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1.
Journal of Stroke ; : 242-250, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001579

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Moderate-intensity statin plus ezetimibe versus high-intensity statin alone may provide a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in patients with recent ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#This randomized, open-label, controlled trial assigned patients with recent ischemic stroke <90 days to rosuvastatin/ezetimibe 10/10 mg once daily (ROS10/EZT10) or to rosuvastatin 20 mg once daily (ROS20). The primary endpoint was LDL-C reduction ≥50% from baseline at 90 days. Key secondary endpoints were LDL-C <70 mg/dL and multiple lipid goal achievement, and composite of major vascular events. @*Results@#Of 584 randomized, 530 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The baseline LDL-C level was 130.2±34.7 mg/dL in the ROS10/EZT10 group and 131.0±33.9 mg/dL in the ROS20 group. The primary endpoint was achieved in 198 patients (72.5%) in the ROS10/EZT10 group and 148 (57.6%) in the ROS20 group (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.944 [1.352–2.795]; P= 0.0003). LDL-C level <70 mg/dL was achieved in 80.2% and 65.4% in the ROS10/EZT10 and ROS20 groups (P=0.0001). Multiple lipid goal achievement rate was 71.1% and 53.7% in the ROS10/EZT10 and ROS20 groups (P<0.0001). Major vascular events occurred in 1 patient in the ROS10/EZT10 group and 9 in the ROS20 group (P=0.0091). The adverse event rates did not differ between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Moderate-intensity rosuvastatin plus ezetimibe was superior to high-intensity rosuvastatin alone for intensive LDL-C reduction in patients with recent ischemic stroke. With the combination therapy, more than 70% of patients achieved LDL-C reduction ≥50% and 80% had an LDL-C <70 mg/dL at 90 days.

2.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 18-30, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967818

ABSTRACT

Background@#Korea recently established 70 emergency medical service areas. However, there are many concerns that medical resources for stroke could not be evenly distributed through the country. We aimed to compare the treatment quality and outcomes of acute stroke among the emergency medical service areas. @*Methods@#This study analyzed the data of 28,800 patients admitted in 248 hospitals which participated in the 8th acute stroke quality assessment by Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Individual hospitals were regrouped into emergency service areas according to the address of the location. Assessment indicators and fatality were compared by the service areas. We defined the appropriate hospital by the performance of intravenous thrombolysis. @*Results@#In seven service areas, there were no hospitals which received more than 10 stroke patients for 6 months. In nine service areas, there were no patients who underwent intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Among 167 designated emergency medical centers, 50 hospitals (29.9%) responded that IVT was impossible 24 hours a day. There are 97 (39.1%) hospitals that meet the definitions of appropriate hospital. In 23 service areas (32.9%) had no appropriate or feasible hospitals. The fatality of service areas with stroke centers were 6.9% within 30 days and 15.6% within 1 year from stroke onset than those without stroke centers (7.7%, 16.9%, respectively). @*Conclusions@#There was a wide regional gap in the medical resource and the quality of treatments for acute stroke among emergency medical service areas in Korea. The poststroke fatality rate of the service areas which have stroke centers or appropriate hospitals were significantly low.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e254-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938033

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to present the prognosis after minor acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA), using a definition of subsequent stroke in accordance with recent clinical trials. In total, 9,506 patients with minor AIS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤ 5) or high-risk TIA (acute lesions or ≥ 50% cerebral artery steno-occlusion) admitted between November 2010 and October 2013 were included. The primary outcome was the composite of stroke (progression of initial event or a subsequent event) and all-cause mortality. The cumulative incidence of stroke or death was 11.2% at 1 month, 13.3% at 3 months and 16.7% at 1 year. Incidence rate of stroke or death in the first month was 12.5 per 100 person-months: highest in patients with large artery atherosclerosis (17.0). The risk of subsequent events shortly after a minor AIS or high-risk TIA was substantial, particularly in patients with large artery atherosclerosis.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e100-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925871

