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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899851

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although long-term dopamine agonist (DA) therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for prolactinoma, some patients may prefer surgical treatment because of the potential adverse effects of long-term medication, or the desire to become pregnant. This study aimed to determine whether surgical treatment of prolactinomas could be an alternative to DA therapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 96 consecutive patients (74 female, 22 male) underwent primary pituitary surgery without long-term DA treatment for prolactinomas at a single institution from 1990 to 2010. All patients underwent primary surgical treatment in the microscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA). @*Results@#The median age and median follow-up period were 31 (16–73) years and 139.1 (12.2–319.6) months, respectively. An initial overall remission was accomplished in 47.9% (46 of 96 patients, 33 macroadenomas, and 13 microadenomas) of patients. DA dose reduction was achieved in all patients after TSA. A better remission rate was independently predicted by lower diagnostic prolactin levels and by a greater extent of surgical resection. Overall remission at the last follow-up was 33.3%, and the overall recurrence rate was 30.4%. The permanent complication rate was 3.1%, and there was no mortality. @*Conclusion@#TSA can be considered a safe and potentially curative treatment for selective microprolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with a long-term DA.

2.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 101-113, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898941

ABSTRACT

The trabecular bone score (TBS) was introduced as an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture, complementary to bone mineral density (BMD), and is derived using the same dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images. Recently, it has been approved for clinical use in Korea. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review to optimize the use of TBS in clinical practice. The TBS is an independent predictor of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women and men aged >50 years. The TBS is potentially useful in monitoring the skeletal effects of anabolic agents but not of antiresorptive agents. In postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the TBS assesses osteoporotic fracture risk not captured by BMD. However, high body mass index and soft tissue thickness can cause underestimation of the TBS; however, this limitation has been improved in recent versions of the TBS software. However, a high precision error and low reproducibility limit the use of TBS. This review may provide information on the application of the TBS in clinical practice based on reliable evidence.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898202

ABSTRACT

Background@#There has been controversy regarding the association between primary aldosteronism (PA) and dyslipidemia and few studies considered the effects of diabetes and renal function on lipid metabolism. We analyzed lipid profiles of PA patients and compared them to propensity-score (PS)-matched essential hypertension (EH) patients adjusting for glycemic status and renal function. @*Methods@#Patients who were diagnosed with PA using a saline-infusion test at Seoul National University Hospital from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. EH patients who had aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) results were selected as controls. Covariates, including diabetes, were PS-matched for patients with PA, lateralized PA, non-lateralized PA, and high ARR to EH patients, respectively. @*Results@#Among a total of 80 PA and 80 EH patients, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly lower in the PA patients than in the EH patients (least-squares mean±standard error: 185.5±4.4 mg/dL vs. 196.2±4.4 mg/dL, P=0.047, for TC; and 132.3±11.5 mg/dL vs. 157.4±11.4 mg/dL, P=0.035, for TG) in fully adjusted model (adjusting for multiple covariates, including diabetes status, glycosylated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). There were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. According to increments in aldosterone levels, an increasing tendency of HDL-C and decreasing tendencies of TG and non-HDL-C were observed. @*Conclusion@#PA patients had lower TC and TG levels than EH patients, independent of glycemic status and renal function.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898198

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898177

ABSTRACT

Background@#Guidelines by the Endocrine Society Guideline on bypassing adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in patients 15.9 ng/dL) and unilateral lesion, accuracy of CT was 84.6% (11/13) in patients aged 29.6 ng/dL, respectively. The significant difference in accuracy of CT in 198 patients with marked PA and a unilateral lesion between the 30.0 ng/dL (91.9% vs. 87.7%, P=0.590). @*Conclusion@#Patients with hypokalemia, PAC >30.0 ng/dL, and unilateral lesion were at high risk of unilateral PA regardless of age.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898173

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the clinical characteristics of parathyroid adenomas according to radioactivity on 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. @*Methods@#The study included 217 patients diagnosed with PHPT from 2000 to 2019 at Seoul National University Hospital who underwent 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT scans. On SPECT/CT, the radioactivity of parathyroid adenomas was measured as the ratio of the mean radioactivity count of the parathyroid adenoma to that of the contralateral thyroid. @*Results@#Tumors were localized by MIBI scans in 190 patients (MIBI [+] group) and by ultrasound or parathyroid four-dimensional CT in 27 patients (MIBI [–] group). The mean age was 55 years, and mean body mass index was 23.4 kg/m2. Patients in the MIBI (+) group had higher parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and lower 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels than those in the MIBI (–) group (168.0 pg/mL [interquartile range, IQR, 111.0 to 250.7] vs. 134.7 pg/mL [IQR, 98.2 to 191.2], P=0.049; 15.4 ng/mL [IQR, 11.1 to 20.8] vs. 21.2 ng/mL [IQR, 13.9 to 24.8], P=0.012, respectively). Patients in the MIBI (+) group had larger tumor volumes, but lower iPTH/volume ratios than those in the MIBI (–) group (1,216.66 [IQR, 513.40 to 2,663.02], 499.82 mm3 [IQR, 167.77 to 1,229.80], P=0.002; 0.18 [IQR, 0.08 to 0.46], 0.40 pg/mL/mm3 [IQR, 0.16 to 1.29], P=0.016, respectively). Adenoma radioactivity was positively correlated with calcium, iPTH, and volume (r=0.180, P=0.020; r=0.208, P=0.006; r=0.288, P<0.001, respectively), but not with iPTH/volume. @*Conclusion@#Parathyroid adenomas with positive MIBI scans had larger volumes and higher iPTH than adenomas with negative scans, but lower iPTH per unit volume.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892147

