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1.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 190-204, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976631

ABSTRACT

Background@#Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic disease with an unpredictable disease course and severe psychological impact. @*Objective@#To provide evidence- and consensus-based insights regarding the treatment of patients with AA in Korea. @*Methods@#We searched for relevant studies on the topical and device-based treatment of AA in the literature from inception until May 2021. Evidence-based recommendations were also prepared. The evidence for each statement was graded and classified according to the strength of the recommendations. Hair experts from the Korean Hair Research Society (KHRS) voted on the statements, and an agreement of 75% or greater was considered as consensus. @*Results@#Currently, there remains a scarcity of topical treatments, which is supported by robust evidence from a number of high-quality randomized controlled trials. Current evidence supports the efficacy of topical corticosteroids, corticosteroid intralesional injection, and contact immunotherapy in AA patients. Topical corticosteroids and contact immunotherapy are recommended for pediatric AA. A consensus was achieved in 6 out of 14 (42.8%), and 1 out of 5 (20.0%) statements pertaining to topical and device-based treatments in AA, respectively. The expert consensus was from a single country, and the study may not cover all the treatments used. @*Conclusion@#The present study provides up-to-date, evidence-based treatment guidelines for AA based on the consensus reached among experts after considering regional healthcare circumstances, adding diversity to the previous guidelines.

2.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 205-216, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976630

ABSTRACT

Background@#Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic disease with an unpredictable course and can have a severe psychological impact on an individual. @*Objective@#To provide evidence and consensus-based statements regarding the treatment of patients with AA in Korea. @*Methods@#We searched for relevant studies from inception to May 2021 regarding the systemic treatment of AA. Evidence-based recommendations were also prepared. The evidence for each statement was graded and classified according to the strength of the recommendations. Hair experts from the Korean Hair Research Society (KHRS) voted on the statement, and an agreement of 75% or greater was considered as having reached consensus. @*Results@#Current evidence supports the efficacy of systemic corticosteroids, oral cyclosporine monotherapy or combination with systemic corticosteroids, and oral Janus kinase inhibitors in severe AA patients. Systemic steroids may be considered for pediatric patients with severe AA. A consensus was achieved in three out of nine (33.3%), and one out of three (33.3%) statements pertaining to systemic treatment in adult and pediatric AA, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The present study produced up-to-date, evidence-based treatment guidelines for AA associated with the consensus obtained by experts based on the Korean healthcare system.

3.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 194-198, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968089

ABSTRACT

Multiple miliary osteoma cutis (MMOC) is a rare variant of osteoma, characterized by multiple eruptive hard nodules on the face. A 70-year-old female presented with multiple solid skin-colored papules on both cheeks, unresponsive to conventional medical treatments. She reported receiving an injection of an unknown cosmetic filler substance into her face by an unlicensed medical practitioner 20 years ago. Facial computed tomography showed multiple small calcifications immediately adjacent to foreign material assumed to be the filler substance in the dermis. Histological examination revealed osteoclasts, osteocytes, and eosinophilic bony tissue in the dermis, suggestive of osteoma cutis. Although the pathogenesis remains unclear, inflammation caused by injected foreign material may induce metaplastic transformation of multipotent mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts, resulting in heterotopic ossification. Dermatologists should be aware that MMOC may occur following injection of foreign material by unlicensed practitioners. Performing a detailed history and clinical evaluation may aid in the diagnosis of such recalcitrant skin lesions.

4.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 16-24, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917654