ABSTRACT

Background@#Clinical implications of elevated fasting triglycerides (FTGs) and non-fasting triglycerides (NFTGs) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remain unknown. We aimed to elucidate the correlation and clinical significance of FTG and NFTG levels in AIS patients. @*Methods@#Using a multicenter prospective stroke registry, we identified AIS patients hospitalized within 24 hours of onset with available NFTG results. The primary outcome was a composite of stroke recurrence, myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality up to one year. @*Results@#This study analyzed 2,176 patients. The prevalence of fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia was 11.5% and 24.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age, diabetes, higher body mass index and initial systolic blood pressure were independently associated with both fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia (all P < 0.05). Patients with higher quartiles of NFTG were more likely to be male, younger, eversmokers, diabetic, and have family histories of premature coronary heart disease and stroke (all P < 0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for FTG. The composite outcome was not associated with FTG or NFTG quartiles. @*Conclusion@#The fasting and non-fasting hypertriglyceridemia were prevalent in AIS patients and showed similar clinical characteristics and outcomes. High FTG and NFTG levels were not associated with occurrence of subsequent clinical events up to one year.

5.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 138-147, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924957

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies on the epidemiology and complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were conducted in Western countries and in children/adolescents. We aimed to explore the epidemiology of CAH, as well as the risk of comorbidities and mortality, in a Korean nationwide case-control study. @*Methods@#CAH patients (n=2,840) were included between 2002 and 2017 from the National Health Insurance Service database and the Rare Intractable Disease program. CAH patients were compared, at a 1:10 ratio, with age-, sex-, and index year-matched controls (n=28,400). @*Results@#The point prevalence of CAH patients in Korea was 1 in 18,745 persons in 2017. The annual incidence rate declined between 2003 and 2017 from 3.25 to 0.41 per 100,000 persons. CAH patients were at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 1.9), stroke (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.0), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.6 to 3.1), dyslipidemia (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.2 to 2.6), and psychiatric disorders (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3 to 1.6). Fracture risk increased in CAH patients aged over 40 years (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7). CAH patients were at higher risk of mortality than controls (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.0). @*Conclusion@#Our nationwide study showed a recent decline in the incidence of CAH and an elevated risk for cardiovascular, metabolic, skeletal, and psychiatric disorders in CAH patients. Lifelong management for comorbidity risk is a crucial component of treating CAH patients.

6.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 464-475, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924926

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to up-to-date Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS), and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study collected electronic medical record data from patients with T2DM (≥20 years) managed by endocrinologists from 15 hospitals in Korea (January to December 2019). Patients were categorized according to guidelines to assess LDL-C target achievement. KDA (2019): Very High-I (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]) <70 mg/dL; Very High-II (target organ damage [TOD], or cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]) <70 mg/dL; high (others) <100 mg/dL. ESC/EAS (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD): <55 mg/dL; Very High-II (TOD or ≥3-CVRF) <55 mg/dL; high (diabetes ≥10 years without TOD plus any CVRF) <70 mg/dL; moderate (diabetes <10 years without CVRF) <100 mg/dL. ADA (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD); Very High-II (age ≥40+ TOD, or any CVRF), for high intensity statin or statin combined with ezetimibe. @*Results@#Among 2,000 T2DM patients (mean age 62.6 years; male 55.9%; mean glycosylated hemoglobin 7.2%) ASCVD prevalence was 24.7%. Of 1,455 (72.8%) patients treated with statins, 73.9% received monotherapy. According to KDA guidelines, LDL-C target achievement rates were 55.2% in Very High-I and 34.9% in Very High-II patients. With ESC/EAS guidelines, target attainment rates were 26.6% in Very High-I, 15.7% in Very High-II, and 25.9% in high risk patients. Based on ADA guidelines, most patients (78.9%) were very-high risk; however, only 15.5% received high-intensity statin or combination therapy. @*Conclusion@#According to current dyslipidemia management guidelines, LDL-C goal achievement remains suboptimal in Korean patients with T2DM.