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although long-term dopamine agonist (DA) therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for prolactinoma, some patients may prefer surgical treatment because of the potential adverse effects of long-term medication, or the desire to become pregnant. This study aimed to determine whether surgical treatment of prolactinomas could be an alternative to DA therapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 96 consecutive patients (74 female, 22 male) underwent primary pituitary surgery without long-term DA treatment for prolactinomas at a single institution from 1990 to 2010. All patients underwent primary surgical treatment in the microscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA). @*Results@#The median age and median follow-up period were 31 (16–73) years and 139.1 (12.2–319.6) months, respectively. An initial overall remission was accomplished in 47.9% (46 of 96 patients, 33 macroadenomas, and 13 microadenomas) of patients. DA dose reduction was achieved in all patients after TSA. A better remission rate was independently predicted by lower diagnostic prolactin levels and by a greater extent of surgical resection. Overall remission at the last follow-up was 33.3%, and the overall recurrence rate was 30.4%. The permanent complication rate was 3.1%, and there was no mortality. @*Conclusion@#TSA can be considered a safe and potentially curative treatment for selective microprolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with a long-term DA.

9.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 101-113, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891237

ABSTRACT

The trabecular bone score (TBS) was introduced as an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture, complementary to bone mineral density (BMD), and is derived using the same dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images. Recently, it has been approved for clinical use in Korea. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review to optimize the use of TBS in clinical practice. The TBS is an independent predictor of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women and men aged >50 years. The TBS is potentially useful in monitoring the skeletal effects of anabolic agents but not of antiresorptive agents. In postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the TBS assesses osteoporotic fracture risk not captured by BMD. However, high body mass index and soft tissue thickness can cause underestimation of the TBS; however, this limitation has been improved in recent versions of the TBS software. However, a high precision error and low reproducibility limit the use of TBS. This review may provide information on the application of the TBS in clinical practice based on reliable evidence.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890498

ABSTRACT

Background@#There has been controversy regarding the association between primary aldosteronism (PA) and dyslipidemia and few studies considered the effects of diabetes and renal function on lipid metabolism. We analyzed lipid profiles of PA patients and compared them to propensity-score (PS)-matched essential hypertension (EH) patients adjusting for glycemic status and renal function. @*Methods@#Patients who were diagnosed with PA using a saline-infusion test at Seoul National University Hospital from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. EH patients who had aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) results were selected as controls. Covariates, including diabetes, were PS-matched for patients with PA, lateralized PA, non-lateralized PA, and high ARR to EH patients, respectively. @*Results@#Among a total of 80 PA and 80 EH patients, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly lower in the PA patients than in the EH patients (least-squares mean±standard error: 185.5±4.4 mg/dL vs. 196.2±4.4 mg/dL, P=0.047, for TC; and 132.3±11.5 mg/dL vs. 157.4±11.4 mg/dL, P=0.035, for TG) in fully adjusted model (adjusting for multiple covariates, including diabetes status, glycosylated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). There were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. According to increments in aldosterone levels, an increasing tendency of HDL-C and decreasing tendencies of TG and non-HDL-C were observed. @*Conclusion@#PA patients had lower TC and TG levels than EH patients, independent of glycemic status and renal function.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890494

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Guidelines by the Endocrine Society Guideline on bypassing adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in patients 15.9 ng/dL) and unilateral lesion, accuracy of CT was 84.6% (11/13) in patients aged 29.6 ng/dL, respectively. The significant difference in accuracy of CT in 198 patients with marked PA and a unilateral lesion between the 30.0 ng/dL (91.9% vs. 87.7%, P=0.590). @*Conclusion@#Patients with hypokalemia, PAC >30.0 ng/dL, and unilateral lesion were at high risk of unilateral PA regardless of age.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890469

