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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832341

ABSTRACT

Background@#Only few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#From March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated. @*Results@#In total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9± 14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, –1.1%±1.2%; P<0.001). The number of patients with HbA1c <7% increased significantly from 5 to 68 (P<0.005). In addition, lipid profiles and liver enzyme levels were also improved whereas no changes in body weight. There was no significant safety issue in patients treated with quadruple OHA therapy. @*Conclusion@#This study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763654

ABSTRACT

Adipose tissue inflammation is considered a major contributing factor in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. However, the cause of adipose tissue inflammation is presently unclear. The role of mitochondria in white adipocytes has long been neglected because of their low abundance. However, recent evidence suggests that mitochondria are essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis in white adipocytes. In a series of recent studies, we found that mitochondrial function in white adipocytes is essential to the synthesis of adiponectin, which is the most abundant adipokine synthesized from adipocytes, with many favorable effects on metabolism, including improvement of insulin sensitivity and reduction of atherosclerotic processes and systemic inflammation. From these results, we propose a new hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes is a primary cause of adipose tissue inflammation and compared this hypothesis with a prevailing concept that “adipose tissue hypoxia” may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. Recent studies have emphasized the role of the mitochondrial quality control mechanism in maintaining mitochondrial function. Future studies are warranted to test whether an inadequate mitochondrial quality control mechanism is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes and adipose tissue inflammation.


Subject(s)
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases , Adipocytes , Adipocytes, White , Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue , Hypoxia , Cardiovascular Diseases , Homeostasis , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Nitric Oxide , Obesity , Quality Control
5.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 151-159, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94498

