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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 290-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925008

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity are independently associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. Many NAFLD patients are lean, but their ASCVD risk compared to obese subjects with NAFLD is unclear. @*Methods@#Data from the 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveysdatabase were analyzed (n=4,786). NAFLD was defined as a comprehensive NAFLD score ≥40 or a liver fat score ≥–0.640. ASCVD risk was evaluated using the American College of Cardiol-ogy/American Heart Association guidelines. @*Results@#The frequency of subjects without NAFLD, with obese NAFLD, and with lean NAFLD was 62.4% (n=2,987), 26.6% (n=1,274), and 11.0% (n=525), respectively. Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of a high ASCVD risk (mean 15.6±14.0, 51.6%) than those with obese NAFLD and without NAFLD (mean 11.2±11.4, 39.8%; mean 7.9±10.9, 25.5%; all p<0.001). Subjects with lean NAFLD and significant liver fibrosis showed a significantly higher odds ratio for a high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD with or without significant liver fibrosis (odds ratio, 2.60 vs 1.93; p=0.023). @*Conclusions@#Subjects with lean NAFLD had a significantly higher ASCVD score and prevalence of high risk for ASCVD than those with obese NAFLD. Similarly, lean subjects with significant liver fibrosis had a higher probability of ASCVD than obese subjects in the subpopulation with NAFLD.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 12-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875607

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the prognostic value of AFP levels in patients who achieved complete response (CR) to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for HCC. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2005 and 2018, 890 patients with HCC who achieved a CR to TACE were recruited. An AFP responder was defined as a patient who showed elevated levels of AFP (>10 ng/mL) during TACE, but showed normalization or a >50% reduction in AFP levels after achieving a CR. @*Results@#Among the recruited patients, 569 (63.9%) with naïve HCC and 321 (36.1%) with recurrent HCC after complete resection were treated. Before TACE, 305 (34.3%) patients had multiple tumors, 219 (24.6%) had a maximal tumor size >3 cm, and 22 (2.5%) had portal vein tumor thrombosis. The median AFP level after achieving a CR was 6.36 ng/mL. After a CR, 473 (53.1%) patients experienced recurrence, and 417 (46.9%) died [median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 16.3 and 62.8 months, respectively]. High AFP levels at CR (>20 ng/mL) were independently associated with a shorter PFS [hazard ratio (HR)=1.403] and OS (HR=1.284), together with tumor multiplicity at TACE (HR=1.518 and 1.666, respectively). AFP non-responders at CR (76.2%, n=359 of 471) showed a shorter PFS (median 10.5 months vs. 15.5 months, HR=1.375) and OS (median 41.4 months vs. 61.8 months, HR=1.424) than AFP responders (all p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#High AFP levels and AFP non-responders were independently associated with poor outcomes after TACE. AFP holds clinical implications for detailed risk stratification upon achieving a CR after TACE.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 117-127, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874578

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The hepatic steatosis index (HSI) is a noninvasive method to assess the severity of hepatic steatosis. Antiviral therapy (AVT) can impact aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, which are the main components of the HSI. Thus, we investigated the accuracy of the HSI in detecting hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receiving AVT, compared with those not receiving AVT and in those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#Patients with CHB or NAFLD who underwent a magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) evaluation between March 2010 and March 2019 were recruited.Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed when the PDFF exceeded 5%. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the HSI in the detection of hepatic steatosis. @*Results@#The mean age of the study population (189 men and 116 women; 244 with CHB [184 with and 60 without AVT] and 61 with NAFLD) was 55.6 years. The AUROC values for detecting hepatic steatosis were similar between patients with CHB (0.727; p<0.001) and those with NAFLD (0.739; p=0.002). However, when patients with CHB were subdivided into those receiving and not receiving AVT, the AUROC value decreased slightly in patients with CHB receiving AVT compared to those without not receiving AVT (0.707; p=0.001 vs 0.779; p=0.001). @*Conclusions@#Despite a slight attenuation, the diagnostic accuracy of the HSI in patients with CHB receiving AVT in detecting hepatic steatosis was still acceptable. Further large-scale studies are required for validation.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903566

ABSTRACT

Non-invasive Stratification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Using Polygenic Risk Scores

5.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900267

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primarily originates in the liver with hepatic differentiation. However, HCCs are not homogenous, and approximately 35% of HCC cases are classified as histopathological variants that present distinct pathologic characteristics. In particular, the lymphocyte-rich variant is the rarest subtype accounting for less than 1% of HCCs, which is not well known to date about molecular features and pathophysiology. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was suspected of metastatic liver cancer and confirmed as lymphocyte-rich HCC pathologically. A 78-year-old woman who underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer was referred to our hospital for a newly detected liver mass. We could not make a decision because of insufficient evidence for diagnosis from imaging studies. After resection, we found that it was a lymphocyte-rich HCC. The pathologic features and prognostic trends of this subtype are also discussed.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899857