ABSTRACT

Background@#The incidence of atopic dermatitis has been increasing and the condition is known to present with different phenotypes. As response to treatment varies from patient to patient, many attempts have been made to classify atopic dermatitis into different clinical phenotypes and endophenotypes to personalize treatment. @*Objective@#This is a pilot study that aims to classify atopic dermatitis into common clinical phenotypes and associate each of the phenotypes with clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. @*Methods@#A total of 186 adult atopic dermatitis patients were classified into four clinical phenotypes: lichenoid/exudative, nummular, prurigo-nodularis, and erythrodermic. We compared baseline characteristics, disease severity, laboratory test results, associated symptoms, and lesional location between the phenotypes. @*Results@#The age was lower, and proportion of very early onset group was higher in lichenoid/exudative type. Eczema Area and Severity Index score was significantly lower in nummular type patients. Total immunoglobulin E and eosinophilic cationic protein values were higher in lichenoid/exudative type patients and total immunoglobulin E and eosinophil (%) were lower in nummular type patients. In prurigo-nodularis type patients, eosinophilic cationic protein and vitamin D deficiency were frequent. Vitamin D deficiency was infrequent in erythrodermic type patients. @*Conclusion@#Lichenoid/exudative type patients showed classical characteristics of atopic dermatitis, and related to extrinsic type. In nummular type, patients tend to be more intrinsic and less severe. In prurigo-nodularis type, patients would be related to frequent vitamin D deficiency. Erythrodermic type patients showed more extensive atopic dermatitis lesions and less frequent vitamin D deficiency.

5.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 383-386, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938498

ABSTRACT

Erythema nodosum (EN) is the most common form of panniculitis and may be triggered by a variety of stimuli, including infections, drugs, pregnancy, sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and malignancies. Rare cases of vaccination-related EN have been reported, but none due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine of Pfizer have been documented. We report a case of EN associated with the Pfizer vaccine. A 43-year-old woman presented with acute-onset painful nodular lesions that appeared bilaterally on the extensor surface of the lower legs. These lesions appeared 5 days after the first dose of Pfizer vaccination. The patient reported no recent infectious history other than fever for 3 days after vaccination. Skin biopsy revealed inflammation extending into the subcutaneous fat with a septal distribution. It is important for physicians to be aware of the side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine because more people are bound to be vaccinated.

6.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 237-244, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937157

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pediatric alopecia areata (AA) can affect the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their family members. Research on the QoL and burden on family members in pediatric AA is limited. @*Objective@#This nationwide multicenter questionnaire study described the QoL and burden of the family members of patients with pediatric AA. @*Methods@#This nationwide multicenter questionnaire study enrolled AA patients between the ages of 5 and 18 years from March 1, 2017 to February 28, 2018. Enrolled patients and their parents completed the modified Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and the modified Dermatitis Family Impact (mDFI). The disease severity was measured using the Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) survey scores. @*Results@#A total of 268 patients with AA from 22 hospitals participated in this study. Our study found that the efficacy and satisfaction of previous treatments of AA decreased as the severity of the disease increased. The use of home-based therapies and traditional medicines increased with the increasing severity of the disease, but the efficacy felt by patients was limited. CDLQI and mDFI scores were higher in patients with extensive AA than those with mild to moderate AA. The economic and time burden of the family members also increased as the severity of the disease increased. @*Conclusion@#The severity of the AA is indirectly proportional to the QoL of patients and their family members and directly proportional to the burden. Physicians need to understand these characteristics of pediatric AA and provide appropriate intervention to patients and their family members.

7.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 209-223, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927056

ABSTRACT

Background@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant changes. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on patients with chronic pain. @*Methods@#Patients with chronic pain from 23 university hospitals in South Korea participated in this study. The anonymous survey questionnaire consisted of 25 questions regarding the following: demographic data, diagnosis, hospital visit frequency, exercise duration, time outside, sleep duration, weight change, nervousness and anxiety, depression, interest or pleasure, fatigue, daily life difficulties, and self-harm thoughts. Depression severity was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between increased pain and patient factors. @*Results@#A total of 914 patients completed the survey, 35.9% of whom had decreased their number of visits to the hospital, mostly due to COVID-19. The pain level of 200 patients has worsened since the COVID-19 outbreak, which was more prominent in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Noticeable post-COVID-19 changes such as exercise duration, time spent outside, sleep patterns, mood, and weight affected patients with chronic pain. Depression severity was more significant in patients with CRPS. The total PHQ-9 average score of patients with CRPS was 15.5, corresponding to major depressive orders. The patients’ decreased exercise duration, decreased sleep duration, and increased depression were significantly associated with increased pain. @*Conclusions@#COVID-19 has caused several changes in patients with chronic pain.During the pandemic, decreased exercise and sleep duration and increased depression were associated with patients’ increasing pain.