7.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 299-306, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901199

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was conducted to investigate the association between meteorological factors and the number of patients who visited an emergency department after suicide attempts daily. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective analysis study of 359 patients who visited an emergency department after suicide attempts from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. We used the Poisson regression model to analyze the association. @*Results@#Three hundred and fifty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. According to the Poisson regression analysis, the average temperature on the day of visit (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.038; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.018-1.058), relative humidity (aOR, 0.987; 95% CI, 0.976-0.997), and solar radiation (aOR, 0.965; 95% CI, 0.939-0.993) were meteorological factors associated with the daily number of patients in the non-violent suicidal attempt group. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that meteorological factors are associated with the number of patients who visited an emergency department after suicide attempts daily.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e243-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899886

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase the total number of suicide attempts and the proportion of low-rescue attempts. We investigated the factors affecting low-rescue suicide attempts using the risk-rescue rating scale (RRRS) among patients who visited the emergency department (ED) after attempting suicide before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated suicide attempts made by patients who visited our ED from March 2019 to September 2020. Patients were classified into two groups based on whether they attempted suicide before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on demographic variables, psychiatric factors, suicide risk factors and rescue factors were collected and compared. @*Results@#A total of 518 patients were included in the study, 275 (53.1%) of whom attempted suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic. The proportion of patients who made low-rescue suicide attempts differed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (37.1% vs. 28.8%) (P = 0.046). However, the proportions of patients who made high-risk suicide attempts and high-lethality suicide attempts did not significantly differ between the two periods.The independent risk factors for low-rescue suicide attempts were age and the COVID-19 pandemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.03; P = 0.006) (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.03–2.25; P = 0.034). @*Conclusion@#The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with low-rescue suicide attempts in patients visiting the ED after attempting suicide. Thus, we need to consider the implementation of measures to prevent low-rescue suicide attempts during similar infectious disease crises.

9.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 299-306, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893495

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was conducted to investigate the association between meteorological factors and the number of patients who visited an emergency department after suicide attempts daily. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective analysis study of 359 patients who visited an emergency department after suicide attempts from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. We used the Poisson regression model to analyze the association. @*Results@#Three hundred and fifty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. According to the Poisson regression analysis, the average temperature on the day of visit (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.038; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.018-1.058), relative humidity (aOR, 0.987; 95% CI, 0.976-0.997), and solar radiation (aOR, 0.965; 95% CI, 0.939-0.993) were meteorological factors associated with the daily number of patients in the non-violent suicidal attempt group. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that meteorological factors are associated with the number of patients who visited an emergency department after suicide attempts daily.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e243-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892182

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase the total number of suicide attempts and the proportion of low-rescue attempts. We investigated the factors affecting low-rescue suicide attempts using the risk-rescue rating scale (RRRS) among patients who visited the emergency department (ED) after attempting suicide before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated suicide attempts made by patients who visited our ED from March 2019 to September 2020. Patients were classified into two groups based on whether they attempted suicide before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on demographic variables, psychiatric factors, suicide risk factors and rescue factors were collected and compared. @*Results@#A total of 518 patients were included in the study, 275 (53.1%) of whom attempted suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic. The proportion of patients who made low-rescue suicide attempts differed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (37.1% vs. 28.8%) (P = 0.046). However, the proportions of patients who made high-risk suicide attempts and high-lethality suicide attempts did not significantly differ between the two periods.The independent risk factors for low-rescue suicide attempts were age and the COVID-19 pandemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.03; P = 0.006) (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.03–2.25; P = 0.034). @*Conclusion@#The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with low-rescue suicide attempts in patients visiting the ED after attempting suicide. Thus, we need to consider the implementation of measures to prevent low-rescue suicide attempts during similar infectious disease crises.

11.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 430-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890386

ABSTRACT

Background@#Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 facilitates the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into the human body. We investigated the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in hypertensive patients. @*Methods@#We identified hypertensive patients with confirmed COVID-19 from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from inception to May 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death from COVID-19. The individual components were evaluated as secondary outcomes. @*Results@#Of 1,374 hypertensive patients with COVID-19, 1,076 (78.3%) and 298 (21.7%) were users and never-users of RAAS inhibitors, respectively. The RAAS inhibitor users were not associated with the risk of the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 1.10). The risk of ICU admission was significantly lower in the users than the never-users (aOR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.84). The RAAS inhibitors were beneficial only in ICU admissions that did not require IMV (aOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.58). The risk of death from COVID-19 was comparable between the groups (aOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.85). We could not evaluate the risks of CRRT and ECMO owing to the small number of events. @*Conclusion@#RAAS inhibitor use was not associated with the composite of severe outcomes in the hypertensive patients with COVID-19 but significantly lowered the risk of ICU admission, particularly in patients who did not require IMV.

