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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877570

ABSTRACT

The feasibility and prospect of viral tracers and mediating functional components are explored in study on brain effect of acupuncture. In the paper, proceeding with viral tracers, the viral tracers used to analyze the structure of specific neural circuits are introduced, as well as their mediated probes, optical/chemical genetics techniques, Cre-LoxP systems, etc. The viral tracers and their functional components can not only mark specifically nerve cells or neural circuits, but also interfere with the function of specific types of neurons or nuclei. They solve some disadvantage of traditional nerve tracing method that only describes the morphology of neurons of one brain region and the simple projection among brain regions, and the indirect and non-specific absorption. The viral tracers and their functional components play the important approach to decoding the mechanism on brain effect of acupuncture when introduced in experimental acupuncture so as to provide an in vivo, real-time and intuitive novel method for a further analysis of neurobiological mechanism on brain effect of acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Brain , Neurons
2.
Acupuncture Research ; (6): 703-708, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-844251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on incisional pain and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) of cervical dorsal part of spinal cord in rats with incisional neck pain, so as to explore its analgesic mechanisms. METHODS: Eighty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, EA-Futu(LI18) and EA-Zusanli(ST36)-Yanglingquan(GB34, EA-ST36-GB34) groups (n=21 in each group). The incisional neck pain model was established by making a longitudinal incision along the bilateral cervical thyroid regions and repeated mechanical separation stimulation. For rats of the EA groups, EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral LI18 or ST36-GB34 for 30 min/ time during the surgery, and 20 and 44 h after surgery, respectively. The thermal pain threshold (TPT) of the incisional region was detected. The immunoactivity of TNF-α and IL-10 of the dorsal portion of the cervical spinal cord (C2-C5) was detected by immunofluorescence, and the expression of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) mRNAs was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, the TPT of the incisional area was significantly decreased at 4, 24 and 48 h after neck-incision (P<0.05), the levels of TNF-α mRNA, IL-10 mRNA and TNF-α IL-10 immunoactivity at 24 h were remarkably increased (P<0.05), and the expression of IL-4R mRNA was considerably decreased at 24 h in the model group (P<0.05). Following EA intervention, the TPT, and expression levels of IL-4 mRNA and IL-4R mRNA were significantly increased at 24 h after surgery in the EA-LI18 group relevant to the model group (P<0.05), while the expression level of TNF-α(coexpressed with microgliacytes) in the EA-LI18 group, and TNF-α mRNA expression at 24 h in both EA-LI18 and EA-ST36-GB34 groups, as well as the expression of IL-10 and IL-10 mRNA at 24 h in both EA-LI18 and EA-ST36-GB34 groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The effect of EA LI18 was significantly superior to that of EA ST36-GB34 in up-regulating TPT and expression of IL-4 mRNA and IL-4R mRNA at 24 h (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA of LI18 has an analgesic effect in incisional neck pain rats, which may be related to its effect in down-regulating the expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and promoting IL-4 /IL-4R signaling in dorsal portions of the cervical spinal cord. The analgesic effect of EA LI18 is better than that of EA ST36-GB34.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-695722

ABSTRACT

Objective·To investigate changes of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients-derived bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMCs) in cells survival, cytokines expression as well as the effects of BMCs on the biological behaviors of megakaryocytes. Methods?·?BMCs were collected from 7 ITP patients and 5 normal controls (NC), and cultivated by the whole marrow adherent method. Surface markers and basal apoptosis rate of BMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Proliferation of BMCs was assessed by CCK-8 method. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was used to stimulate differentiation of HEL cells. The induced HEL cells (inHEL) were divided into 3 groups: inHEL cultured alone (group a), inHEL co-cultured with BMCs derived from ITP patients (group b), inHEL co-cultured with BMCs derived from NC (group c). After 72 h incubation, the expression of cell surface proteins (CD41a, CD42b) and cell apoptosis rate were analyzed by FCM. The mRNA and proteins expression levels of cytokines IL6, IL11, TPO, SCF were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results?·?Compared with NC, BMCs from ITP patients grew progressively slowly (Day 4, P=0.039; Day 6, 10, P=0.009; Day 8, P=0.007), cell basal apoptosis rates were increased [AV+PI- (early apoptosis rate), P=0.036; AV+PI+(late apoptosis rate), P=0.003; AV+PI-/+(total apoptosis rate), P=0.004]. Compared with group a, the expression of CD41a in group c was much higher (P=0.000). The expression of CD41a in group b was higher than that in group a (P=0.015), but still much less than that in group c (P=0.000). Compared with group a, the early and total apoptosis rate in group b, c and the late apoptosis rate in group c were decreased obviously (all P=0.000), whereas there was no obvious change of the late apoptosis rate in group b. However, compared with group c, the late and total apoptosis rate in group b were significantly increased (both P=0.000). The expression levels of IL6, SCF mRNA and IL6 protein were significantly decreased in ITP BMCs (all P=0.000), but there was no obvious difference in the expression levels of IL11 and TPO between ITP BMCs and NC BMCs. Conclusion?·?BMCs from ITP patients show some defects in supporting megakaryocytic differentiation and survival under co-culture conditions, which mechanisms are related to the reduction of IL6 and SCF expression.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843679