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder occurring in the gastrointestinal track. However, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies has been limited and accompanied by side effects. In order to eliminate the limitations, herbal medicines have recently been developed for treatment of IBD. Peuraria Lobata (Peuraria L.) is one of the traditional herbal medicines that have anti-inflammatory effects. Bioavailability of Peuraria L., which is rich in isoflavones, is lower than that of their fermented forms. In this study, we generated fermented Peuraria L. extracts (fPue) and investigated the role of fPue in inflammation and intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. As the mice or intestinal epithelial cells were treated with DSS/fPue, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced and the architecture and expression of tight junction proteins were recovered, compared to the DSS-treated group. In summary, fPue treatment resulted in amelioration of DSS-induced inflammation in the colon, and the disrupted intestinal barrier was recovered as the expression and architecture of tight junction proteins were retrieved. These results suggest that use of fPue could be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Availability , Colitis , Colon , Cytokines , Dextran Sulfate , Dextrans , Epithelial Cells , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Isoflavones , Mice , Pueraria , RNA, Messenger , Tight Junction Proteins
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown. METHODS: Seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day), for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver. RESULTS: Statin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels. CONCLUSION: Statins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atorvastatin , Catalase , Cholesterol , Developed Countries , Diet , Fatty Liver , Fibrosis , Gene Expression , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Inflammation , Liver Diseases , Liver , Metabolism , Mice , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Organelles , Peroxisomes , Pravastatin , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rosuvastatin Calcium , Simvastatin
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (EHH) is characterized by an inappropriately high plasma insulin level, despite a low plasma glucose level. Most of the EHH cases are caused by insulinoma, whereas nesidioblastosis and insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) are relatively rare. METHODS: To evaluate the relative frequencies of various causes of EHH in Korea, we retrospectively analyzed 84 patients who were diagnosed with EHH from 1998 to 2012 in a university hospital. RESULTS: Among the 84 EHH patients, 74 patients (88%), five (6%), and five (6%) were diagnosed with insulinoma, nesidioblastosis or IAS, respectively. The most common clinical manifestation of EHH was neuroglycopenic symptoms. Symptom duration before diagnosis was 14.5 months (range, 1 to 120 months) for insulinoma, 1.0 months (range, 6 days to 7 months) for nesidioblastosis, and 2.0 months (range, 1 to 12 months) for IAS. One patient, who was diagnosed with nesidioblastosis in 2006, underwent distal pancreatectomy but was later determined to be positive for insulin autoantibodies. Except for one patient who was diagnosed in 2007, the remaining three patients with nesidioblastosis demonstrated severe hyperinsulinemia (157 to 2,719 microIU/mL), which suggests that these patients might have had IAS, rather than nesidioblastosis. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of IAS may be higher in Korea than previously thought. Therefore, measurement of insulin autoantibody levels is warranted for EHH patients, especially in patients with very high plasma insulin levels.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases , Blood Glucose , Diagnosis , Humans , Hyperinsulinism , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Insulin Antibodies , Insulinoma , Korea , Nesidioblastosis , Pancreatectomy , Plasma , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Serum total bilirubin levels are inversely associated with CAD. However, no studies have examined whether this can be used as a biochemical marker for identifying asymptomatic diabetic patients at higher risk for having obstructive CAD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 460 consecutive asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and their serum total bilirubin levels were measured. Obstructive CAD was defined as > or =50% diameter stenosis in at least one coronary artery. RESULTS: Serum total bilirubin tertiles showed an inverse association with the prevalence of obstructive CAD. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total bilirubin was 0.227 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.398), and an increment of 1 micromol/L in serum total bilirubin level was associated with a 14.6% decrease in obstructive CAD after adjustment for confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) plus serum total bilirubin level was 0.712 (95% CI, 0.668 to 0.753), which is significantly greater than that of the FRS alone (P=0.0028). CONCLUSION: Serum total bilirubin level is inversely associated with obstructive CAD and provides additive risk information over the FRS. Serum total bilirubin may be helpful for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who are at higher risk for obstructive CAD.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Bilirubin , Biomarkers , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Coronary Vessels , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Humans , Logistic Models , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , ROC Curve
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is known to be associated with progression of diabetic kidney disease. Ceruloplasmin acts as a pro-oxidant under conditions of severe oxidative stress. Thus, we conducted a longitudinal observational study to evaluate whether the serum ceruloplasmin level is a predictive biomarker for progression of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 643 Korean men with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Serum ceruloplasmin was measured using a nephelometric method. Progression of diabetic nephropathy was defined as transition in albuminuria class (i.e., normoalbuminuria to microalbuminuria, microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria, or normoalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria) and/or a greater than 2-fold increase of serum creatinine at follow-up compared with the baseline value. RESULTS: During the follow-up period (median, 2.7 years; range, 0.3 to 4.4 years), 49 of 643 patients (7.6%) showed the progression of diabetic nephropathy and three patients (0.5%) developed end-stage renal disease. Baseline ceruloplasmin levels were higher in the progressors than in the nonprogressors (262.6+/-40.9 mg/L vs. 233.3+/-37.8 mg/L, P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significantly higher incidence of nephropathy progression according to ceruloplasmin tertile (log-rank test, P<0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) for progression of diabetic nephropathy was significantly higher in the highest ceruloplasmin tertile category compared with the lowest ceruloplasmin tertile category, even after adjusting for confounding variables (HR, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 8.61; P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Baseline serum ceruloplasmin is an independent predictive factor for the progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Albuminuria , Ceruloplasmin , Creatinine , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Male , Observational Study , Oxidative Stress
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103499

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, and a major public health problem that is rapidly increasing in prevalence. Although a wide range of pharmacotherapies for glycemic control is now available, management of T2DM remains complex and challenging. The kidneys contribute immensely to glucose homeostasis by reabsorbing glucose from the glomerular filtrate. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetic agents that inhibit glucose absorption from the kidney independent of insulin, offer a unique opportunity to improve the outcomes of patients with T2DM. In this review, we provide an overview of two globally-approved SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin and canagliflozin, and discuss their effects and safety. This information will help clinicians to decide whether these drugs will benefit their patients.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Glucose , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Kidney , Prevalence , Public Health , Canagliflozin
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 452-456, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117704

ABSTRACT

Candida glabrata is a yeast that commensally colonizes the upper cervix and vagina and has low pathogenicity in immunocompetent hosts. Here we report a case of C. glabrata chorioamnionitis and septic abortion following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). This case suggests that infection in the upper vagina and cervix should be considered prior to having IVF-ET. We encountered a rare case of C. glabrata chorioamnionitis and septic abortion; therefore, we report this case with a review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Septic , Candida , Candida glabrata , Cervix Uteri , Chorioamnionitis , Colon , Embryo Transfer , Embryonic Structures , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Pregnancy , Vagina , Yeasts
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103647