12.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e290-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915487

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes between pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (20–49 years old) diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Korea. This nationwide observational study included the information of COVID-19 patients collected by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency from January 2020 to April 2021. Among 5,647 COVID-19 patients, 2,444 (43.3%) were women of childbearing age and 19 were pregnant. None of the pregnant women died. However, 4 deaths occurred among non-pregnant women aged 20–49 years. None of the 19 pregnant women with COVID-19 were admitted to the intensive care unit: they were admitted to the general ward, and none of them required supplemental oxygen. In conclusion, none of the pregnant women with COVID-19 experienced severe infection or death, unlike non-pregnant women of childbearing age.

13.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 430-438, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898090

ABSTRACT

Background@#Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 facilitates the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into the human body. We investigated the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in hypertensive patients. @*Methods@#We identified hypertensive patients with confirmed COVID-19 from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from inception to May 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the composite of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death from COVID-19. The individual components were evaluated as secondary outcomes. @*Results@#Of 1,374 hypertensive patients with COVID-19, 1,076 (78.3%) and 298 (21.7%) were users and never-users of RAAS inhibitors, respectively. The RAAS inhibitor users were not associated with the risk of the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 1.10). The risk of ICU admission was significantly lower in the users than the never-users (aOR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.84). The RAAS inhibitors were beneficial only in ICU admissions that did not require IMV (aOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.58). The risk of death from COVID-19 was comparable between the groups (aOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.85). We could not evaluate the risks of CRRT and ECMO owing to the small number of events. @*Conclusion@#RAAS inhibitor use was not associated with the composite of severe outcomes in the hypertensive patients with COVID-19 but significantly lowered the risk of ICU admission, particularly in patients who did not require IMV.

14.
Journal of Stroke ; : 108-118, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834639

ABSTRACT

Background@#and purpose Whether pharmacologically altered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects the risk of cardiovascular events is unknown. Recently, we have reported the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Asian Patients with Ischaemic Stroke at High Risk of Cerebral Haemorrhage (PICASSO) trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of cilostazol to aspirin and superiority of probucol to non-probucol for cardiovascular prevention in ischemic stroke patients (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01013532). We aimed to determine whether on-treatment HDL-C changes by cilostazol and probucol influence the treatment effect of each study medication during the PICASSO study. @*Methods@#Of the 1,534 randomized patients, 1,373 (89.5%) with baseline cholesterol parameters were analyzed. Efficacy endpoint was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis examined an interaction between the treatment effect and changes in HDL-C levels from randomization to 1 month for each study arm. @*Results@#One-month post-randomization mean HDL-C level was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the aspirin group (1.08 mmol/L vs. 1.00 mmol/L, P<0.001). The mean HDL-C level was significantly lower in the probucol group than in the non-probucol group (0.86 mmol/L vs. 1.22 mmol/L, P<0.001). These trends persisted throughout the study. In both study arms, no significant interaction was observed between HDL-C changes and the assigned treatment regarding the risk of the efficacy endpoint. @*Conclusions@#Despite significant HDL-C changes, the effects of cilostazol and probucol treatment on the risk of cardiovascular events were insignificant. Pharmacologically altered HDL-C levels may not be reliable prognostic markers for cardiovascular risk.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e347-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831714

ABSTRACT

Background@#To track triage, routing, and treatment status regarding access to endovascular treatment (EVT) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at a national level. @*Methods@#From national stroke audit data, potential candidates for EVT arriving within 6 hours with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥ 7 were identified. Acute care hospitals were classified as thrombectomy-capable hospitals (TCHs, ≥ 15 EVT cases/year) or primary stroke hospital (PSH, < 15 cases/year), and patients' initial routes and subsequent inter-hospital transfer were described. Impact of initial routing to TCHs vs. PSHs on EVT and clinical outcomes were analyzed using multilevel generalized mixed effect models. @*Results@#Out of 14,902 AIS patients, 2,180 (14.6%) were EVT candidates. Eighty-one percent of EVT candidates were transported by ambulance, but only one-third were taken initially to TCHs. Initial routing to TCHs was associated with greater chances of receiving EVT compared to initial routing to PSHs (33.3% vs 12.1%, P < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.92) and favorable outcome (38.5% vs. 28.2%, P < 0.001; aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.16–2.00). Inter-hospital transfers to TCHs occurred in 17.4% of those initially routed to a PSH and was associated with the greater chance of EVT compared to remaining at PSHs (34.8% vs. 7.5%, P < 0.001), but not with better outcomes. @*Conclusion@#Two-thirds of EVT candidates were initially routed to PSHs despite greater chance of receiving EVT and having favorable outcomes if routed to a TCH in Korea. Process improvement is needed to direct appropriate patients to TCHs.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e167-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831656