8.
Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry ; (3): 27-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926374

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:This study assessed the psychological impact of quarantine during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. @*Methods@#:A total of 2080 participants filled the self-report questionnaire from March 17 to April 20, 2020 in Daegu, Republic of Korea. An online link was sent to currently or previously quarantined participants. The self-report questionnaire included patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), primary care post-traumatic stress disorder screen for diagnostic and statistical manual-5 (PTSD-PC), state-trait anger expression inventory (STAXI), and P4 suicidality screener scale (P4). PHQ-9 score of 5 or more and 9 or less indicates mild to moderate depressive symptoms, and 10 or more indicates severe depressive symptoms; A GAD-7 score of 5 or more and 14 or less indicates mild to moderate anxiety symptoms, and a score of 15 or more indicates severe anxiety symptoms; A PTSD-PC-5 score of 2 indicates mild to moderate PTSD; a score of 3 or higher indicates severe PTSD; A STAXI score of 14 or higher indicates severe anger symptoms; In P4, the cut-off points for each self-report questionnaire were set as mild suicidal thoughts at 1 point or more and 2 points or less, and severe suicide thoughts at 3 or more points. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore COVID-19-related risk factors. @*Results@#:The prevalence of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents was at 52.5% for depression, 44.5% for anxiety, 39.4% for post-traumatic stress, 31.6% for anger, and 10.9% for suicidal ideation. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 family members showed a high risk for symptoms of anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and anger. Participants with financial loss had increased symptoms of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, anger, and suicidal ideation. Participants with a history of medical/psychiatric illnesses reported more symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger, and suicidal ideation. Having inadequate basic supplies during quarantine was associated with negative mental health outcomes. @*Conclusions@#:Quarantine had a negative psychological impact on all five mental health factors. The risk of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, anger, and suicidality increased among those who suffered from financial losses due to COVID-19. The associated risk factors will help identify populations at risk for mental health problems and implement mental health intervention policies.

9.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 497-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913456

ABSTRACT

Background@#In 2015, the Korean Atopic Dermatitis Association (KADA) working group published consensus guidelines for treating atopic dermatitis (AD). @*Objective@#We aimed to provide updated consensus recommendations for systemic treatment of AD in South Korea based on recent evidence and experience. @*Methods@#We compiled a database of references from relevant systematic reviews and guidelines on the systemic management of AD. Evidence for each statement was graded and classified based on thestrength of the recommendation. Forty-two council members from the KADA participated in three rounds of voting to establish a consensus on expert recommendations. @*Results@#We do not recommend long-term treatment with systemic steroids forpatients with moderate-to-severe AD due to the risk of adverse effects. We recommend treatment with cyclosporine or dupilumab and selective treatment with methotrexate or azathioprine for patients with moderate-to-severe AD. We suggest treatment with antihistamines as an option for alleviating clinical symptoms of AD. We recommend selective treatment with narrowband ultraviolet B for patients with chronic moderate-to-severe AD. We do not recommend treatment with oral antibiotics for patients with moderate-to-severe AD but who have no signs of infection. We did not reach a consensus on recommendations for treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy, probiotics, evening primrose oil, orvitamin D for patients with moderate-to-severe AD. We also recommend educational interventions and counselling for patients with AD and caregivers to improve the treatment success rate. @*Conclusion@#We look forward to implementing a new and updated consensus of systemic therapy in controlling patients with moderate-to-severe AD.