ABSTRACT

Background@#Since September 2015, the initiation of antiviral therapy (AVT) for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis has been reimbursed according to the revised Korean Association for the Study of Liver (KASL) guideline, if the patient had hepatitis B virus DNA level ≥ 2,000 IU/L, regardless of aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase levels. This study investigated whether the KASL guideline implementation reduced the risk of CHB-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 429 patients with CHB-related cirrhosis who initiated AVT between 2014 and 2016 were recruited. The risk of HCC development was compared between patients who initiated AVT before and after September 2015 (pre-guideline [n = 196, 45.7%] vs. postguideline implementation [n = 233, 54.3%]). @*Results@#Univariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation, older age, male gender, and diabetes significantly predicted increased risk of HCC development (all P < 0.05). Subsequent multivariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation (HR = 1.941), older age (HR = 5.762), male gender (HR = 2.555), and diabetes (HR = 1.568) independently predicted increased risk of HCC development (all P < 0.05). Additionally, multivariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation (HR = 2.309), male gender (HR = 3.058), and lower platelet count (HR = 0.989) independently predicted mortality (P < 0.05). The cumulative incidences of HCC and mortality were significantly higher in patients who initiated AVT before guideline implementation than in those who initiated AVT after guideline implementation (all P < 0.05, log-rank test). @*Conclusion@#The prognosis of patients with CHB-related cirrhosis who initiated AVT improved after guideline implementation according to the revised KASL guideline.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 420-429, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898458

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated changes in recurrence rates and significant recurrence predictors over time after complete cure of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Methods@#A total of 1,491 patients with first-time diagnosis of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC, completely cured by treatment between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from two Korean tertiary institutes. @*Results@#The mean age of the population (1,144 men and 347 women) was 58.6 years. Of the total population, 914 patients (61.3%) had liver cirrhosis. Nine-hundred and forty-one (63.1%) and 550 (36.9%) patients were treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), respectively. One-year cumulative incidences of HCC recurrence were 14.3%, 9.9%, and 5.1% from the time of treatment, 3 years after treatment, and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, multiple tumors, maximal tumor size ≥3 cm, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were independently associated with increased HCC recurrence risk from the time of treatment and 1 and 2 years after curative treatment (all p<0.05, except for maxi-mal tumor size ≥3 cm for recurrence 2 years after treatment). Meanwhile, liver cirrhosis and RFA were independently associated with the increased HCC recurrence risk for almost all time points (liver cirrhosis: all p<0.05; RFA: all p<0.005 except for recurrence from 5 years after treatment). @*Conclusions@#The recurrence rate of HCC after curative treatment gradually decreased over time. Two years after treatment, when tumor-related factors lose their prognostic implications, may be used as a cutoff to define the boundary between early and late recurrence of HCC.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897663

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The immune-tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is not generally indicative of antiviral therapy (AVT). We assessed and compared the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the IT-phase stringently defined by a low fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, compared to that in patients undergoing AVT. @*Methods@#Among 125 untreated patients that were hepatitis B e-antigen positive, hepatitis B virus-DNA >20,000 IU/mL, with normal alanine aminotransferase level from 2012 to 2018, those with a FIB-4 index of <1.45 were classified into the IT-group. The cumulative probability of HCC was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. All patients were assessed until HCC development (intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis), whereas those suspected of experiencing CHB phase switch were assessed using the per-protocol (PP) and censored at the time of phase switch. @*Results@#The cumulative probability of HCC at 1-, 3-, and 5-years among the IT-group was zero, compared to AVT-treated patients with FIB-4 indices <1.45 during the same period: 0.2%, 0.6%, and 1.4%, respectively (P=0.264 for ITT and P=0.533 for PP). Among the initially screened 125 untreated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to the IT-group (P=0.005). Furthermore, among AVT-treated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to their counterpart (P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The risk of HCC was negligible in the IT-group stringently defined by a low FIB-4 index. However, given that a higher HCC risk exists among untreated patients with higher FIB-4, appropriate criteria for AVT should be established.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895862

ABSTRACT

Non-invasive Stratification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Using Polygenic Risk Scores

