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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920647

ABSTRACT

@#Ten novel podophyllotoxin derivatives (IIIa-IIIi and IV) were synthesized by three-step reactions using podophyllotoxin and N-benzyloxycarbonyl glycine-L-proline as raw material. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. MTT method was used to test anti-tumor activity of the target compounds on HepG2, THP-1, HeLa and MCF-7 cells. The results showed that all the target compounds had inhibitory activity against HepG2, THP-1, HeLa and MCF-7 cells, and the inhibitory activity of IIIa on HepG2 cells was the most prominent with an IC50 value of 0.58 nmol/L. The binding mode of compound IIIa and FAPα was studied by molecular docking. Compound IIIa could bind to multiple sites of FAPα enzyme.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 160-163, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913132

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the application of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) cholangiography in the accurate identification of the common bile duct since common bile duct injury is a common complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), and to reduce the incidence rate of common bile duct injury during LC. Methods A total of 68 patients who underwent LC in Zhuhai People's Hospital from April 2021 to Jane 2021 were enrolled, among whom 56 patients underwent conventional LC and 12 patients underwent LC under the guidance of ICG cholangiography. The common bile duct, cystic duct, and gallbladder were examined by white light laparoscopy for the conventional LC group and near-infrared laparoscopy for the ICG cholangiography group. The propensity score matching method was used to balance the preoperative data between the two groups. The t -test and the chi-square test were used for comparison of intraoperative blood loss, time of operation, length of postoperative hospital stay, and incidence rate of common bile duct injury between the two groups. Results Compared with the conventional LC group, the ICG cholangiography group had significantly lower intraoperative blood loss 3.1±0.9 mL vs 10.8±2.3 mL, t =-22.709, P < 0.05), significantly shorter time of operation (20.2±1.6 min vs 48.3±5.1 min, t =-19.856, P < 0.05) and length of postoperative hospital stay (1.2±0.3 days vs 2.3±0.8 days, t =-19.507, P < 0.05), and a significantly lower incidence rate of complications (0 vs 8.3%, χ 2 =1.287, P < 0.05). Conclusion ICG cholangiography is an effective method to differentiate between the common bile duct and the cystic duct during LC and can prevent common bile duct injury. This method has great advantages in the treatment of patients with gallstones due to its high degree of identification of the biliary tract, long onset time, repeated application, convenient operation, and ability to be combined with intraoperative navigation device.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943029