11.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 138-146, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874102

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and autophagy are both important to maintain skin homeostasis.However, they are also involved in skin disorders. So far, their roles in psoriasis pathogenesis are unknown. @*Objective@#We studied the immunohistochemical and gene expression of AHR, CYP1A1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) in lesional skin of psoriasis patients to determine correlations among them. @*Methods@#We included 24psoriasis patients and ten healthy volunteers. Skin biopsies were collected. AHR, CYP1A1, and LC3 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. AHR, CYP1A1, LC3, ATG5, BECN1 and Nrf2 mRNA levels were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. @*Results@#AHR and CYP1A1 protein expression were higher in psoriasis lesional skin than in normal skin. LC3 protein expression was lower in psoriasis lesions than in normal controls. AHR and CYP1A1 protein expression in psoriasis lesions showed significant positive correlations with mean epidermal thickness and inflammatory cell density. Significant negative correlations were noted between LC3 protein expression in psoriasis lesions and the mean epidermal thickness or inflammatory cell density. A significant negative correlation was found between AHR and LC3 expression in psoriatic skin. AHR, CYP1A1 and Nrf2 mRNA expression were upregulated while LC3, ATG5, and BECN1 mRNA were down-regulated, in psoriatic lesional skin compared with normal controls. @*Conclusion@#AHR and autophagy could play a role in psoriasis pathogenesis by modifying epidermal hyperproliferation and inflammation. AHR and autophagy regulation are potential therapeutic targets in chronic inflammatory skin diseases.

12.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 288-303, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903818

ABSTRACT

Background@#Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an intractable pain disease with various symptoms. Here, we investigated the disease status, work life, sleep problems, medical insurance, economic status, psychological problems, and quality of life (QOL) of CRPS patients. @*Methods@#CRPS patients from 37 university hospitals in South Korea were surveyed.The survey questionnaire consisted of 24 questions on the following aspects of CRPS patients: sex, age, occupation, cause of injury, activities of daily living (ADL), pain severity, sleep disturbance, level of education, economic status, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation. Additionally, the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, consisting of 26 questions, was used to identify the status of QOL. @*Results@#A total of 251 patients completed the questionnaire. According to the survey, 54.2% patients could not perform ADL on their own. Over the previous week, the mean pain score was 7.15 ± 1.78 (out of a total of 10 points); 92.1% of patients had sleep disorders and 80.5% had suicidal ideation, with most patients suffering from psychological problems. The average for each domain of WHOQOL-BREF was as follows: 21.74 ± 14.77 for physical, 25.22 ± 17.66 for psychological, 32.02 ± 22.36 for social relationship, and 30.69 ± 15.83 for environmental (out of a total of 100 points each). Occupation, ADL, sleep time, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation were statistically correlated with multiple domains. @*Conclusions@#Most patients had moderate to severe pain, economic problems, limitations of their ADL, sleep problems, psychological problems, and a low QOL score.

13.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 604-610, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902026

ABSTRACT

Background@#Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are potentially fatal acute hypersensitivity reactions that involve the skin and mucous membranes. Because they are relatively rare diseases, it is difficult to obtain well-organized epidemiological data. The clinicodemographic characteristics, culprit drugs, and factors related to disease prognosis may vary. @*Objective@#To identify the characteristics of SJS/TEN by investigating patient clinicopathological characteristics, laboratory findings, suspected drugs, and mortality through a retrospective study using medical record data. @*Methods@#The clinical records of patients diagnosed with SJS/TEN between February 2009 and February 2019 at three medical institutions of Soonchunhyang University were retrospectively reviewed. Data pertaining to sex, age, history, suspected drugs, latent period, laboratory findings, and mortality were collected, and their correlations were analyzed. @*Results@#We identified SJS/TEN in 88 patients. Among the probable causative agents, antibiotics were the most common (29 cases, 33.0%), followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in 20 cases (22.7%). The period between drug administration and symptom onset varied with the causative agent. Patients who died had high SCORTEN scores. In addition, hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, and cardiac disease had a statistically significant association with high SCORTEN. @*Conclusion@#Antibiotics, NSAIDs, antiepileptics and allopurinol were the most commonly implicated drugs in our retrospective study. There was a significant correlation between comorbidities. Because SJS/TEN is a life-threatening condition, early recognition of the suspected drug are important. The results of this study may provide insights that aid in the early diagnosis and prediction of disease outcomes of SJS/TEN in the Korean population.