10.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892563

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) primarily originates in the liver with hepatic differentiation. However, HCCs are not homogenous, and approximately 35% of HCC cases are classified as histopathological variants that present distinct pathologic characteristics. In particular, the lymphocyte-rich variant is the rarest subtype accounting for less than 1% of HCCs, which is not well known to date about molecular features and pathophysiology. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was suspected of metastatic liver cancer and confirmed as lymphocyte-rich HCC pathologically. A 78-year-old woman who underwent a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer was referred to our hospital for a newly detected liver mass. We could not make a decision because of insufficient evidence for diagnosis from imaging studies. After resection, we found that it was a lymphocyte-rich HCC. The pathologic features and prognostic trends of this subtype are also discussed.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892153

ABSTRACT

Background@#Since September 2015, the initiation of antiviral therapy (AVT) for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis has been reimbursed according to the revised Korean Association for the Study of Liver (KASL) guideline, if the patient had hepatitis B virus DNA level ≥ 2,000 IU/L, regardless of aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase levels. This study investigated whether the KASL guideline implementation reduced the risk of CHB-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A total of 429 patients with CHB-related cirrhosis who initiated AVT between 2014 and 2016 were recruited. The risk of HCC development was compared between patients who initiated AVT before and after September 2015 (pre-guideline [n = 196, 45.7%] vs. postguideline implementation [n = 233, 54.3%]). @*Results@#Univariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation, older age, male gender, and diabetes significantly predicted increased risk of HCC development (all P < 0.05). Subsequent multivariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation (HR = 1.941), older age (HR = 5.762), male gender (HR = 2.555), and diabetes (HR = 1.568) independently predicted increased risk of HCC development (all P < 0.05). Additionally, multivariate analysis showed that AVT initiation before guideline implementation (HR = 2.309), male gender (HR = 3.058), and lower platelet count (HR = 0.989) independently predicted mortality (P < 0.05). The cumulative incidences of HCC and mortality were significantly higher in patients who initiated AVT before guideline implementation than in those who initiated AVT after guideline implementation (all P < 0.05, log-rank test). @*Conclusion@#The prognosis of patients with CHB-related cirrhosis who initiated AVT improved after guideline implementation according to the revised KASL guideline.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 420-429, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890754

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated changes in recurrence rates and significant recurrence predictors over time after complete cure of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). @*Methods@#A total of 1,491 patients with first-time diagnosis of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCC, completely cured by treatment between 2007 and 2016, were recruited from two Korean tertiary institutes. @*Results@#The mean age of the population (1,144 men and 347 women) was 58.6 years. Of the total population, 914 patients (61.3%) had liver cirrhosis. Nine-hundred and forty-one (63.1%) and 550 (36.9%) patients were treated with surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), respectively. One-year cumulative incidences of HCC recurrence were 14.3%, 9.9%, and 5.1% from the time of treatment, 3 years after treatment, and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Upon multivariate analysis, multiple tumors, maximal tumor size ≥3 cm, and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores were independently associated with increased HCC recurrence risk from the time of treatment and 1 and 2 years after curative treatment (all p<0.05, except for maxi-mal tumor size ≥3 cm for recurrence 2 years after treatment). Meanwhile, liver cirrhosis and RFA were independently associated with the increased HCC recurrence risk for almost all time points (liver cirrhosis: all p<0.05; RFA: all p<0.005 except for recurrence from 5 years after treatment). @*Conclusions@#The recurrence rate of HCC after curative treatment gradually decreased over time. Two years after treatment, when tumor-related factors lose their prognostic implications, may be used as a cutoff to define the boundary between early and late recurrence of HCC.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889959

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The immune-tolerant (IT) phase of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is not generally indicative of antiviral therapy (AVT). We assessed and compared the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the IT-phase stringently defined by a low fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, compared to that in patients undergoing AVT. @*Methods@#Among 125 untreated patients that were hepatitis B e-antigen positive, hepatitis B virus-DNA >20,000 IU/mL, with normal alanine aminotransferase level from 2012 to 2018, those with a FIB-4 index of <1.45 were classified into the IT-group. The cumulative probability of HCC was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. All patients were assessed until HCC development (intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis), whereas those suspected of experiencing CHB phase switch were assessed using the per-protocol (PP) and censored at the time of phase switch. @*Results@#The cumulative probability of HCC at 1-, 3-, and 5-years among the IT-group was zero, compared to AVT-treated patients with FIB-4 indices <1.45 during the same period: 0.2%, 0.6%, and 1.4%, respectively (P=0.264 for ITT and P=0.533 for PP). Among the initially screened 125 untreated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to the IT-group (P=0.005). Furthermore, among AVT-treated patients, those with a FIB-4 index of ≥1.45 had a higher risk of HCC compared to their counterpart (P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The risk of HCC was negligible in the IT-group stringently defined by a low FIB-4 index. However, given that a higher HCC risk exists among untreated patients with higher FIB-4, appropriate criteria for AVT should be established.

