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1.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 9-17, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968555

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated the differences in suicidality between young people and older adults with depression over the course of 12-week naturalistic treatment with antidepressants. @*Methods@#A total of 565 patients who had moderate to severe depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] score ≥14) and significant suicidal ideation (Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [SSI-B] score ≥6) were recruited from 18 hospitals. Participants were classified into two groups: the younger group (13–24 years of age, n=82) and the older group (≥25 years of age, n=483). Total scores over time on the SSI-B, HAM-D, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) were assessed and compared between the two groups. @*Results@#At baseline, the younger group had lower HAM-D scores (21.0 vs. 22.2; p=0.028) but higher SSI-B scores (19.4 vs. 15.6; p<0.001) compared with the older group. The overall 12-week proportion of patients with resolved suicidality was 44.1% in the younger group and 69.2% in the older group. Although the improvement in the HAM-D and HAM-A scores did not differ between the groups, suicidal ideation in the younger group remained more severe than in the older group throughout the treatment. The ratio of the subjects who achieved HAM-D remission or response but did not achieve SSI-B remission was significantly higher in the younger group than in the older group. @*Conclusion@#These data suggest that in depressed youths, suicide risk is a serious concern throughout the course of depression even when favorable treatment outcomes are obtained.

2.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 14-22, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899688

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We evaluated the association between cancer and various neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and circumscribed brain atrophy (CBA) and to evaluate the impact of ND on the development of cancer. @*Methods@#A population-based longitudinal study was conducted using the National Health Information Database for 2002-2015.A total of 9,365 ND patients (3,157 AD, 5,866 PD, 342 CBA) were included in the study, as were 46,818 matched controls. @*Results@#Various NDs were newly developed in control and ND groups during the 10-year follow-up periods. Newly developed ND cases were as follows: 33.0% in control, 35.3% in AD, 19.9% in PD, and 45.3% in CBA. Cancer developed in 22.6% of ND groups (20.5% AD, 23.6% PD, 24.3% CBA) and in 18.5% of control group. Cancer development was significantly higher in AD pa-tients with new ND cases (especially PD cases), compared to patients without new ND cases (22.8% vs. 19.3%, p=0.019). There were no differences in the frequencies of cancer development between patients with and without new ND cases in PD, CBA, and control groups. The adjusted hazard ratios for cancer in AD, PD, and CBA groups were 1.43, 1.55, and 1.58, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that various NDs are positively associated with development of cancer and suggests that newly developed PD in AD group during the follow-up period may influence the development of cancer that follows.

3.
Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry ; : 14-22, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891984

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We evaluated the association between cancer and various neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and circumscribed brain atrophy (CBA) and to evaluate the impact of ND on the development of cancer. @*Methods@#A population-based longitudinal study was conducted using the National Health Information Database for 2002-2015.A total of 9,365 ND patients (3,157 AD, 5,866 PD, 342 CBA) were included in the study, as were 46,818 matched controls. @*Results@#Various NDs were newly developed in control and ND groups during the 10-year follow-up periods. Newly developed ND cases were as follows: 33.0% in control, 35.3% in AD, 19.9% in PD, and 45.3% in CBA. Cancer developed in 22.6% of ND groups (20.5% AD, 23.6% PD, 24.3% CBA) and in 18.5% of control group. Cancer development was significantly higher in AD pa-tients with new ND cases (especially PD cases), compared to patients without new ND cases (22.8% vs. 19.3%, p=0.019). There were no differences in the frequencies of cancer development between patients with and without new ND cases in PD, CBA, and control groups. The adjusted hazard ratios for cancer in AD, PD, and CBA groups were 1.43, 1.55, and 1.58, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that various NDs are positively associated with development of cancer and suggests that newly developed PD in AD group during the follow-up period may influence the development of cancer that follows.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 48-58, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875374