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the short-term and long-term outcomes between transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) and laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (laTME) for mid-to-low rectal cancer and to evaluate the learning curve of taTME. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study. Firstly, consecutive patients undergoing total mesorectal excision who were registered in the prospective established database of Division of Colorectal Diseases, Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital during July 2014 to June 2020 were recruited. The enrolled patients were divided into taTME and laTME group. The demographic data, clinical characteristics, neoadjuvant treatment, intraoperative and postoperative complications, pathological results and follow-up data were extracted from the database. The primary endpoint was the incidence of anastomotic leakage and the secondary endpoints included the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and the 3-year local recurrence rate. Independent t-test for comparison between groups of normally distributed measures; skewed measures were expressed as M (range). Categorical variables were expressed as examples (%) and the χ(2) or Fisher exact probability was used for comparison between groups. When comparing the incidence of anastomotic leakage, 5 variables including sex, BMI, clinical stage evaluated by MRI, distance from tumor to anal margin evaluated by MRI, and whether receiving neoadjuvant treatment were balanced by propensity score matching (PSM) to adjust confounders. Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test were used to compare the DFS of two groups. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze and determine the independent risk factors affecting the DFS of patients with mid-low rectal cancer. Secondly, the data of consecutive patients undergoing taTME performed by the same surgical team (the trananal procedures were performed by the same main surgeon) from February 2017 to March 2021 were separately extracted and analyzed. The multidimensional cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart was used to draw the learning curve of taTME. The outcomes of 'mature' taTME cases through learning curve were compared with laTME cases and the independent risk factors of DFS of 'mature' cases were also analyzed. Results: Two hundred and forty-three patients were eventually enrolled, including 182 undergoing laTME and 61 undergoing taTME. After PSM, both fifty-two patients were in laTME group and taTME group respectively, and patients of these two groups had comparable characteristics in sex, age, BMI, clinical tumor stage, distance from tumor to anal margin by MRI, mesorectal fasciae (MRF) and extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) by MRI and proportion of receiving neoadjuvant treatment. After PSM, as compared to laTME group, taTME group showed significantly longer operation time [(198.4±58.3) min vs. (147.9±47.3) min, t=-4.321, P<0.001], higher ratio of blood loss >100 ml during surgery [17.3% (9/52) vs. 0, P=0.003], higher incidence of anastomotic leakage [26.9% (14/52) vs. 3.8% (2/52), χ(2)=10.636, P=0.001] and higher morbidity of overall postoperative complications [55.8%(29/52) vs. 19.2% (10/52), χ(2)=14.810, P<0.001]. Total harvested lymph nodes and circumferential resection margin involvement were comparable between two groups (both P>0.05). The median follow-up for the whole group was 24 (1 to 72) months, with 4 cases lost, giving a follow-up rate of 98.4% (239/243). The laTME group had significantly better 3-year DFS than taTME group (83.9% vs. 73.0%, P=0.019), while the 3-year local recurrence rate was similar in two groups (1.7% vs. 3.6%, P=0.420). Multivariate analysis showed that and taTME surgery (HR=3.202, 95%CI: 1.592-6.441, P=0.001) the postoperative pathological staging of UICC stage II (HR=13.862, 95%CI:1.810-106.150, P=0.011), stage III (HR=8.705, 95%CI: 1.104-68.670, P=0.040) were independent risk factors for 3-year DFS. Analysis of taTME learning curve revealed that surgeons would cross over the learning stage after performing 28 cases. To compare the two groups excluding the cases within the learning stage, there was no significant difference between two groups after PSM no matter in the incidence of anastomotic leakage [taTME: 6.7%(1/15); laTME: 5.3% (2/38), P=1.000] or overall complications [taTME: 33.3%(5/15), laTME: 26.3%(10/38), P=0.737]. The taTME was still an independent risk factor of 3-year DFS only analyzing patients crossing over the learning stage (HR=5.351, 95%CI:1.666-17.192, P=0.005), and whether crossing over the learning stage was not the independent risk factor of 3-year DFS for mid-low rectal cancer patients undergoing taTME (HR=0.954, 95%CI:0.227-4.017, P=0.949). Conclusions: Compared with conventional laTME, taTME may increase the risk of anastomotic leakage and compromise the oncological outcomes. Performing taTME within the learning stage may significantly increase the risk of postoperative anastomotic leakage.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak/etiology , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectum/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Treatment Outcome
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940832

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo establish a neuroinflammation-based obesity and depression comorbidity (COM) model in mice and explore the pharmacodynamics and preliminary pharmacological mechanism of tripterine on COM mice. MethodC57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a normal group (Chow), a diet-induced obesity group (DIO), and a COM group. The mice in the COM group were fed on a high-fat diet and chronically stressed with moist litter for 12 weeks to establish the COM model. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a Chow group, a COM group, and a tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) knock-down group. In the TNF-α knock-down group, TNF-α shRNA adeno-associated virus was injected into the amygdala through brain stereotaxis, and the expression of TNF-α in the amygdala was down-regulated. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a Chow group, a DIO group, a DIO + low-dose tripterine group (0.5 mg·kg-1), a DIO + high-dose tripterine group (1.0 mg·kg-1), a COM group, a COM + low-dose tripterine group (0.5 mg·kg-1), and a COM + high-dose tripterine group (1.0 mg·kg-1). The body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, white/brown fat ratio, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C) content were recorded, and obesity of mice in each group was evaluated. Forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open field test were used to evaluate the degree of depression of mice in each group. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the protein expression levels of neuropeptide Y, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in various brain nuclei of mice. Correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation of obesity and depression indexes. ResultThe comparison of the Chow group and the DIO group indicated that COM mice showed obesity and depression. To be specific, obesity was manifested as increased body weight and food intake (P<0.05, P<0.01), as well as increased NPY expression in the central amygdala, and depression was manifested as prolonged immobility time in FST and TST (P<0.01), and reduced TPH2-positive 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). The down-regulation of TNF-α protein in BLA of COM mice shortened the immobility time in FST and TST (P<0.05, P<0.01), increased TPH2/BDNF-positive neurons in BLA, and showed no significant changes in obesity. In DIO mice, the administration of 0.5 mg·kg-1 tripterine for 9 days significantly decreased the 60 min blood glucose in glucose tolerance (P<0.01) and food intake (P<0.05). In COM mice, 1.0 mg·kg-1 tripterine was administered for 14 days to significantly decrease 30 min blood glucose in glucose tolerance (P<0.01), and food intake (P<0.05), and immobility time in TST (P<0.01), increase TPH2-BDNF double-labeled cells in BLA and DRN, and reduce the area of TMEM119-stained cells. ConclusionThe model of obesity and depression comorbidity can be properly induced in mice under the condition of dual stress of energy environment. Tripterine can effectively interfere with obesity-depression comorbidity, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of central nervous system inflammation.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940419

