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1.
Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders ; : 33-35, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820811

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease
3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e111-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Korea has a periodic general health check-up program that uses the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire-Cognition (KDSQ-C) as a cognitive dysfunction screening tool. The Alzheimer Disease 8 (AD8) and Subjective Memory Complaints Questionnaire (SMCQ) are also used in clinical practice. We compared the diagnostic ability of these screening questionnaires for cognitive impairment when completed by participants and their caregivers. Hence, we aimed to evaluate whether the SMCQ or AD8 is superior to the KDSQ-C and can be used as its replacement. METHODS: A total of 420 participants over 65 years and their informants were recruited from 11 hospitals for this study. The patients were grouped into normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia subgroups. The KDSQ-C, AD8, and SMCQ were completed separately by participants and their informants. RESULTS: A receiver operating characteristic analysis of questionnaire scores completed by participants showed that the areas under the curve (AUCs) for the KDSQ-C, AD8, and SMCQ for diagnosing dementia were 0.75, 0.8, and 0.73, respectively. Regarding informant-completed questionnaires, the AD8 (AUC of 0.93), KDSQ-C (AUC of 0.92), and SMCQ (AUC of 0.92) showed good discriminability for dementia, with no differences in discriminability between the questionnaires. CONCLUSION: When an informant-report is possible, we recommend that the KDSQ-C continues to be used in national medical check-ups as its discriminability for dementia is not different from that of the AD8 or SMCQ. Moreover, consistent data collection using the same questionnaire is important. When an informant is not available, either the KDSQ-C or AD8 may be used. However, in the cases of patient-reports, discriminability is lower than that for informant-completed questionnaires.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Caregivers , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Data Collection , Dementia , Korea , Mass Screening , Memory , Cognitive Dysfunction , ROC Curve , Self-Assessment
4.
Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders ; : 137-147, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have suggested a decreased cancer risk among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). There remains a lack of data on the specific types of cancer and risk factors for developing cancer in AD. We evaluated the association between AD and cancer risk, and we examined specific types of cancer. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort for 2002–2013. A total of 4,408 AD patients were included in the study, as were 19,150 matched controls. Potential associations between the risk of cancer and AD were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regressions. RESULTS: Cancer developed in 12.3% of the AD group patients and in 18.5% of control group subjects. AD was associated with a reduced risk of cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence intervals, 0.64–0.78). The risk of head and neck cancers was significantly reduced (HR, 0.49), as were risks for cancers of the digestive tract, including stomach cancer (HR, 0.42), colorectal cancer (HR, 0.61), liver and biliary tract cancers (HR, 0.68), and pancreatic cancer (HR, 0.55). Lung and prostate cancer risks were also significantly lower for the AD group (HR, 0.52 and HR, 0.72, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed an inverse association between AD and cancer. Further research involving a large number of patients in a hospital based-study is needed to address the biological associations between cancer development and dementia, including AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dementia , Epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Head , Korea , Liver , Longitudinal Studies , Lung , National Health Programs , Neck , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
5.
Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders ; : 156-162, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported conflicting results about the prevalence of seizures in Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are few epidemiological studies on this topic in Asia. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine demographic and clinical characteristics as well as incidence for seizures in AD patients compared to non-AD patients in a prospective, longitudinal, community-based cohort with a long follow-up. METHODS: Data were collected from National Health Insurance Service-National Elderly Cohort (NHIS-elderly) Database to define patients with AD from 2004–2006 using Korean Classification Diseases codes G30 and F00. We performed a 1:5 case-control propensity score matching based on age, sex, and household income. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to estimate the risk of epilepsy in AD patients. RESULTS: In the cohort study, patients with AD had higher risk for epilepsy than those without AD, with hazard ratio of 2.773 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.515–3.057). This study also showed that male gender and comorbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease increased the risk of developing epilepsy. Patients with AD had 1.527 (95% CI, 1.375–1.695) times higher mortality rate than those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: AD patients have significantly higher risk of developing epilepsy than non-AD patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Alzheimer Disease , Asia , Case-Control Studies , Classification , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Epidemiologic Studies , Epilepsy , Family Characteristics , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Incidence , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prevalence , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Seizures
6.
Journal of Neurocritical Care ; (2): 28-31, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various etiologies are the causative agents for sciatic neuropathy. We present here a case of ischemic sciatic neuropathy in a patient with liposarcoma. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old woman presented with severe pain and weakness of the left leg. She had a history of recurred retroperitoneal liposarcoma, and was being administered chemotherapy. Examination revealed weakness in ankle dorsiflexion, plantar flexion and hamstring. Complaints also included dysesthesia, and numbness in the sole and dorsum of the foot. Nerve conduction study showed low compound muscle action potentials and slow motor conduction velocity of left peroneal and tibial nerves, with indiscernible sensory nerve action potentials of the left superficial peroneal and sural nerves. Computed tomography angiography revealed occlusion of the left common iliac artery. Commencement of intravenous infusion of heparin resulted in skin color change and progression of the weakness. Hence, the patient underwent an emergency thrombectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemia should be considered as a cause of sciatic neuropathy in cancer patients, which requires management with timely treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Action Potentials , Angiography , Ankle , Drug Therapy , Emergencies , Foot , Heparin , Hypesthesia , Iliac Artery , Infusions, Intravenous , Ischemia , Leg , Liposarcoma , Neural Conduction , Paresthesia , Sciatic Neuropathy , Skin Pigmentation , Sural Nerve , Thrombectomy , Tibial Nerve
7.
Journal of Neurocritical Care ; (2): 49-52, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765867