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Network analysis can be used in terms of a novel psychopathological approach for depressive syndrome. We aimed to estimate the successive network structures of depressive symptoms in patients with depressive disorder using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study. @*Methods@#We enrolled 1,152 South Korean adult patients with depressive disorders who were beginning treatment for first-onset or recurrent depressive episodes. We examined the network structure of the severities of the items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline and at weeks 2, 12, 25, and 52. The node strength centrality of all the HAMD items at baseline and at week 2, 12, 25, and 52 in terms of network analysis. @*Results@#In the severity networks, the anxiety (psychic) item was the most centrally situated in the initial period (baseline and week 2), while loss of weight was the most centrally situated item in the later period (weeks 25 and 52). In addition, the number of strong edges (i.e., edges representing strong correlations) increased in the late period compared to the initial period. @*Conclusion@#Our findings support a period-specific and symptom-focused therapeutic approach that can provide complementary information to the unidimensional total HAMD score.

5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 568-576, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123499

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate the psychotic depression assessment scale (PDAS), which includes the six-item melancholia subscale from the Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD-6) and the five-item psychosis subscale from the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS-5). Data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study, which is a 52-week naturalistic trial, were analyzed. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with psychotic depression from the CRESCEND study met our inclusion criteria. The patients underwent the following psychometric assessments: the PDAS, including HAMD-6 and BPRS-5, the clinical global impression scales, the HAMD, the positive symptom subscale, and the negative symptom subscale. Assessments were performed at the baseline and then at weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 52. Spearman correlation analyses were used to assess the clinical validity and responsiveness of the PDAS. RESULTS: The clinical validity and responsiveness of the PDAS, including HAMD-6 and BPRS-5, were acceptable, with the exception of the clinical responsiveness of the PDAS for positive symptoms and the clinical responsiveness of BPRS-5 for negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The clinical relevance of the PDAS has been confirmed and this clinical validation will enhance its clinical utility and availability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Psychometrics , Psychotic Disorders , Weights and Measures
6.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 391-401, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram, paroxetine and venlafaxine in Korean patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: A total of 449 Korean MDD patients were recruited in a six-week, randomized, rater-blinded, active-controlled trial and were evenly randomized to paroxetine, venlafaxine, or escitalopram treatment. RESULTS: When comparing the mean difference for the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) total scores during six weeks, paroxetine (−6.4±0.4, and −5.4±0.4, respectively) was found to be significantly superior to escitalopram (−3.7±0.5 and −3.1±0.4, respectively). Venlafaxine had a significantly lower MADRS total score (−5.4±0.4) than escitalopram. When adjusting baseline variables, the response, according to the MADRS and HDRS scores, in the paroxetine group was greater than that for the escitalopram group (odds ratio [OR]=2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.42–4.16 for MADRS; and OR=2.32, 95% CI=1.35–3.97 for HDRS) and the venlafaxine group (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.17–3.21 for MADRS; and OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.03–2.83 for HDRS). Despite that the overall tolerability was high and similar among the three groups, a total of 268 subjects (59.7%) prematurely discontinued treatment, representing the main limitation of the present study. CONCLUSION: Although a low study completion rate limits generalizability, our findings suggest that paroxetine might be superior to escitalopram in Korean MDD patients. Further studies should be conducted to draw a definite conclusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Citalopram , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Paroxetine , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 784-789, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205735

ABSTRACT

We aimed to examine the potential relationship between season of birth (SOB) and clinical characteristics in Korean patients with unipolar non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD). Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, 891 MDD patients were divided into two groups, those born in spring/summer (n=457) and those born in autumn/winter (n=434). Measurement tools comprising the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Clinical Global Impression of severity, Social and Occupation Functional Assessment Scale, WHO Quality of Life assessment instrument-abbreviated version, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and Temperament and Character Inventory were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, overall symptoms, suicidal ideation, global severity, social function, quality of life, drinking, and temperament and character, respectively. Using independent t-tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for discrete variables, the clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. MDD patients born in spring/summer were on average younger at onset of first depressive episode (t=2.084, p=0.038), had greater loss of concentration (χ2=4.589, p=0.032), and were more self-directed (t=2.256, p=0.025) than those born in autumn/winter. Clinically, there was a trend for the MDD patients born in spring/summer to display the contradictory characteristics of more severe clinical course and less illness burden; this may have been partly due to a paradoxical effect of the 5-HT system.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Age of Onset , Alcohol Drinking , Bipolar Disorder/diagnosis , Character , Cost of Illness , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Seasons , Temperament
8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 177-183, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25924