ABSTRACT

Adrenal hemorrhages caused by blunt abdominal trauma have been frequently reported, and most of the lesions are unilateral. In contrast, bilateral hemorrhage of the adrenal glands after trauma rarely occurs in subjects with predisposing conditions such as coagulopathy, thromboembolism, and sepsis. Furthermore, bilateral hemorrhage of the adrenal glands is potentially fatal by inducing acute adrenal insufficiency. Here,a case of a 40-year-old man who developed traumatic bilateral adrenal hemorrhage after a car accident, without any predisposing condition, is reported. The spontaneous shrinkage of the bilateral lesions revealed in the follow-up abdominal computed tomography (CT) scansupported the aforementioned diagnosis. Fortunately, the patient had no clinical or biochemical evidence suggesting acute adrenal insufficiency. To these authors' knowledge, this is the first South Korean report of traumatic bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in a subject with no predisposing factors.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Adrenal Glands , Adrenal Insufficiency , Adult , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Sepsis , Thromboembolism
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33053

ABSTRACT

Implant prostheses were classified into screw-retained prosthesis and cement-retained prosthesis by their method of retaining, and there is screw and cement retained implant prosthesis (SCRP) which has been made reflecting the strengths of these two. The advantages of the SCRP technique are easy retrievability and passive fit of implant prostheses. However, the occlusal screw holes of implant prostheses can be thought as a disadvantage with respect to esthetics and occlusion. Inappropriately positioned implants also limited the use of the SCRP technique. The present study is reporting about the case where nine implants (US II, OSSTEM, Seoul, Korea) were placed in maxilla and eight in mandible respectively in fully edentulous patients. Then, the cement-retained prosthesis was applied for the part in which the screw hole positioned improperly, and screw-retained prosthesis for properly positioned implants so that the combined screw-cement prosthesis has been produced where the satisfying result has shown in both function and esthetics. Three-year follow-up has been done for the patient.


Subject(s)
Denture, Partial, Fixed , Esthetics , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mandible , Maxilla , Prostheses and Implants
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107377

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or stress induced cardiomyopathy is characterized by acute transient left ventricular apical ballooning without significant coronary artery disease. The pathophysiology of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy remains unclear, but it has been suggested that the stress related neurohumoral factors, especially catecholamines, play an important role. Recently, several reports have described an inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by the dysfunction of the basal and mid-ventricular segments sparing the apex of the heart. In this report, we present a case of a 50-year-old female with a transient left ventricular dysfunction in an inverted Takotsubo pattern, that later was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Catecholamines , Coronary Artery Disease , Female , Heart , Humans , Middle Aged , Pheochromocytoma , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 378-384, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165627

ABSTRACT

A desmoplastic small-round-cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, aggressive neoplasm that develops mostly in the abdominal cavity in children and young adults. We present a case of a 19-year-old male with right upper quadrant discomfort for 3 months. On abdominal computerized tomography, multiple huge and demarcated masses were found in the liver, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and peritoneal and retroperitoneal cavities. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the hepatic mass was performed and DSRCT was diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis. He was treated initially with high-dose systemic chemotherapy (alternating schedules of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and etoposide), underwent two debulking surgeries and pelvic irradiation between systemic chemotherapy schedules, and achieved complete remission after the 15 months of treatment duration. We report this case to emphasize the importance of aggressive local treatment modalities as well as high-dose systemic chemotherapy for treatment of DSRCT even with initially unresectable or extensively metastatic presentation.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Cavity , Appointments and Schedules , Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Child , Cyclophosphamide , Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor , Doxorubicin , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Ifosfamide , Liver , Lymph Nodes , Male , Vincristine , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211930

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are considered the key determinants of insulin resistance. Impaired mitochondrial function in obese animals was shown to induce the ER stress response, resulting in reduced adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is increased in adipose tissues in genetic and dietary models of obesity. In this study, we examined whether activation of iNOS is responsible for palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress, and decreased adiponectin synthesis in 3T3L1 adipocytes. As expected, palmitate increased the expression levels of iNOS and ER stress response markers, and decreased mitochondrial contents. Treatment with iNOS inhibitor increased adiponectin synthesis and reversed the palmitate-induced ER stress response. However, the iNOS inhibitor did not affect the palmitate-induced decrease in mitochondrial contents. Chemicals that inhibit mitochondrial function increased iNOS expression and the ER stress response, whereas measures that increase mitochondrial biogenesis (rosiglitazone and adenoviral overexpression of nuclear respiratory factor-1) reversed them. Inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis prevented the rosiglitazone-induced decrease in iNOS expression and increase in adiponectin synthesis. These results suggest that palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is the primary event that leads to iNOS induction, ER stress, and decreased adiponectin synthesis in cultured adipocytes.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adiponectin/biosynthesis , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Mice , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondrial Turnover/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 , Obesity/genetics , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726810