ABSTRACT

Objective • To investigate changes of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients-derived bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMCs) in cells survival, cytokines expression as well as the effects of BMCs on the biological behaviors of megakaryocytes. Methods • BMCs were collected from 7 ITP patients and 5 normal controls (NC), and cultivated by the whole marrow adherent method. Surface markers and basal apoptosis rate of BMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). Proliferation of BMCs was assessed by CCK-8 method. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was used to stimulate differentiation of HEL cells. The induced HEL cells (inHEL) were divided into 3 groups: inHEL cultured alone (group a), inHEL co-cultured with BMCs derived from ITP patients (group b), inHEL co-cultured with BMCs derived from NC (group c). After 72 h incubation, the expression of cell surface proteins (CD41a, CD42b) and cell apoptosis rate were analyzed by FCM. The mRNA and proteins expression levels of cytokines IL6, IL11, TPO, SCF were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results • Compared with NC, BMCs from ITP patients grew progressively slowly (Day 4, P=0.039; Day 6, 10, P=0.009; Day 8, P=0.007), cell basal apoptosis rates were increased [AV+PI- (early apoptosis rate), P=0.036; AV+PI+ (late apoptosis rate), P=0.003; AV+PI-/+ (total apoptosis rate), P=0.004]. Compared with group a, the expression of CD41a in group c was much higher (P=0.000). The expression of CD41a in group b was higher than that in group a (P=0.015), but still much less than that in group c (P=0.000). Compared with group a, the early and total apoptosis rate in group b, c and the late apoptosis rate in group c were decreased obviously (all P=0.000), whereas there was no obvious change of the late apoptosis rate in group b. However, compared with group c, the late and total apoptosis rate in group b were significantly increased (both P=0.000). The expression levels of IL6, SCF mRNA and IL6 protein were significantly decreased in ITP BMCs (all P=0.000), but there was no obvious difference in the expression levels of IL11 and TPO between ITP BMCs and NC BMCs. Conclusion • BMCs from ITP patients show some defects in supporting megakaryocytic differentiation and survival under co-culture conditions, which mechanisms are related to the reduction of IL6 and SCF expression.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347124