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of clonazepam with other benzodiazepines in patients with anxiety disorders. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >20 years, diagnosis of anxiety disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria, taking only one type of antidepressant, and prescribed one of three oral benzodiazepines (alprazolam, clonazepam, or lorazepam). At baseline and week 6, clinical benefit was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S), Clinical Global Impression-Anxiety Scale (CGI-anxiety), and Clinical Global Impression-Sleep Scale (CGI-sleep). RESULTS: Among 180 patients, no differences in demographic characteristics among the three benzodiazepine groups were noted. After six weeks of treatment, all benzodiazepine groups showed significant improvements in CGI-S, CGI-anxiety, and CGI-sleep scores (p<0.001). There were no differences in mean changes in CGI-S, CGI-anxiety and CGI-sleep among the three benzodiazepine groups. The incidence of side effects was significantly lower in the clonazepam group than with the other benzodiazepines. The incidences of adverse events for the clonazepam, alprazolam, and lorazepam groups were 26.7% (n=20), 48.4% (n=31), and 43.9% (n=18), respectively. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that clonazepam is as efficacious as other benzodiazepines for the treatment of various anxiety disorders. Furthermore, the safety profile of clonazepam was superior to the other benzodiazepines in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alprazolam , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Antidepressive Agents , Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Benzodiazepines , Clonazepam , Diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Incidence , Lorazepam
9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 617-622, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58418

ABSTRACT

Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ2 test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alcohol Drinking , Analysis of Variance , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Suicidal Ideation
10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 256-262, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To test whether there are gender differences in the clinical characteristics of patients with psychotic depression (PD). METHODS: Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, we tested for potential gender differences in clinical characteristics among 53 patients with PD. The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) and other psychometric scales were used to evaluate various clinical features of the study subjects. Independent t-tests were performed for normally distributed variables, Mann-Whitney U-tests for non-normally distributed variables, and chi2 tests for discrete variables. In addition, to exclude the effects of confounding variables, we carried out an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for the normally distributed variables and binary logistic regression analyses for discrete variables, after adjusting the effects of marital status. RESULTS: We identified more prevalent suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=10.316, p=0.036) and hallucinatory behavior (aOR=8.332, p=0.016), as well as more severe anxiety symptoms (degrees of freedom [df]=1, F=6.123, p=0.017), and poorer social and occupational functioning (df=1, F=6.265, p=0.016) in the male patients compared to the female patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that in South Korean patients with PD, suicidal ideation, hallucinatory behavior, and anxiety is more pronounced among males than females. This should be taken into consideration in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Anxiety , Cost of Illness , Depression , Freedom , Korea , Logistic Models , Marital Status , Odds Ratio , Psychometrics , Suicidal Ideation , Weights and Measures
11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 74-81, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154364

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify clinical correlates of hazardous drinking in a large cohort of Korean patients with depression. We recruited a total of 402 depressed patients aged > 18 yr from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea. Patients' drinking habits were assessed using the Korean Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-K). Psychometric scales, including the HAMD, HAMA, BPRS, CGI-S, SSI-Beck, SOFAS, and WHOQOL-BREF, were used to assess depression, anxiety, overall psychiatric symptoms, global severity, suicidal ideation, social functioning, and quality of life, respectively. We compared demographic and clinical features and psychometric scores between patients with and without hazardous drinking behavior after adjusting for the effects of age and sex. We then performed binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent correlates of hazardous drinking in the study population. Our results revealed that hazardous drinking was associated with current smoking status, history of attempted suicide, greater psychomotor retardation, suicidal ideation, weight loss, and lower hypochondriasis than non-hazardous drinking. The regression model also demonstrated that more frequent smoking, higher levels of suicidal ideation, and lower levels of hypochondriasis were independently correlates for hazardous drinking in depressed patients. In conclusion, depressed patients who are hazardous drinkers experience severer symptoms and a greater burden of illness than non-hazardous drinkers. In Korea, screening depressed patients for signs of hazardous drinking could help identify subjects who may benefit from comprehensive therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Dangerous Behavior , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1712-1720, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180223