14.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 277-283, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902012

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ceramide offers an important barrier function to the epidermis. It can reduce epidermal water loss and inhibit the production of dandruff. Ceramide is essential in protecting hair and can be used as a cosmetic ingredient to improve seborrheic dermatitis and uncomfortable symptoms. @*Objective@#We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of synthetic ceramide on dandruff, erythema, sebum secretion, and scalp water loss. @*Methods@#We enrolled 20 subjects. Ten were randomly assigned to a group using a synthetic ceramide containing shampoo and the other 10 were assigned to the control group. The subjects underwent evaluation of the scalp before the trial and after using the shampoo for 4 weeks. Scores were given for dandruff and scalp erythema. Sebum secretions were evaluated using a sebumeter and were checked at four different scalp sites. The water content of the scalp was measured using a corneometer at the same sites. @*Results@#After 4 weeks, 8 patients showed favorable outcomes in dandruff in the ceramide group compared to 4 patients in the control group. Four patients displayed favorable outcomes in erythema in the ceramide group compared to 3 patients in the control group. Sebum secretion increased in the ceramide group and decreased in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The water content showed a tendency to increase in the ceramide group, whereas the water content significantly decreased in the control group. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that synthetic ceramide is effective at improving dandruff, erythema, and reducing scalp water loss.

15.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 303-306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902007

ABSTRACT

Eruptive xanthomatosis is a condition of extensive yellowish papules and nodules with fat deposits which can spread systemically. Although eruptive xanthomatosis is usually related to abnormal lipid metabolism, few cases have been reported in patients with normal lipid levels. The current treatment option is treatment of dyslipidemia by lifestyle modification and lipid-lowering agents. But treatment strategies in normolipidemia patients have not been established. Herein, we report an unusual case of eruptive xanthomatosis in normolipidemia patient showing clinical improvement after narrow-band ultraviolet B therapy

16.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 398-400, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901977

ABSTRACT

There have been a few cases of alopecia areata (AA) patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP), but the relationship between them is unclear. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no cases of co-occurrence reported in Korea. A 58-year-old male presented with multiple erythematous follicular papules and scaly plaques on the both legs with diffuse keratotic thickening on both palms and soles for several months. After skin biopsy, he was diagnosed with type I PRP. After treatment with oral and topical steroid, vitamin D3 analogue, oral alitretinoin, and urea cream for one week, multiple, diffuse alopecic patches appeared. He was diagnosed with AA after skin biopsy and we added topical minoxidil. Herein, we report a case of AA in a patient with type I PRP.

17.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 489-502, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898643

ABSTRACT

Background@#The latent reservoir of Human Immunodificiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) has been a major barrier to the complete eradication of HIV-1 and the development of HIV therapy. Longterm non-progressors (LTNPs) are a rare group of patients with HIV-1 who can spontaneously control HIV-1 replication without antiretroviral therapy. Transcriptome analysis is necessary to predict the pathways involved in the natural control of HIV-1, elucidate the mechanisms involved in LTNPs, and find biomarkers for HIV-1 reservoir therapy. @*Materials and Methods@#In this study, we obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two LTNP subjects at multiple time points and performed RNA-sequencing analyses. @*Results@#We found that LTNPs and normal subjects had different transcriptome profiles. Functional annotation analysis identified that differentially expressed genes in LTNPs were enriched in several biological pathways such as cell cycle-related pathways and the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway. However, genes that were downregulated in LTNPs were associated with immune responses such as the interferon response and IL2-STAT5 signaling. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that CD8A, KLRD1, ASGR1, and MLKL, whose gene expression was upregulated in LTNPs, directly interacted with HIV-1 proteins. The network analysis also found that viral proteins potentially regulated host genes that were associated with immune system processes, metabolic processes, and gene expression regulation. @*Conclusion@#Our longitudinal transcriptome analysis of the LTNPs identified multiple previously undescribed pathways and genes that may be useful in the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers.