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to describe the current status of acute stroke care in Korea and explore disparities among hospitals and regions. @*Methods@#The 2013 and 2014 national stroke audit data and the national health insurance claims data were linked and used for this study. Stroke patients hospitalized via emergency rooms within 7 days of stroke onset were selected. @*Results@#A total of 19,608 patients treated in 216 hospitals were analyzed. Among them 76% had ischemic stroke; 15%, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); and 9%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Of the hospitals, 31% provided inpatient stroke unit care. Ambulances were used in 56% of cases, and the median interval from onset to arrival was 4.5 hours. One-quarter of patients were referred from other hospitals. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular treatment (EVT) rates were 11% and 4%, respectively. Three-quarters of the analyzed hospitals provided IVT and/or EVT, whereas 47% of hospitals providing IVT and 67% of hospitals providing EVT had less than one case per month. Decompressive surgery was performed on 28% of ICH patients, and clipping and coiling were performed in 17.2% and 14.3% of SAH patients, respectively. There were noticeable regional disparities between the various interventions, ambulance use, arrival time, and stroke unit availability. @*Conclusion@#This study describes the current status of acute stroke care in Korea. Despite quite acceptable quality of stroke care, it suggests regional and hospital disparities. Expansion of stroke units, stroke center certification or accreditation, and connections between stroke centers and emergency medical services are highly recommended.

17.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 157-164, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from chromaffin cells. PPGLs are associated with a high mortality rate and several complications. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on PPGLs in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and prognosis of PPGLs in Korea using nationwide data.METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service Database, subjects with a principal diagnosis of PPGLs on two or more occasions between 2003 and 2014 who satisfied the operational definition of PPGLs were included. Incidence, prevalence, complications, metastasis, and mortality were investigated.RESULTS: In total, 1048 subjects with a mean age of 47.6±16.1 years were included. There was no sex preponderance. The overall prevalence of PPGLs was 2.13 per 100,000 persons, and the overall age-standardized incidence rate was 0.18 per 100,000 person-years. Malignant PPGLs accounted for 17.7% (185 of 1,048) of cases, and 94 subjects exhibited metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Among initially non-metastatic PPGLs, 9.5% (nine of 954) eventually metastasized after a mean duration of 78.1±41.4 months. The 5-year survival rates for non-metastatic and metastatic PPGLs at diagnosis were 97% and 84%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for covariates showed that metastatic PPGLs were associated with a 2.40-fold higher risk of mortality than non-metastatic PPGLs (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.17; P=0.002).CONCLUSION: PPGLs are rare in Korea, and the prognosis of these endocrine tumors varies depending on whether they are benign or malignant. This epidemiological study paves the way for further research on PPGLs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asia , Chromaffin Cells , Diagnosis , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , National Health Programs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Prevalence , Prognosis , Survival Rate
18.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 91-102, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common chronic metabolic disorder with an increasing prevalence worldwide. According to a previous study, physicians' treatment patterns or patients' behaviors change when they become aware of the risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients with DM. However, there exist controversial reports from previous studies in the impact of physicians' behaviors on the patients' quality of life (QoL) improvements. So we investigate the changes in QoL according to physicians and patients' behavioral changes after the awareness of CV risks in patients with type 2 DM.METHODS: Data were obtained from a prospective, observational study where 799 patients aged ≥40 years with type 2 DM were recruited at 24 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Changes in physicians' behaviors were defined as changes in the dose/type of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and anti-platelet therapies within 6-month after the awareness of CV risks in patients. Changes in patients' behaviors were based on lifestyle modifications. Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life comprising 19-life-domains was used.RESULTS: The weighted impact score change for local or long-distance journey (P=0.0049), holidays (P=0.0364), and physical health (P=0.0451) domains significantly differed between the two groups; patients whose physician's behaviors changed showed greater improvement than those whose physician's behaviors did not change.CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that changes in physicians' behaviors, as a result of perceiving CV risks, improve QoL in some domains of life in DM patients. Physicians should recognize the importance of understanding CV risks and implement appropriate management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Holidays , Korea , Life Style , Observational Study , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Management , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 42-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740619