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of repeated electroacupuncture (EA) of Zusanli (ST36)- Yanglingquan (GB34) on hypothalamic acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter (VAChT) activities and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) mRNA expression in chronic constrictive injury (CCI) and/or ovariectomy (OVX) rats so as to reveal its underlying mechanism in cumulative analgesia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 103 female Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (n =15), CCI (n =15), CCI+EA2d (n =15), CCI+EA2W (n =15), OVX+CCI =13), OVX+CCI+EA2d (n =15), and OVX+CCI+EA2W groups (n =15). CCI model was established by ligature of the unilateral sciatic nerve with surgical suture. Memory impairment model was established by removal of the bilateral ovaries. Morris water test was conducted to evaluate the OVX rats' memory learning ability, and the thermal pain threshold (PT) of the bilateral paws was detected the next morning after EA. EA (2/15 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral ST36-GB34 for 30 min, once daily for 2 days or 2 weeks, respectively. Hypothalamic AChE activity was detected by histochemistry, VAChT immunoactivity was determined by immunohistochemistry, and ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expressions were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In comparison with the normal control group, the AChE activity in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) regions of CCI group, AChE activity in paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ARC, and SON regions of OVX+CCI group, and hypothalamic muscarinic M1R mRNA expression levels in both CCI and OVX+CCI groups were down-regulated significantly (P <0.05). Compared with the CCI group, the AChE activities in hypothalamic ARC and SON regions of CCI+EA2d and CCI+EA2W groups and PVN region of CCI+EA2W group and hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expression levels in CCI+EA2W group were up-regulated considerably (P <0.05). In comparison with the OVX+CCI group, the AChE activities in PVN, ARC, and SON regions and the expressions of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and VAChT in ARC region of OVX+CCI+EA2W group were up-regulated remarkably (P <0.05). The effects in rats of CCI+EA2W group were evidently superior to those of OVX+CCI+EA2d group in up-regulating AChE activities in PVN, ARC, and SON regions, VAChT immunoactivity in ARC region, and expression levels of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA (P <0.05). Similar situations were found in OVX+CCI rats after EA2W. It suggested a cumulative effect after repeated EA of ST36-GB34. Comparison between CCI+EA2W and OVX+CCI+EA2W groups showed that the effects in rats of the former group were evidently better than those of the latter group in up-regulating AChE activity in ARC and SON regions and the expressions of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1 mRNA (P <0.05), suggesting a reduction of EA2W effects after OVX.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Repeated EA can significantly up-regulate AChE and VAChT activities and ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus of CCI and OVX+CCI rats, which may contribute to the cumulative analgesic effects of repeated EA and be closely related to the animals' neuromemory ability.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Genetics , Metabolism , Acupuncture Analgesia , Animals , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cholinergic Agents , Metabolism , Chronic Pain , Metabolism , Pathology , Constriction, Pathologic , Electroacupuncture , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Hypothalamus , Metabolism , Pathology , Neuralgia , Metabolism , Pathology , Ovariectomy , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptor, Muscarinic M1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308758

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA)-induced cumulative analgesic effects on chronic pain in rats with or without ovariectomy (OVX).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 110 female Wistar rats were randomized into normal control (n=10), chronic constrictive injury (CCI, n=10), CCI+EA (n=30), OVX+CCI (n=30), and OVX+CCI+EA (n=30) groups. Each of the latter 3 groups was further divided into 2 days (2 d), 2 weeks (2 W) and 3 weeks (3 W) subgroups, respectively (n=10 in each subgroup). The CCI pain model was established by ligature of the right sciatic nerve, and the memory impairment model duplicated by OVX. The paw withdrawal latency (PWL, pain threshold) of the bilateral footplates was detected by radiant heat irradiation, and the bilateral difference in PWL (PWLD) was used to evaluate changes in the pain reaction. Morris water maze test was conducted for evaluating the rats' learning-memory ability. EA was applied to bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) for 2 d, 2 W and 3 W, respectively. Pituitary and hypothalamic beta-endorphin (EP) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) contents were detected by immunoradioassay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the CCI group, PWLD of the CCI+EA-3 W group decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the OVX+CCI group, PWLD of the OVX+CCI+EA-3 W group was lowered considerably (P<0.05), but the value was markedly higher than its basal value and those of the normal control and CCI+EA groups (P<0.05). In comparison with the sham-OVX group, the escape latency, swimming distance (SD) in the target quadrant and total SD were increased remarkably in the OVX group (P<0.05), while the number of target platform crossings was decreased significantly (P<0.05), suggesting an impairment of the OVX rats' learning-memory ability. In simple CCI rats, both beta-EP and ACTH contents of the pituitary increased markedly (P<0.05), and those of the hypothalamus decreased obviously compared to the normal control group (P<0.05). After EA, pituitary and hypothalamic ACTH levels were significantly lowered at 2 d and hypothalamic ACTH and beta-EP contents increased obviously at 3 W in comparison with the CCI group (P<0.05). In OVX+CCI rats, following EA, pituitary beta-EP contents at 2 d, 2 W and 3 W, and hypothalamic beta-EP and ACTH contents at 2 W and hypothalamic ACTH levels at 3 W increased significantly (P<0.05), but hypothalamic beta-EP level at 3W decreased markedly (P<0.05). The effects of repeated EA in lowering pituitary ACTH and raising hypothalamic beta-EP and ACTH levels disappeared after OVX+CCI.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Repeated EA has a cumulative analgesic effect, which is closely associated with its effects in regulating pituitary and hypothalamic beta-EP and ACTH levels. OVX may weaken the analgesic effect of EA by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Metabolism , Animals , Chronic Disease , Electroacupuncture , Methods , Female , Hypothalamus , Metabolism , Memory , Physiology , Ovariectomy , Pain Management , Pituitary Gland , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , beta-Endorphin , Metabolism
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