isoquinoline alkaloid family, cepharathine is an alkaloid from the traditional Chinese medicine cepharathine, which is mainly used for treatment of leukopenia and other diseases. Recent studies of the inhibitory effect of cepharathine against SARS-CoV-2 have attracted widespread attention and aroused heated discussion. As the original discoverer of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of cepharanthine, here we briefly summarize the discovery of cepharanthine and review important progress in relevant studies concerning the discovery and validation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of cepharathine, its antiviral mechanisms and clinical trials of its applications in COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzylisoquinolines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 295-300, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936211

ABSTRACT

Objective: To propose total posterior nasal neurectomy with transection of sphenopalatine neurovascular bundle from anatomy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, and to explore its clinical application. Methods: Two fresh cadaveric heads (4 sides) were dissected through endoscopic transnasal middle meatus approach at Otorhinolaryngology Anatomy Laboratory of China-Japan Friendship Hospital. The structures of the craniofacial bone related to the surgical approach were observed. Twelve patients with allergic rhinitis who treated in Department of Otorhinolaryngology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital from Feb. 1 2019 to Jun. 10 2021 were selected. All the patients were treated by posterior nasal neurotomy with the technique of complete transection of sphenopalatine neurovascular bundle and followed up for 1 year after sugery. During the follow-up, 2 patients were lost. The other 10 patients included 4 males and 6 females, aging from 29 to 69 years. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) were used to evaluate the effect of the surgery. SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Important anatomic landmarks of transnasal middle meatus approach were obtained during anatomy, such as ethmoid crest, sphenopalatine foramen/notch, palatine orbital process and sphenopalatine process. The postoperative VAS scores of nose, eye, pharynx, ear and whole body and total VAS scores were significantly lower than those before operation, with statistically significant difference (nose 2.50±1.70 vs 6.47±2.17, eyes 1.15±0.89 vs 3.60±2.57, pharynx 1.30±1.36 vs 4.25±3.64, ear 1.10±1.03 vs 2.67±2.00, whole body 1.08±1.24 vs 3.60±1.17, total 7.13±4.31 vs 20.58±9.05, all P<0.05). The postoperative RQLQ scores of sleep, nose, eyes, practical problems, emotion, activity and the total RQLQ scores of patients were significantly lower than those before operation, with statistically significant difference (sleep 0.80±0.69 vs 2.93±1.33, nose 1.38±1.18 vs 3.93±1.50, eyes 0.58±0.66 vs 1.80±1.25, practical problems 1.10±1.22 vs 3.03±1.84, emotion 1.00±1.81 vs 2.58±2.00, activity 2.77±2.93 vs 6.00±1.85, total 8.99±8.92 vs 22.42±8.69, all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in preoperative and postoperative scores of non-nasal/ocular symptoms (1.37±1.60 vs 2.16±1.12, P=0.166). There was no other complication except 2 cases with short-term postoperative numbness. Conclusions: Total posterior nasal neurectomy with transection of sphenopalatine neurovascular bundle is a safe, effective and feasible method for the treatment of intractable allergic rhinitis, and its long-term efficacy needs further observation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Denervation/methods , Nose/surgery , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic/surgery , Treatment Outcome
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