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveBased on the protective effect of Dengzhan Shengmai capsules (DZSM) on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), network pharmacology was employed to investigate the molecular mechanism. MethodCCH model was established by right common carotid artery ligation. The mice were divided into sham operation group, model group, ginaton group (48 mg·kg-1), DZSM low- and high-dose groups (0.040 5, 0.162 g·kg-1). The efficacy was evaluated by the Morris water maze test and open-field test. The underlying mechanism of DZSM for CCH was analyzed by network pharmacology and verified by molecular biology experiments. PubChem, GeneCards, Metascape and other databases were used for targets collection and enrichment analysis. Besides, the association of ingredients targets of DZSM with disease targets of CCH, core target network and chemical components-core targets-pathways network were constructed by STRING 11.0 and Cytoscape 3.7.1. ResultThe escape latency of CCH mice significantly shortened on the 3rd to 5th day after DZSM low-dose treatment, the crossing times, time spent in the target quadrant, movement distance and distance in the central region of CCH mice significantly increased after DZSM low-dose and high-dose treatment. The results of network pharmacology indicated that DZSM might play a key role by regulating inflammatory response, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, blood circulation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix and other related biological processes and pathways, and acting as targets such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), epidermal growth factor (EGF). The results of biological experiments showed that DZSM could reduce the expression of IL-6 in brain tissue of CCH mice. ConclusionDZSM provides a protective effect during CCH, and its multi-component, multi-pathway, multi-target mechanism is also revealed, which provides a basis for further study of the mechanism.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940410

ABSTRACT

With the development of omics technology, the construction of disease networks has been widely used in the study of complex diseases. It has been widely used to construct disease networks using systems biology technology to study complex diseases. The mechanism exploration model of disease molecular network which uses the method of constructing disease networks, simulates the occurrence of diseases, explores the core development mechanism of complex diseases, and then predicts biomarkers and exploits the mechanism of drug action provided many new thoughts for the prevention and treatment of complex diseases. Nowadays, the research on the mechanism of myocardial infarction caused by myocardial ischemia and heart failure after myocardial infarction is still very important. However, the research of the molecular network of myocardial infarction and heart failure diseases is usually limited to a few targets and pathways, so it is not able to comprehensively and systematically explain the disease process. Furthermore, authors outlined the typical biological process of "myocardial infarction-heart failure" and related targets from the pathophysiological level, and summarized the existing methods of constructing dynamic networks for heart diseases and other diseases. Based on the dynamic molecular network construction methods of cardiac diseases and other diseases, this paper discusses the construction of the dynamic molecular network of myocardial infarction and heart failure, in order to understand the evolution of myocardial infarction and heart failure more accurately and explore the importance of the dynamic molecular network of the disease process for the study of disease mechanism.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940343

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient herbal medicine, prescription books and medical books, combined with modern relevant literature, standards and other information, this paper made a textual research on the name, origin, producing areas, harvesting and processing methods of Astragali Radix according to different historical development periods, providing a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing Astragali Radix. According to the textual research, the original name of Astragali Radix is Huangqi, and "Qi" originally refers to the medicinal material Zhimu. Some people began to mistake it for Huangqi in the Ming dynasty, and then gradually used Astragali Radix as a medicinal material. The mainstream basis of Astragali Radix can be determined as the dried roots of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus or A. membranaceus. In different historical periods, A. floridus, A. chrysopterus, A. emestii and other plants of Astragalus or even non-Astragalus were used as local Astragali Radix. The earliest production areas of Astragali Radix were Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu, and then gradually expanded to the northeast. Since the Song dynasty, Mianqi in Shanxi province has been regarded as the genuine variety. In the Qing dynasty, besides Shanxi province, Inner Mongolia was also regarded as a genuine place. In the Republic of China, Huangqi produced in northeast China was praised highly. It is mainly produced in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, northeast and other provinces. The main commodity is cultivated products, and the quality of wild imitation cultivation in Datong and Xinzhou is better than other places. There are many processing methods of Huangqi recorded in the materia medica and prescription books, most of which are raw products, and honey processing is the mainstream of processed products. Based on the current situation of resource cultivation and production, 11 famous classical formulas in The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (The First Batch) containing Huangqi suggested that all use A. membranaceus var. mongholicus, especially those from Datong and Xinzhou in Shanxi Province. In addition to honey processing of Qingxin Lianziyin, it is suggested to use raw products for other formulas.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940342