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage , Basal Ganglia , Catheters , Drainage , Status Epilepticus
8.
Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders ; : 114-120, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers play an important supportive role as diagnostic and predictive indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). About 30% of controls in old age show abnormal values of CSF biomarkers and display a higher risk for AD compared with those showing normal values. The cut-off values are determined by their diagnostic accuracy. However, the current cut-off values may be less accurate, because controls include high-risk groups of AD. We sought to develop models of patients with AD, who are homogenous for CSF biomarkers. METHODS: We included participants who had CSF biomarker data in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. We investigated the factors related to CSF biomarkers in patients with AD using linear mixed models. Using the factors, we developed models corresponding to CSF biomarkers to classify patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into high risk and low risk and analyzed the conversion from MCI to AD using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: APOE ε4 status and age were significantly related to CSF Aβ1-42. CSF t-tau, APOE ε2 status and sex were significant factors. The CSF p-tau181 was associated with age and frequency of diagnosis. Accordingly, we modeled the three CSF biomarkers of AD. In MCI without APOE ε4, our models were better predictors of conversion. CONCLUSIONS: We can interpret CSF biomarkers based on the models derived from the data obtained from patients with AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Apolipoproteins E , Biomarkers , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diagnosis , Methods , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neuroimaging , Proportional Hazards Models , Reference Values
9.
Journal of Stroke ; : 356-364, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke based on cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, blind genotype trial. First time non-cardiogenic ischemic stroke patients were enrolled and screened within 30 days. Participants were randomized to receive either triflusal or clopidogrel for secondary stroke prevention. The primary outcome was the time from randomization to first recurrent ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS: The required sample size was 1,080 but only 784 (73%) participants were recruited. In patients with a poor CYP2C19 genotype for clopidogrel metabolism (n=484), the risk of recurrent stroke among those who received triflusal treatment was 2.9% per year, which was not significantly different from those who received clopidogrel treatment (2.2% per year; hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–2.53). In the clopidogrel treatment group (n=393), 38% had good genotypes and 62% poor genotypes for clopidogrel metabolism. The risk of recurrent stroke in patients with a good CYP2C19 genotype was 1.6% per year, which was not significantly different from those with a poor genotype (2.2% per year; HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.26–1.79). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst there were no significant differences between the treatment groups in the rates of stroke recurrence, major vascular events, or coronary revascularization, the efficacy of antiplatelet agents for the secondary prevention of stroke according to CYP2C19 genotype status remains unclear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Genotype , Metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Recurrence , Sample Size , Secondary Prevention , Stroke
10.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 191-198, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) are important for supporting the better comprehension of disease aspects and helping public health planning. Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence and incidence in South Korea between 2004 and 2013. METHODS: This retrospective, nationwide, longitudinal population-based study used National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort Database to define patients with PD from 2004 to 2013 based on having Korean Classification of Diseases code G20, which were assigned by neurologists, and being prescribed PD medication. Annual prevalence and incidence were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of PD per 100,000 of population was 41.4 in 2004 and 142.5 in 2013, and there was 13.2% yearly increase over the 10 years. However, the incidence of PD per 100,000 of population increased steadily from 20.2 in 2004 to 53.1 in 2013. The prevalence and incidence were higher in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that there was an increasing trend in the prevalence and incidence of PD from 2004 to 2013, particularly in 70 years and older.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Classification , Cohort Studies , Comprehension , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Parkinson Disease , Prevalence , Public Health , Retrospective Studies
11.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 231-234, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65861