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age at onset of the first major depressive episode on the clinical features of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large cohort of Korean depressed patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 419 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study in South Korea. At the start of the study, the onset age of the first major depressive episode was self-reported by the subjects. The subjects were divided into four age-at-onset subgroups: childhood and adolescent onset (ages <18), early adult onset (ages 18-44), middle adult onset (ages 45-59), and late onset (ages 60+). Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and ordinal logistic regression analysis with adjusting the effect of age, the relationships between clinical features and age at onset of MDD were evaluated. RESULTS: There was an apparent, but inconsistent correlation between clinical features and age at onset. Earlier onset MDD was significantly associated with higher proportion of female gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.570, p=0.022], more previous suicide attempts (AOR=0.635, p=0.038), greater number of previous depressive episodes (F=3.475, p=0.016) and higher scores on the brief psychiatric rating scale (F=3.254, p=0.022), its negative symptom subscale (F=6.082, p<0.0001), and the alcohol use disorder identification test (F=7.061, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Early age at onset may increase the likelihood of distinguishable MDD subtype, and age at onset of the first major depressive episode is a promising clinical indicator for the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of MDD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Age Distribution , Age of Onset , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/classification , Life Change Events , Odds Ratio , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Regression Analysis , Republic of Korea , Suicide, Attempted/psychology
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 281-289, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to identify distinctive clinical correlates of psychotic major depression (PMD) as compared with non-psychotic major depression (NPMD) in a large cohort of Korean patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We recruited 966 MDD patients of age over 18 years from the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea (CRESCEND) study. Diagnoses of PMD (n=24) and NPMD (n=942) were made with the DSM-IV definitions and confirmed with SCID. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (HAMD), anxiety (HAMA), global severity (CGI-S), suicidal ideation (SSI-Beck), functioning (SOFAS), and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). Using independent t-tests and chi2 tests, we compared clinical characteristics of patients with PMD and NPMD. A binary logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with increased likelihood of PMD. RESULTS: PMD subjects were characterized by a higher rate of inpatient enrollment, and higher scores on many items on BPRS (somatic concern, anxiety, emotional withdrawal, guilt feelings, tension, depression, suspiciousness, hallucination, motor retardation, blunted affect and excitement) global severity (CGI-s), and suicidal ideation (SSI-Beck). The explanatory factor model revealed that high levels of tension, excitement, and suicidal ideation were associated with increased likelihood of PMD. CONCLUSION: Our findings partly support the view that PMD has its own distinctive clinical manifestation and course, and may be considered a diagnostic entity separate from NPMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Cohort Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Guilt , Hallucinations , Inpatients , Korea , Logistic Models , Psychometrics , Quality of Life , Suicidal Ideation , Weights and Measures
14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 15-23, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to develop guideline for use in diagnosis of depression. METHODS: Development of this guideline was processed according to the ADAPTE manual, which was developed for adaptation of good clinical practice guidelines. Important key questions were determined, and a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines was performed. The contents of guidelines selected by comparison of the methodological quality and currency were evaluated with regard to the applicability and acceptability. Answers to key questions and clinical recommendations were established by peer review. RESULTS: There has been no evidence on strategies to improve the accuracy and rate of diagnosis of depression. The screening tools for depression were useful in diagnosis of depression in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The results of this study may suggest the necessity of strategies to improve the validity and reliability of diagnosis of depression. In contrast, scales for screening depression can be useful in diagnosis of depression. This guideline did not include systematic reviews regarding useful scales for diagnosis of depression. In the future, amendment of this guideline might be needed in order to supplement limitations.