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient and modern literature, this paper makes a textual research on the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing of Poria, so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing this medicinal material. The description of Poria and the characteristics of the attached figures in the Chinese herbal literature of the past dynasties are consistent with Poria cocos. The medicinal parts are dried sclerotia or P. cocos peel. Poria was originally produced in Taishan, Shandong province. In the Tang dynasty, along with the change of pine forest resources, producing area of Poria was transferred to Huashan area in Shaanxi province. In the Ming dynasty, the authentic producing area was transferred to Yunnan, and has continued to now. In ancient times, the processing methods of Poria were steaming, boiling, slicing, mashing and other subsequent processing after peeling. It is suggested that Poria in famous classical formulas should be sliced according to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940341

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient and modern literature, this paper makes a textual research on the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing methods of Asini Corii Colla, so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing the medicinal material. Before the Tang dynasty, cow leather was the main source of Asini Corii Colla, and donkey was rare as an introduced species. From the end of Tang dynasty to Song dynasty, due to the development of doctors' understanding of the properties and effects of medicines, with the increase of the number of donkeys and the limitation of the use of cow leather, the source of Asini Corii Colla changed from cow leather to donkey skin. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the theory of medicine property was further developed, and all doctors basically agreed that black donkey skin and E-well water were two essential factors for making genuine Asini Corii Colla. Therefore, it is suggested that Asini Corii Colla should take Equus asinus as the authentic origin in the development of the famous classical formulas, attach importance to the quality of water source, take Liaocheng in Shandong province as the authentic producing area, and the processing should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940340

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient literature of all dynasties, this article makes a systematic textual research on the name, origin, producing area, quality, harvesting and processing of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex used in the famous classical formulas, and clarifies its information of each link in different historical periods, so as to provide a reference and basis for the development and utilization of the related formulas. The results showed that the main varieties of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex were Magnolia officinalis or M. officinalis var. biloba. The main production areas are Hubei, Sichuan, Chongqing and other places, forming the famous authentic medicine. The processing methods of the past dynasties are mainly cleansing and processing with ginger. In the formulas clearly marked with ginger processing, ginger-processed products is suggested to choose. If not clearly marked, raw or ginger-processed products can be used as needed.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940339

ABSTRACT

This paper made a systematic textual research on the historical evolution and changes of the name, origin, producing area, harvesting and processing methods of Jujubae Fructus used in famous classical formulas by referring to the ancient literature, so as to provide a basis for the sampling and research of the formulas containing the medicinal materials. According to textual research, there are many names of Jujubae Fructus, most of which are named by characters or producing areas, which are called Dazao. Ziziphus jujuba has always been the mainstream variety in all dynasties, and Z. jujuba var. inemmis has also been used. Considering that the differences between the two are not obvious, we can use Z. jujuba and Z. jujuba var. inemmis as the origins of Dazao. The germplasm resources of Jujubae Fructus are rich, which are distributed all over the country. Qingzhou (now Shandong), Jinzhou (now Shanxi) Jiangzhou (now Shanxi), Puzhou (now Shanxi) have been recorded as authentic producing areas of Jujubae Fructus in the past dynasties, especially in Shandong. At the beginning of the 21st century, the planting of Jujubae Fructus in Xinjiang gradually developed, and now has a high market recognition, becoming an emerging production area of high-quality samples. Harvest period of Jujubae Fructus is mostly August in the past dynasties, and this is basically the same as today. The main processing method is simple cleansing and drying. Through textual research, it is suggested that Jujubae Fructus in famous classical formulas should be mainly from Shandong, Shanxi and other traditional high-quality producing areas, the processing method should follow the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia for simple cleansing and drying.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940337