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous dissection of the middle cerebral artery could result in thromboembolic stroke caused by the intramural hematoma. Dissection should be considered as a possible etiology in a young stroke patient, but it is not straightforward in an emergency situation. Moreover, the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment in the acute stage are unknown. We applied intravenous and intra-arterial stent thrombectomy with the Solitaire device successfully in a patient with acute left middle cerebral artery occlusion due to spontaneous dissection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Emergencies , Hematoma , Infarction , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stents , Stroke , Thrombectomy
12.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 14-22, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The verbal fluency test consists of two separate tests of semantic fluency and phonemic fluency. The performance patterns of these tests differ with the type of dementia. We studied the patterns of verbal fluency between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD), and assessed the clinical utility of these tests. METHODS: The 1,475 selected participants comprised 73 normal control subjects, 673 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 535 AD patients, 42 patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI), and 152 SVaD patients. We analyzed the z-score for the total number of animal items as a semantic fluency index and the z-score of the phonemic total score as a phonemic fluency index. RESULTS: The performance of semantic fluency was lower than that of phonemic fluency in all groups. The SVaD group showed the worst scores and abnormal performances on both tests, while the AD group presented abnormal performance only for semantic fluency. Dividing the patients with dementia according to severity revealed a different pattern between AD and SVaD for the clinical dementia rating (CDR) stage of 0.5. The performance of the AD group declined gradually with CDR. However, the SVaD group performed very poorly in both tests even for very mild dementia (CDR stage of 0.5). The aMCI and svMCI groups exhibited similar performance patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of semantic and phonemic fluency was not clinically useful at the MCI stage, but it could be helpful in differentiating AD and SVaD in the early stage of dementia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Cognitive Dysfunction , Semantics , Task Performance and Analysis
13.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 18-20, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201762

ABSTRACT

The spot sign refers to tiny enhanced foci within the hematoma on a brain computed tomography angiography image. A spot sign is usually considered to be associated with hematoma progression in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We describe a patient with infarction of the left middle cerebral artery where a spot sign was observed. A spot sign may also have significant predictive value for large hemorrhagic transformation in patients with ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiography , Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Hematoma , Infarction , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Middle Cerebral Artery , Stroke
14.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 29-32, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201759

ABSTRACT

Five patients with favorable outcomes after a shunt operation in normal pressure hydrocephalus were analyzed with the aim of identifying consistent findings in a lumbar puncture (LP) test. The cases commonly showed improvement in at least one cognition and two gait LP parameters. We suggest that when judging the effects of LP on a shunt operation, the gait parameters need to be tailored to the gait status and the analyzed LP parameters should be evaluated at least twice at different times.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognition , Gait , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure , Prognosis , Spinal Puncture
15.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 194-197, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27578

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible cardiac syndrome that occurs subsequently to other medical illnesses such as cerebral hemorrhage, shock, or seizure disorders that are presumed to disturb autonomic regulation. This syndrome is characterized by chest pain, dyspnea, and electrocardiographic changes mimicking an acute coronary syndrome. Mild elevation of cardiac enzymes and transient wall-motion abnormalities of apical akinesia can appear. However, takotsubo cardiomyopathy following epilepsy is not well recognized. We report two cases of takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-related idiopathic status epilepticus presenting with cardiogenic shock.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Chest Pain , Dyspnea , Electrocardiography , Epilepsy , Shock , Shock, Cardiogenic , Status Epilepticus , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy
16.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 51-57, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165481