14.
Immune Network ; : e11-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898555

ABSTRACT

Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease. Until recently, systemic treatment options that showed survival benefits in HCC have been limited to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibodies targeting oncogenic signaling pathways or VEGF receptors. The HCC tumor microenvironment is characterized by a dysfunction of the immune system through multiple mechanisms, including accumulation of various immunosuppressive factors, recruitment of regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and induction of T cell exhaustion accompanied with the interaction between immune checkpoint ligands and receptors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been interfered this interaction and have altered therapeutic landscape of multiple cancer types including HCC. In this review, we discuss the use of anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies in the treatment of advanced HCC. However, ICIs as a single agent do not benefit a significant portion of patients. Therefore, various clinical trials are exploring possible synergistic effects of combinations of different ICIs (anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies) or ICIs and target agents. Combinations of ICIs with locoregional therapies may also improve therapeutic responses.

15.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 135-147, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836104

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Considering the high prevalence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Korea, accurate statistics for HCC are important. We evaluated the characteristics of Korean patients with newly diagnosed HCC. @*Methods@#We retrospectively evaluated data from the Korean Primary Liver Cancer Registry (KPLCR). The baseline characteristics, treatment modalities, and overall survival (OS) of 4,572 patients with HCC registered in the KPLCR between 2012 and 2014 were investigated. @*Results@#At the time of HCC diagnosis, the median age was 60.0 years, with male predominance (79.6%). Hepatitis B virus infection was the most common etiology (59.1%). The rates of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stages 0, A, B, C, and D at diagnosis were 3.9%, 36.9%, 12.5%, 39.4%, and 7.3%, respectively. The proportion of very early or early stage HCC at diagnosis (BCLC stage 0 or A) in the 2012-2014 cohort was significantly lower than that in the 2008-2011 cohort (40.8% vs. 48.3%, P<0.001). Transarterial therapy (37.5%) was the most commonly performed initial treatment, followed by surgical resection (19.8%), best supportive care (19.1%), and local ablation (10.6%). The median OS was 2.9 years, and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 67.7%, 49.3% and 41.9%, respectively. The OS rate of the 2012-2014 cohort was significantly higher than that of the 2008-2011 cohort (log-rank, P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The OS of HCC patients registered in the KPLCR between 2012 and 2014 significantly improved. Nevertheless, as about half of the HCC patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage, vigorous and optimized HCC screening strategies should be implemented.

16.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 41-52, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836093

ABSTRACT

Background@#s/Aims: Backgrounds/Aims: In Korea, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and results in the second-highest cancer death rate among all cancers. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients who were newly diagnosed with HCC in Korea between 2008 and 2011. @*Methods@#The Korean Primary Liver Cancer Registry (KPLCR) is a random sample consisting of approximately 15% of patients with newly diagnosed primary liver cancer registered in the Korean Central Cancer Registry. We investigated the baseline characteristics, treatment modalities, and overall survival (OS) of patients with HCC registered in the KPLCR between 2008 and 2011. @*Results@#A total of 6,083 patients were histologically or radiologically diagnosed with HCC. The hepatitis B virus was the predominant HCC etiology (72.0%). According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, stages 0, A, B, C, and D accounted for 8.6%, 39.7%, 11.5%, 33.8%, and 6.9%, respectively. Transarterial therapy (41.7%) was the most commonly performed initial treatment, followed by best supportive care (21.7%), surgical resection (16.7%), and local ablation therapies (10.6%). The overall rate of adherence to the BCLC treatment guideline was only 37.7%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 65.6%, 46.2%, and 36.8%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Between 2008 and 2011, approximately half of patients with HCC (48.3%) were candidates for curative treatment (BCLC stage 0 or A), but one-third of patients (33.8%) had advanced HCC (BCLC stage C). Transarterial therapy was the most commonly conducted initial treatment and the 5-year OS rate was 36.8% in this period.

17.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 72-77, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836089

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, standard first-line systemic treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been based on sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor. Regorafenib, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the only second-line therapy that has been globally approved after progression under sorafenib treatment. Recently, immunotherapeutic agents have emerged as promising treatment options in many different malignancies, including advanced HCC. Nivolumab is the first immunotherapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in HCC patients with advanced-stage second-line after sorafenib failure. In this report, a case of advanced HCC with multiple lung metastases in which a complete response and maintained progression-free status was achieved with nivolumab, following the failure of transarterial chemoembolization and sorafenib is presented. We hope this report may help expand the clinical application of second-line treatment.