Subject(s)
Depression , Depressive Disorder , Diagnosis , Mass Screening , Methods , Peer Review , Reproducibility of Results , Weights and Measures
15.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 24-31, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53768

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to develop guideline for evaluation of depression. METHODS: Development of this guideline was processed according to the ADAPTE manual, which was developed for adaptation of good clinical practice guidelines. Important key questions were determined, and a systematic review of clinical practice guidelines was performed. The contents of guidelines selected by comparison of the methodological quality and currency were evaluated with regard to the applicability and acceptability. Answers to key questions and clinical recommendations were established by peer review. RESULTS: Careful evaluations on the characteristics of depression, including subtype, severity, suicidality, and psychiatric and physical comorbidities were recommended because these factors can have an influence on course and prognosis in treatment of depression. CONCLUSION: The results of this study may contribute to the systematic evaluation of depression, based on clinical importance. However, this guideline did not include systematic reviews regarding useful scales for evaluation of depression. In the future, amendment of this guideline might be needed in order to supplement limitations.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Diagnosis , Methods , Peer Review , Prognosis , Weights and Measures
16.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 115-121, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An early diagnosis to improve the outcome of depression demands a briefer and more reliable measure than any other diagnosis. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is reliable measure made in 1999. In this study, we tried to verify the reliabilty and validity of two types of PHQ-2, and to compare these two types. METHODS: From July of 2011 to September of 2012, a total of 74 outpatients and inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center performed the depression scales. As a normal control group, 58 individuals working in the hospital performed the PHQ-2 and PHQ-9. RESULTS: The internal consistency and test-retest reliabilty were favorable. Two types of the PHQ-2 were statistically significant in correlation between item and total scores. In comparison of mean scores of the PHQ-2 between two groups, the differences between groups were statistically significant. Correaltion of the total scores of other depression scales with those of the PHQ-2 was statistically significant both in scales. Examined according to the severity of depression by other scales, the total mean scores of the PHQ-2 tended to increase according to the severity of depression. The optimal cut-off score was 3 in Scaled PHQ-2 (Sensitivity : 91.9%, Specificity : 100%). CONCLUSION: The assessed reliabilty and validity of the PHQ-2 made it an attractive measure for depression screening over other scales. Scaled PHQ-2 was more reliable and valid than Yes or No PHQ-2. Therefore, the PHQ-2 is a briefer and more useful measure for screening depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depression , Early Diagnosis , Inpatients , Mass Screening , Outpatients , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sensitivity and Specificity , Weights and Measures
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 373-381, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and clinical correlates of insomnia in a large cohort of Korean patients with depressive disorders. METHODS: We recruited 944 patients with depressive disorders from the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea (CRESCEND) study. Psychometric scales were used to assess depression (HAMD), anxiety (HAMA), psychotic symptoms (BPRS), global severity (CGI-S), and functioning (SOFAS). Insomnia levels were determined by adding the scores for all items on the HAMD insomnia subscale. The clinical characteristics of the patients with 'low insomnia' (summed score or =4) were compared using statistical analyses. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with 'high insomnia' status. RESULTS: Symptoms of insomnia were present in 93% of patients, while simultaneous early, middle, and late insomnia affected 64.1%. The high insomnia patients were characterized by significantly greater age, higher symptom levels (including core, gastrointestinal somatic and anxiety symptoms, and suicidal ideation), higher global severity and incidence of physical disorders, and greater insight. Explanatory factors of 'high insomnia' status were older age, higher gastrointestinal somatic and anxiety symptom levels, higher global severity, and greater insight. CONCLUSION: In clinical psychiatry, insomnia has been significantly underdiagnosed and undertreated. It affects most patients with depressive disorders, and is indicative of the global severity of depression. Active efforts to diagnose and treat insomnia in patients with depressive disorders should be strongly encouraged. Further research is needed to improve the diagnosis and treatment of insomnia in depressive patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Cohort Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Diagnosis , Incidence , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Psychometrics , Republic of Korea , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Weights and Measures
18.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 77-84, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An exact diagnosis and comorbidity analysis are important in psychiatric disorders. The Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ) is both useful as a self-reporting test for screening psychiatric disorders and available for clinical settings due to its simplicity and convenience. This study, as a part of standardization of Korean version of Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (K-PDSQ), evaluated optimal cutoff scores. METHODS: The samples were 696 patients in total, who were selected from the psychiatric departments of 3 university hospitals from March 2008 to August 2011. Diagnosing by Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus), we evaluated sensitivity, specificity, cutoff scores, ROC curve, and area under the curve (AUC) of K-PDSQ. SPSS version 12.0 for Windows and MedCalc version 12.0 were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: With a cutoff score of 9 for major depressive disorder in K-PDSQ, both the sensitivity and specificity were 80%. The cutoff scores of PTSD, OCD, panic disorder, agoraphobia, psychosis, alcohol related problem, GAD, hypochondriasis, and social phobia of K-PDSQ were 5, 2, 4, 2, 1, 2, 5, 4, and 5, respectively. In most of the subscales, each AUC was above 0.75. CONCLUSION: By applying the cutoff scores estimated above, we expect K-PDSQ to help provide diagnostic assessments and to grasp comorbidities before a clinical interview in the setting of busy outpatient clinics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agoraphobia , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Area Under Curve , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder, Major , Hand Strength , Hospitals, University , Hypochondriasis , Mass Screening , Panic Disorder , Phobic Disorders , Psychotic Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
19.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 85-92, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Generally, major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychiatric comorbidities is associated with a high suicide rate. However, this relationship has not been studied much in Korea. In this study, we evaluated the suicidality in MDD with psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS: This study was performed on patients who visited the psychiatric department of three university hospitals in the Gyeongbuk area from March 2008 to September 2011. In total, 776 patients were evaluated with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus), and 288 with MDD were recruited for the study. Suicidality and suicidal risks were evaluated in the MINI-Plus questionnaire. RESULTS: MDD patients with comorbidities had a significantly higher suicidality and suicidal risk than patients with pure MDD. Suicidality was significantly higher in an anxiety disorder group with comorbidity than in the pure MDD group. As the total number of comorbidities got higher, the suicidality increased, and suicidal risks had significant differences depending on the total number of comorbidities. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that an MDD patient with comorbidities has a higher suicidality and suicidal risk. In clinical settings, comorbid MDD patients should be approached with more aggressive psychiatric intervention of their suicidal thoughts and actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety Disorders , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder, Major , Hospitals, University , Korea , Suicide
20.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 312-319, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183464