ABSTRACT

Through the combing of ancient books of Chinese herbal medicine in the past dynasties, a textual research of Coptidis Rhizoma involved the name, origin, medicinal parts, producing area, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing methods in famous classical formulas was conducted in this paper. After textual research, the mainstream varieties of Coptidis Rhizoma in the Ranunculaceae family before Tang and Song dynasties were Coptis chinensis and C. chinensis var. brevisepala, after the Ming and Qing dynasties, C. deltoidea, C. teeta and C. omeiensis were gradually praised. In ancient times, the authentic producing area of Coptidis Rhizoma has the characteristics of gradually moving to the west. The eastern Coptidis Rhizoma was highly praised in the early stage, while in the later stage, western Coptidis Rhizoma like chicken feet was highly praised. In the early stage, western Coptidis Rhizoma probably originated from C. chinensis and its genus, while Coptidis Rhizoma like chicken feet was cultivated, and no wild species has been found so far. As Coptidis Rhizoma has mixed use of multiple origins in ancient books of past dynasties, based on the current shortage of market resources in C. teeta and C. deltoidea, there are also endangered and protected plants of C. chinensis var. brevisepala and C. omeiensis, combined with the mainstream medicines and resources of past generations, it is recommended to choose C. chinensis as the base of the formulas. In ancient times, there were many processing methods for Coptidis Rhizoma, such as frying and wine-, ginger-, honey-processed. In the process of developing famous classical formulas, the appropriate processing specifications of Coptidis Rhizoma should be selected based on the original source records and the requirements of the medicinal material.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940336

ABSTRACT

Based on various ancient documents such as materia medica, prescription books, classics and history, combined with relevant research materials in modern times, this paper made a textual research on the name, origin, geoherbalism, harvesting time, processing methods of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, which provides a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing this herb. According to the textual research, the original name of Chuanxiong is Xiongqiong (芎䓖), which was first recorded in Shennong Bencaojing , there are many aliases and trade names in the past dynasties. Since the Song dynasty, doctors all take Xiongqiong produced in Sichuan as the best medicine, so they take Chuanxiong as the rectification of name. In the early stage, the origin of Chuanxiong Rhizoma was relatively complicated, and the main origin was Ligusticum chuanxiong, which was a cultivated and domesticated species of Ligusticum. However, wild related plants of Ligusticum are still used as medicine. After the Ming dynasty, new cultivated varieties appeared in various places, such as Jiangxi L. sinense cv. Fuxiong, which gradually turned to self-production and self-marketing after the Republic of China. After several changes in the authentic producing area of Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Tianshui in Gansu province was highly praised in the Tang dynasty, and Dujiangyan in Sichuan province was the best place in the Song dynasty and later dynasties. Chuanxiong Rhizoma has been widely used in the past dynasties as raw products, and it has also been processed with excipients. For example, wine-processed products can enhance the effect of promoting blood circulation, promoting Qi circulation and relieving pain. There are other processing methods such as stir-frying and vinegar processing. Chuanxiong Rhizoma in the famous classical formulas can be selected according to this research conclusion.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940334

ABSTRACT

By consulting the ancient herbal and medical books, combined with modern literature, the name, origin, geoherbalism, harvesting and processing changes of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias in famous classical formulas were sorted out. According to the research, ancient doctors only approved three kinds of bamboo medicinal materials, namely, Jinzhu (䈽竹), Kuzhu (苦竹) and Danzhu (淡竹), and took bamboo leaves, made Bambusae Caulis in Taenias and Zhuli (竹沥) for medicine. Bamboo medicinal materials with different origins have different properties, tastes and effects, after clinical optimization, it is gradually considered that Danzhu is the best source of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias and Zhuli. According to the morphological description of the original plants and the attached drawings, it is considered that the Danzhu in ancient Chinese materia medica should be Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis, which has been included in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia as one of the genuine sources of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias. Therefore, It is suggested that P. nigra var. henonis can be added as the source of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias in famous classical formulas, and the medicinal part is the dry middle layer of its stem. Ginger-processed can increase the anti emetic effect of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias, and the three formulas involving Bambusae Caulis in Taenias from The Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas (The First Batch) all contain ginger, and the processing method of Bambusae Caulis in Taenias is not marked in the original formula, so it is suggested to use raw products in the three formulas of Jupi Zhurutang, Wendantang and Zhurutang.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940333