18.
Gut and Liver ; : 626-635, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833184

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sarcopenia is associated with liver fi-brosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic hepatitis B. We investigated the association between sarcopenia and hepatic fibrotic burden in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#Patients with T2DM who had received a comprehensive medical health checkup were recruited. Muscle mass was assessed using com-puted tomography. Fibrotic burden was assessed using the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4). The study population was divided by quartile stratification of the lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI). @*Results@#Among 309 patients with T2DM, 75 (24.3%) had sarcopenia. These patients were significantly older and had higher FIB-4, whereas they had significantly lower body mass index (BMI) and LSMI than patients without sarcopenia (all p<0.05). The LSMI showed a significant negative cor-relation with the FIB-4 when analyzed in terms of quartile stratification (p=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that female sex and higher BMI were independently associated with a reduced risk of sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR], 0.388;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.199 to 0.755 and OR, 0.704;95% CI, 0.618 to 0.801; all p<0.05), whereas a higher FIB-4 was independently associated with an increased risk of sarcopenia (OR, 1.817; 95% CI, 1.180 to 2.797; p=0.007).Among patients with a BMI <25 kg/m 2 (n=165), those with sarcopenia (n=54, 32.7%) had a significantly higher FIB-4 than those without (n=111, 67.3%; 1.66 vs 1.38, p=0.004). @*Conclusions@#Sarcopenia is independently associated with fibrotic burden in patients with T2DM. Further studies should investigate whether the improvement of sarcopenia can ameliorate liver fibrosis in patients with T2DM.

19.
Gut and Liver ; : 765-774, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833171

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria have been used to assess treatment responses for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. We investigated which criteria provides better survival predictions in HCC patients treated with transarterial radioembolization (TARE). @*Methods@#In total, 102 patients with unresectable intrahe-patic HCC, who were treated with TARE between 2012 and 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. The treatment response after TARE was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months by the mRE-CIST and RECIST 1.1. Responders were defined as patients with complete or partial responses by each criterion. @*Results@#The median age of 83 men and 19 women was 64.3 years.The median alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxy pro-thrombin levels were 37.1 ng/mL and 1,780.0 mAU/mL, re-spectively. The median maximal tumor size was 8.3 cm, and multiple tumors were observed in 36 patients (35.3%). Dur-ing the follow-up period (median, 20.7 months), 21 patients (20.6%) died, with a mean survival time of 55.5 months. The cumulative survival rate was 96.1% at 6 months and 89.3% at 12 months. Responders, defined by the mRECIST at 1, 3, and 6 months after TARE, showed better survival outcomes than nonresponders (hazard ratio [HR]=5.736, p=0.008 at 1 month; HR=3.145, p=0.022 at 3 months, and HR=2.887, p=0.061 at 6 months). The survival rates of responders and nonresponders defined by the RECIST 1.1 were similar (all p>0.05). @*Conclusions@#Response evaluations that use the mRECIST provide more accurate prognoses than those that use the RECIST 1.1 in HCC patients treated with TARE.

20.
Gut and Liver ; : 477-485, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833120

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Prognostic models are lacking for patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following surgical resection. This study devised and validated a new hepatoma arterial-embolization prognostic (HAP) score optimized for use in patients undergoing treatment with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for recurrence subsequent to surgical resection of HCC. @*Methods@#Training cohort (n=424) and validation cohort (n=350) patients with recurrent HCC after resection treated with TACE between 2003 and 2016 were enrolled. Cox regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analyses were used to identify risk factors for survival and to calculate the predictive performance of risk scores, respectively. @*Results@#The median age of the study population was 59.2 years. α-Fetoprotein >400 ng/mL (hazard ratio [HR]=1.815), serum albumin ≤3.5 g/dL (HR=1.966), tumor number ≥2 (HR=1.425), tumor size >5 cm at resection or recurrence (HR=1.356), segmental portal vein invasion at resection or recurrence (HR=2.032), and time from resection to recurrence ≤1 years (HR=1.849) independently predicted survival (all p<0.05). The postoperative HAP (pHAP) model based on the rounded HRs of these variables showed an AUC of 0.723 for predicting survival at 3 years, which was significantly higher than AUCs of other HAP-based models, including HAP, modified HAP, and modified HAP-II scores (0.578-0.621) (all p<0.05). The accuracy of pHAP was maintained in the entire cohort (n=774; AUC=0.776 at 3 years). @*Conclusions@#A new pHAP score optimized for patients treated with TACE due to recurrent HCC after resection showed acceptable accuracy and was externally validated. Further studies of means by which to select treatment options other than TACE for high-risk patients according to pHAP scores are warranted.

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