ABSTRACT

The relationship between alcohol consumption and carbohydrate metabolism is complex and is not fully understood. Alcohol not only increases oxidative stress during metabolism, but also inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in liver. Thus, acute alcohol intake can lead to hypoglycemia, particularly when glycogen stores are depleted or when alcohol is taken without meals. In addition, carbohydrate-rich food taken together with alcohol exaggerates insulin secretion and can cause reactive hypoglycemia about 2 to 3 hours after the meal. It is well established that mild to moderate alcohol consumption (3 drinks/day) is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality through improvements in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. These beneficial effects of alcohol may also be responsible for a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with T2DM. However, excessive alcohol consumption causes higher insulin resistance and increases the risk of T2DM, and even reverses the favorable effects of moderate alcohol intake on CHD.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcohols , Blood Pressure , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Coronary Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gluconeogenesis , Glucose , Glycogen , Glycogenolysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Meals , Oxidative Stress
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94353

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated firings on the color of zirconia restoration with different shading method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different types of zirconia frameworks (adding metallic pigments to the initial zirconia powder before sintering (Group NM), dipping the milled frameworks in dissolved coloring agents (Group KI), or application of liner material to the sintered white frameworks (Group KW) were used to support A3 shade dentin porcelain. Repeated firings (3, 5, or 7) were performed, color differences among ceramic specimens were measured using a colorimeter. Repeated measurements analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data for significant difference. The Tukey Honestly Significant Different (HSD) test was used to perform multiple comparisons (alpha = .05). RESULTS: 1. L*a*b* values of the ceramic systems were affected by the number of firings (1, 3, 5 or 7 firings) (P 1) for group KW and KI fired after 3 times, except for group NM fired after 7 times. 4. In order of decreasing DeltaE value fired after 7 times, the values were group KI(DeltaE = 2.26) > group KW (DeltaE = 1.47) > group NM (DeltaE = 1.08) (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Repeated firings influenced the color of the zirconium-oxide all-ceramic specimens with different shading methods.


Subject(s)
Ceramics , Coloring Agents , Dental Porcelain , Dentin , Fires , Humans , Zirconium
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645093

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to develop the antiallergic and hypoallergic fermented soybean foods without side effect. We manufactured Chungkukjang with addition of herbal (aloe, cinamon, licorice root) extract. Sensory evaluation was performed to evaluate the acceptability by the consumer. Clinical evaluation was performed with 10 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients who showed positive reaction with specific IgE and skin prick test. Cross-over study between normal Chungkukjang and Chungkukjang with aloe extract was performed. In sensory evaluation, Chungkukjang with aloe extract obtained best score overall. In clinical evaluation, 7 out of 10 AD patients showed positive reaction to soybean and 4 out of 10 AD patients showed positive reaction to normal Chungkukjang. 2 out of 10 AD patients showed positive reaction to Chungkukjang with aloe extract. In conclusion, Chungkukjang could be recommended as functional food with hypoallergic effect. As adding aloe extract to Chungkukjang, hypoallergic effect was increased.


Subject(s)
Aloe , Cross-Over Studies , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Functional Food , Glycyrrhiza , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Skin , Soybeans
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163104

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Archival tissues of breast cancer patients were examined for VEGF expression to evaluate the relationship with other clinicopathologic factors and prognostic significance of VEGF in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin sections from 76 patients with invasive breast cancer who have been treated at Samsung Medical Center from December, 1994 to April, 1998 were examined for VEGF expression by immunohistochemical staining using anti-VEGF antibody. We analyzed relationships between VEGF expression and tumor size, tumor stage, metastasis, steroid honnone receptors, p53, disease recurrence and survival. RESULTS: Immunostaining showed variable VEGF positivity in the malignant cells and VEGF was detected more frequently in tumors than in adjacent non-tumorous breast tissues. 74 out of 76 (97.4%) was positive for VEGF. We found that the expression of VEGF was strongly correlated with the stages of breast tumor (P=0.020), lymph node metastasis (P=0.043) and PR (P=0.016). However, we could not find statistically significant relationship between VEGF expression and tumor size, ER, p53 and distant metastasis. CONCLUSION: VEGF may be a useful prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer, especially correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. This result warrants further study to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraffin , Prognosis , Recurrence , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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