ABSTRACT

In this study, name, origin, producing areas, harvesting time and processing methods of ancient Alismatis Rhizoma were systematically researched by consulting the literature of ancient herbs, medical and prescription books, so as to provide a basis for the development of famous classical formula containing this herb. According to textual research, the main base of ancient Alismatis Rhizoma was Alisma plantago-aquatica and A. orientale. A. canaliculatum and A. gramineum and other genera were sometimes used as the source of Alismatis Rhizoma, there was a confusion of medicinal varieties. The earliest producing area of Alismatis Rhizoma was in today's Henan province, and later Hanzhong, Shaanxi province, became the high-quality producing area of Alismatis Rhizoma. Since the Ming dynasty, its production area expanded to Fujian. In the Qing dynasty, Jian'ou in Fujian was the authentic production area of Alismatis Rhizoma. In the period of the Republic of China, Sichuan and Jiangxi were added to the production areas of Alismatis Rhizoma. Based on the research results, it is suggested that the dried tubers of A. orientale from Fujian and Jiangxi or A. plantago-aquatica from Sichuan should be used in the famous classical formulas. In ancient times, Alismatis Rhizoma was processed by wine, but most of the standards and specifications in modern times are no longer included the processing specifications of Alismatis Rhizoma with wine. Although salt-processed Alismatis Rhizoma is commonly used in modern times, it didn't become one of the main processing methods until the Qing dynasty. According to the relevant national documents, it is suggested that Alismatis Rhizoma without clear processing requirements in famous classical formulas should be used as raw products, and the formulas with processing requirements should be selected as processed products such as salt and wine according to the meaning of the formulas.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940332

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient herbal and medical books, combined with the field investigation, the name, origin, collection and processing of Dendrobium medicinal materials were researched, which provided a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing this kind of herbs. Due to the wide distribution of D. officinale, the Dendrobium species represented by D. officinale and D. huoshanense, which are short, fleshy and rich in mucus, should be the most mainstream of Dendrobium medicinal materials in previous dynasties. Compared with Shihu, Muhu with loose texture, long and hollow is born on trees. According to the characteristic description, it should be D. nobile, D. fimbriatum and so on, of which D. nobile was the mainstream. The Chinese meaning of Jinchai was confused in the past dynasties, so it was not suitable to be treated as a plant name. The production areas of Dendrobium medicinal materials in the past dynasties have changed with the discovery of varieties, artificial cultivation and other factors. Lu'an, Anhui province, was the earliest recorded in the Han and Wei dynasties. Since the Tang and Song dynasties, it had been extended to Guangdong and Guangxi, and it was considered that "Dendrobii Caulis in Guangnan was the best". In the Ming dynasty, Sichuan and Zhejiang products were highly praised, and in the Qing dynasty, Huoshan products were highly praised. Dendrobium medicinal materials had been used as medicine by stems in all dynasties. The medicinal materials were divided into fresh products and dry products. The fresh products can be used immediately after removing the sediment from the roots. The dry products need further processing, most of them used wine as auxiliary materials for steaming, simmer to paste or decoction into medicine. D. officinale and D. huoshanense have special processing specifications since the middle of Qing dynasty, that is, "Fengdou". According to the research results, in Ganluyin, the effect of Dendrobium medicinal materials is mainly heat clearing, and D. nobile with bitter taste can be selected. The main effect of Dendrobium medicinal materials in Dihuang Yinzi is tonic, D. officinale or D. huoshanense can be selected.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940316

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient literature of all dynasties, this article makes a systematic textual research on the name, origin, producing area, quality, harvesting and processing of Zisu (Perillae) in the famous classical formulas, so as to clarify the information of the drug in different historical periods and provide a reference for the development and utilization of the related formulas. The main origin of Perillae in the ancient literature was Perilla frutescens var. frutescens (purple leaf type), followed by P. frutescens var. acuta (purple leaf type), but not Baisu. Modern chemical composition studies also show that there are obvious differences between Perillae and Baisu, which provides a scientific basis for distinguishing them. Although they are often treated as a species in plant classification, P. frutescens var. frutescens (purple leaf type) is recommended in the development of famous classical formulas, and Baisu should be avoided. Perillae is widely distributed, but its producing area did not record in most of the literature in the past dynasties, or the producing area is described as everywhere today. In the period of the Southern and Northern dynasties, the medicinal parts of Perillae included stems, leaves and seeds, and doctors in the Ming dynasty began to pay attention to the differentiation of different medicinal parts. The harvesting and processing methods of Perillae in the past dynasties are close to that of today. Perillae Fructus is mostly stir-fried and ground into medicine, Perillae Folium and Perillae Caulis are mainly simple cleansing. In production, we can refer to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940315