ABSTRACT

Despite the great socioeconomic burden of stroke, there have been few reports of stroke statistics in Korea. In this scenario, the Epidemiologic Research Council of the Korean Stroke Society launched the “Stroke Statistics in Korea” project, aimed at writing a contemporary, comprehensive, and representative report on stroke epidemiology in Korea. This report contains general statistics of stroke, prevalence of behavioral and vascular risk factors, stroke characteristics, pre-hospital system of care, hospital management, quality of stroke care, and outcomes. In this report, we analyzed the most up-to-date and nationally representative databases, rather than performing a systematic review of existing evidence. In summary, one in 40 adults are patients with stroke and 232 subjects per 100,000 experience a stroke event every year. Among the 100 patients with stroke in 2014, 76 had ischemic stroke, 15 had intracerebral hemorrhage, and nine had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke mortality is gradually declining, but it remains as high as 30 deaths per 100,000 individuals, with regional disparities. As for stroke risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is decreasing in men but not in women, and the prevalence of alcohol drinking is increasing in women but not in men. Population-attributable risk factors vary with age. Smoking plays a role in young-aged individuals, hypertension and diabetes in middle-aged individuals, and atrial fibrillation in the elderly. About four out of 10 hospitalized patients with stroke are visiting an emergency room within 3 hours of symptom onset, and only half use an ambulance. Regarding acute management, the proportion of patients with ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment was 10.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Decompressive surgery was performed in 1.4% of patients with ischemic stroke and in 28.1% of those with intracerebral hemorrhage. The cumulative incidence of bleeding and fracture at 1 year after stroke was 8.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The direct costs of stroke were about ₩1.68 trillion (KRW), of which ₩1.11 trillion were for ischemic stroke and ₩540 billion for hemorrhagic stroke. The great burden of stroke in Korea can be reduced through more concentrated efforts to control major attributable risk factors for age and sex, reorganize emergency medical service systems to give patients with stroke more opportunities for reperfusion therapy, disseminate stroke unit care, and reduce regional disparities. We hope that this report can contribute to achieving these tasks.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Alcohol Drinking , Ambulances , Atrial Fibrillation , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Hemorrhage , Hope , Hypertension , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , Prevalence , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Writing
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e240-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using data from a large national stroke registry, we aimed to investigate the incidence and determinants of in-hospital and post-discharge recovery after acute ischemic stroke and the independence of their occurrence. METHODS: In-hospital recovery was defined as an improvement of 4 points or > 40% in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from admission to discharge. Post-discharge recovery was defined as any improvement in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from discharge to 3 months after stroke onset. Two analytic methods (multivariate and multivariable logistic regression) were applied to compare the effects of 18 known determinants of 3-month outcome and to verify whether in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occur independently. RESULTS: During 54 months, 11,088 patients with acute ischemic stroke meeting the eligibility criteria were identified. In-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 36% and 33% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression with an equality test for odds ratios showed that 7 determinants (age, onset-to-admission time, NIHSS score at admission, blood glucose at admission, systolic blood pressure, smoking, recanalization therapy) had a differential effect on in-hospital and post-discharge recovery in the way of the opposite direction or of the same direction with different degree (all P values < 0.05). Both in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 12% of the study population and neither of them in 43%. The incidence of post-discharge recovery in those with in-hospital recovery was similar to that in those without (33.8% vs. 32.7%, respectively), but multivariable analysis showed that these 2 types of recovery occurred independently. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in-hospital and post-discharge recovery may occur independently and largely in response to different factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Incidence , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Registries , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
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