18.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 288-303, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896114

ABSTRACT

Background@#Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is an intractable pain disease with various symptoms. Here, we investigated the disease status, work life, sleep problems, medical insurance, economic status, psychological problems, and quality of life (QOL) of CRPS patients. @*Methods@#CRPS patients from 37 university hospitals in South Korea were surveyed.The survey questionnaire consisted of 24 questions on the following aspects of CRPS patients: sex, age, occupation, cause of injury, activities of daily living (ADL), pain severity, sleep disturbance, level of education, economic status, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation. Additionally, the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, consisting of 26 questions, was used to identify the status of QOL. @*Results@#A total of 251 patients completed the questionnaire. According to the survey, 54.2% patients could not perform ADL on their own. Over the previous week, the mean pain score was 7.15 ± 1.78 (out of a total of 10 points); 92.1% of patients had sleep disorders and 80.5% had suicidal ideation, with most patients suffering from psychological problems. The average for each domain of WHOQOL-BREF was as follows: 21.74 ± 14.77 for physical, 25.22 ± 17.66 for psychological, 32.02 ± 22.36 for social relationship, and 30.69 ± 15.83 for environmental (out of a total of 100 points each). Occupation, ADL, sleep time, therapeutic effect, and suicidal ideation were statistically correlated with multiple domains. @*Conclusions@#Most patients had moderate to severe pain, economic problems, limitations of their ADL, sleep problems, psychological problems, and a low QOL score.

19.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 604-610, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894322

ABSTRACT

Background@#Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are potentially fatal acute hypersensitivity reactions that involve the skin and mucous membranes. Because they are relatively rare diseases, it is difficult to obtain well-organized epidemiological data. The clinicodemographic characteristics, culprit drugs, and factors related to disease prognosis may vary. @*Objective@#To identify the characteristics of SJS/TEN by investigating patient clinicopathological characteristics, laboratory findings, suspected drugs, and mortality through a retrospective study using medical record data. @*Methods@#The clinical records of patients diagnosed with SJS/TEN between February 2009 and February 2019 at three medical institutions of Soonchunhyang University were retrospectively reviewed. Data pertaining to sex, age, history, suspected drugs, latent period, laboratory findings, and mortality were collected, and their correlations were analyzed. @*Results@#We identified SJS/TEN in 88 patients. Among the probable causative agents, antibiotics were the most common (29 cases, 33.0%), followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in 20 cases (22.7%). The period between drug administration and symptom onset varied with the causative agent. Patients who died had high SCORTEN scores. In addition, hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, and cardiac disease had a statistically significant association with high SCORTEN. @*Conclusion@#Antibiotics, NSAIDs, antiepileptics and allopurinol were the most commonly implicated drugs in our retrospective study. There was a significant correlation between comorbidities. Because SJS/TEN is a life-threatening condition, early recognition of the suspected drug are important. The results of this study may provide insights that aid in the early diagnosis and prediction of disease outcomes of SJS/TEN in the Korean population.

20.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 277-283, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894308

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ceramide offers an important barrier function to the epidermis. It can reduce epidermal water loss and inhibit the production of dandruff. Ceramide is essential in protecting hair and can be used as a cosmetic ingredient to improve seborrheic dermatitis and uncomfortable symptoms. @*Objective@#We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of synthetic ceramide on dandruff, erythema, sebum secretion, and scalp water loss. @*Methods@#We enrolled 20 subjects. Ten were randomly assigned to a group using a synthetic ceramide containing shampoo and the other 10 were assigned to the control group. The subjects underwent evaluation of the scalp before the trial and after using the shampoo for 4 weeks. Scores were given for dandruff and scalp erythema. Sebum secretions were evaluated using a sebumeter and were checked at four different scalp sites. The water content of the scalp was measured using a corneometer at the same sites. @*Results@#After 4 weeks, 8 patients showed favorable outcomes in dandruff in the ceramide group compared to 4 patients in the control group. Four patients displayed favorable outcomes in erythema in the ceramide group compared to 3 patients in the control group. Sebum secretion increased in the ceramide group and decreased in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The water content showed a tendency to increase in the ceramide group, whereas the water content significantly decreased in the control group. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that synthetic ceramide is effective at improving dandruff, erythema, and reducing scalp water loss.

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