ABSTRACT

The name, origin, place of origin, medicinal parts, harvesting and processing of lotus are verified by consulting ancient Chinese herbal medicines and medical books, combined with modern literature, providing a basis for the development of famous classical formulas containing lotus. According to textual research, the original base of lotus is Nelumbo nucifera since ancient times, rhizome (Nelumbinis Rhizomatis Nodus), leaf (Nelumbinis Folium), seed (Nelumbinis Semen), embryo (Nelumbinis Plumula), receptacle (Nelumbinis Receptaculum), stamen (Nelumbinis Stamen) and other medicinal parts of N. nucifera can be used as medicine and have different clinical effects. Nelumbinis Semen was originally produced in Henan, and then gradually expanded to Jiangnan. Today, it can be cultivated and planted throughout the country, with Fujian, Hunan, and Jiangxi as the authentic production areas. After combing the medicinal parts of N. nucifera and the historical evolution of its processing, it is suggested that the dried and mature fruits of N. nucifera taking in autumn and removing the shell and Nelumbinis Plumula should be used in Qingxin Lianziyin. Nelumbinis Folium in Erdongtang should be harvested in summer and autumn, and the raw products was used as medicine and processed in accordance with the provision of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940294

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveOn the basis of determining the protective effect of berberine (BBR) on cerebral ischemia, crucial transcription factors (TFs) of BBR against cerebral ischemia was identified by using transcriptome and proteome sequencing. MethodThe model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established by thread embolization. The sham operation group, model group, low-dose group of BBR (dose of 37.5 mg·kg-1·d-1) and high-dose group of BBR (75 mg·kg-1·d-1) were set up. The rats were killed after continuous intragastric administration for 7 days. The pharmacodynamics was evaluated by Longa score and cerebral infarction rate, and the expressions of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, RNA-Seq technique was used to detect the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after BBR intervention, and DAVID 6.8 was used for enrichment analysis of DEGs. CatTFREs technique was used to detect differential TFs before and after BBR intervention, and DAVID 6.8 and STRING 11.0 were used for enrichment analysis and TFs association analysis. Finally, by integrating the activity of TFs and the changes of downstream target genes, crucial TFs were identified and the related regulatory network was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.1. ResultCompared with the sham operation group, the neurological impairment was significant in the model group (P<0.01), and compared with the model group, the low and high dose BBR groups could significantly reduce the neurological function damage (P<0.01) and decrease the rate of cerebral infarction (P<0.01). Transcriptome data analysis showed that BBR was involved in the recovery process after cerebral ischemia mainly by affecting cell adhesion, brain development, neuron migration, calcium signaling pathway, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway, inflammatory response and other related functions and signaling pathways. Proteomic data analysis showed that the differentially expressed TFs after BBR intervention interfered with cerebral ischemia mainly by regulating cell differentiation, immune system process, cell proliferation and other biological processes. In addition, integration analysis of TFs and DEGs revealed that transcription factor CP2-like 1 (TFCP2L1), nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 1 (NFE2L1), neurogenic differentiation protein 6 (NeuroD6) and POU domain, class 2, transcription factor 1 (POU2F1) were crucial TFs against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury mediated by BBR. ConclusionBBR has obvious protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and its crucial TFs include TFCP2L1, NFE2L1, NeuroD6 and POU2F1.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939512

ABSTRACT

Professor YANG Jun's clinical experience of acupuncture and moxibustion for oculomotor paralysis is summarized. Professor YANG Jun pays attention to disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation in the treatment of this disease. According to the characteristics of oculomotor paralysis, "early diagnosis and seeking treatment from the source" is advocated. According to the etiology and pathogenesis, professor YANG divides oculomotor paralysis into three types: the syndrome of wind-evil attacking collaterals, the syndrome of spleen-stomach weakness and the syndrome of qi-deficiency and blood-stasis. As such, the acupoints are selected according to syndrome differentiation, and several different acupuncture methods (pricking needling at eyelids, penetrating needling and lifting eyelids and contralateral- balance needling on the healthy side) are adopted to improve the symptoms of oculomotor paralysis. It is also suggested to use the combination of scalp acupuncture and electroacupuncture to achieve the best dose-effect state. Moreover, local stimulation around the eyes is important to achieve the effects of "qi reaching affected area".


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Moxibustion , Ophthalmoplegia , Syndrome
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