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the symptom frequencies of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) to understand the characteristics of each item and to propose the possible symptoms clusters. METHODS: From psychiatric clinics of 18 Hospitals in Korea, 1,183 patients, diagnosed with major depressive disorder (psychotic or non-psychotic), dysthymia or depressive disorder not otherwise specified. according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study from January 2006 to August 2008. The frequencies of each item of HDRS-17 were analyzed according to sex and severity. In addition, we compared this study with a previous study performed in England by Hamilton and with two studies performed in Korea by Kim et al. RESULTS: The frequencies of HDRS-17 items varied widely in this study, ranging from 95.8% in work and activities to 37.4% in loss of weight. But, depressed mood, psychic anxiety and work and activities items exhibited constant and higher frequency or rank regardless of study, the severity of depression or sex. Insomnia early, somatic gastrointestinal, genital symptoms and insight showed relatively constant but lower frequency or rank in disregard of studies or the clinical variables. Other symptoms had variable frequencies or ranks according to the variable clinical situations (culture, time, sex, severity of depression). CONCLUSION: We propose three clusters of symptoms in depressive disorders: core symptoms cluster, an associated symptoms, and a situation-specific symptoms. We can use these possible symptom clusters of depression in simplifying diagnosis of depression, increasing diagnostic specificity in special situation and indexing disease severity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abstracting and Indexing , Anxiety , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , England , Korea , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
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