ABSTRACT

Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, also known as vanilloid receptor 1) is a receptor that detects capsaicin, a pungent component of chili peppers, and noxious heat. Although its function in the primary nociceptor as a pain receptor is well established, whether TRPV1 is expressed in the brain is still under debate. In this study, the responses of primary cortical neurons were investigated. Here, we report that 1) capsaicin induces caspase-3-dependent programmed cell death, which coincides with increased production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite ; that 2) the prolonged capsaicin treatment induces a steady increase in the degree of capase-3 activation, which is prevented by the removal of capsaicin; 3) and that blocking calcium entry and calcium-mediated signaling prevents capsaicin-induced cell death. These results indicate that cortical neurons express TRPV1 whose prolonged activation causes cell death.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Brain , Calcium , Capsaicin , Capsicum , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Hot Temperature , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nociceptors , Peroxynitrous Acid
17.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 88-92, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cause of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains incompletely understood. Cerebrovascular lesions (CVLs) are frequently found in the aging brain and may coexist with PD pathology. We hypothesized that lacunar infarction, which is one type of CVL, impacts on cognitive decline in patients with PD. METHODS: The Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) tools were applied to PD patients with lacunar infarction (<1.5 cm on brain MRI; PD-S) and PD patients with normal brain MRI (PD-NS). RESULTS: Totals of 19 PD-S patients (9 males and 10 females) and 59 PD-NS patients (16 males and 43 females) took part in this study. Univariate analysis revealed that the gender distribution did not differ between the PD-S and PD-NS groups (p=0.1731), whereas age did differ significantly [79.1+/-5.0 years vs 73.0+/-7.8 years (mean+/-SD), respectively; p=0.0002]. There was no difference between the PD-S and PD-NS patients in either PD disease duration (6.9+/-3.2 vs 5.6+/-3.8 years, respectively; p=0.1790) or education duration (5.3+/-5.4 vs 6.4+/-5.3 years, respectively; p=0.4168). After adjustment for age in ANCOVA analysis, the MMSE score was significantly lower (p=0.0128) and the CDR score was significantly higher (p=0.0426) in the PD-S group than in the PD-NS group. Ten of the PD-S patients had a single lesion. The lacunar infarctions appeared in various locations in these patients, but they were most common in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and periventricular white matter. CONCLUSIONS: Lacunar infarction appears to be associated with cognitive decline in patients with PD even after adjustment for age. Analysis of larger age-matched cases for PD-S and PD-NS is required in order to validate these results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aging , Basal Ganglia , Brain , Cognition , Dementia , Deoxycytidine , Parkinson Disease , Stroke, Lacunar , Thalamus
18.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 264-266, 2011.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101538

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Basilar Artery , Brain Injuries , Infarction
19.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 553-556, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158626

ABSTRACT

The clinical course and management of aneurysm by intracranial arterial dissection are not well known. Since intracranial dissecting aneurysm has a higher bleeding risk than an extracranial one, the optimal choice of treatment is controversial. We report two patients who presented with a dissecting aneurysm in the intracranial vertebral artery without subarachnoid hemorrhage. They showed successful responses to antiplatelet treatment without any surgical interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aneurysm , Aortic Dissection , Hemorrhage , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Vertebral Artery
20.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 66-69, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125437

ABSTRACT

Blood-injury phobia may present as a vasovagal syncope in response to the sight of blood or after receiving venipuncture. A 26-year-old man presented with a history of syncope induced by venipuncture. A transcranial Doppler (TCD) scan with monitoring of both heart rate and blood pressure reproduced the syncope and showed it to be vasovagal in nature. Treatment by practicing physical maneuvers, such as leg crossing and muscle tensing, improved the condition of the patient. This case suggests that physical maneuvering is effective in the treatment of blood-injury phobia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Leg , Phlebotomy , Phobic Disorders , Syncope , Syncope, Vasovagal , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
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