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the clinical characteristics of parathyroid adenomas according to radioactivity on 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. @*Methods@#The study included 217 patients diagnosed with PHPT from 2000 to 2019 at Seoul National University Hospital who underwent 99mTc-MIBI SPECT/CT scans. On SPECT/CT, the radioactivity of parathyroid adenomas was measured as the ratio of the mean radioactivity count of the parathyroid adenoma to that of the contralateral thyroid. @*Results@#Tumors were localized by MIBI scans in 190 patients (MIBI [+] group) and by ultrasound or parathyroid four-dimensional CT in 27 patients (MIBI [–] group). The mean age was 55 years, and mean body mass index was 23.4 kg/m2. Patients in the MIBI (+) group had higher parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and lower 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels than those in the MIBI (–) group (168.0 pg/mL [interquartile range, IQR, 111.0 to 250.7] vs. 134.7 pg/mL [IQR, 98.2 to 191.2], P=0.049; 15.4 ng/mL [IQR, 11.1 to 20.8] vs. 21.2 ng/mL [IQR, 13.9 to 24.8], P=0.012, respectively). Patients in the MIBI (+) group had larger tumor volumes, but lower iPTH/volume ratios than those in the MIBI (–) group (1,216.66 [IQR, 513.40 to 2,663.02], 499.82 mm3 [IQR, 167.77 to 1,229.80], P=0.002; 0.18 [IQR, 0.08 to 0.46], 0.40 pg/mL/mm3 [IQR, 0.16 to 1.29], P=0.016, respectively). Adenoma radioactivity was positively correlated with calcium, iPTH, and volume (r=0.180, P=0.020; r=0.208, P=0.006; r=0.288, P<0.001, respectively), but not with iPTH/volume. @*Conclusion@#Parathyroid adenomas with positive MIBI scans had larger volumes and higher iPTH than adenomas with negative scans, but lower iPTH per unit volume.

15.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1131-1141, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914257

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnostic approaches for adrenal tumors require multi-step processes, including imaging studies and dynamic hormone tests. Therefore, this study aimed to discriminate adrenal tumors from a single blood sample based on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and machine learning algorithms in serum profiling of adrenal steroids. @*Methods@#The LC-MS-based steroid profiling was applied to serum samples obtained from patients with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA, n=73), Cushing’s syndrome (CS, n=30), and primary aldosteronism (PA, n=40) in a prospective multicenter study of adrenal disease. The decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) were performed to categorize the subtypes of adrenal tumors. @*Results@#The CS group showed higher serum levels of 11-deoxycortisol than the NFA group, and increased levels of tetrahydrocortisone (THE), 20α-dihydrocortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol were found in the PA group. However, the CS group showed lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) than both the NFA and PA groups. Patients with PA expressed higher serum 18-hydroxycortisol and DHEA but lower THE than NFA patients. The balanced accuracies of DT, RF, and XGBoost for classifying each type were 78%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for CS, XGBoost, and RF showed a significantly greater diagnostic power than the DT. However, in ROC analysis for PA, only RF exhibited better diagnostic performance than DT. @*Conclusion@#The combination of LC-MS-based steroid profiling with machine learning algorithms could be a promising one-step diagnostic approach for the classification of adrenal tumor subtypes.

16.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1287-1297, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914245

ABSTRACT

Background@#An activating mutation (c.617A>C/p.Lys206Arg, L206R) in protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (PRKACA) has been reported in 35% to 65% of cases of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs). We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and transcriptome analysis between PRKACA L206R mutants and wild-type CPAs in Korea. @*Methods@#We included 57 subjects with CPAs who underwent adrenalectomy at Seoul National University Hospital. Sanger sequencing for PRKACA was conducted in 57 CPA tumor tissues. RNA sequencing was performed in 13 fresh-frozen tumor tissues. @*Results@#The prevalence of the PRKACA L206R mutation was 51% (29/57). The mean age of the study subjects was 42±12 years, and 87.7% (50/57) of the patients were female. Subjects with PRKACA L206R mutant CPAs showed smaller adenoma size (3.3±0.7 cm vs. 3.8±1.2 cm, P=0.059) and lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (218±180 ng/mL vs. 1,511±3,307 ng/mL, P=0.001) than those with PRKACA wild-type CPAs. Transcriptome profiling identified 244 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PRKACA L206R mutant (n=8) and wild-type CPAs (n=5), including five upregulated and 239 downregulated genes in PRKACA L206R mutant CPAs (|fold change| ≥2, P<0.05). Among the upstream regulators of DEGs, CTNNB1 was the most significant transcription regulator. In several pathway analyses, the Wnt signaling pathway was downregulated and the steroid biosynthesis pathway was upregulated in PRKACA mutants. Protein-protein interaction analysis also showed that PRKACA downregulates Wnt signaling and upregulates steroid biosynthesis. @*Conclusion@#The PRKACA L206R mutation in CPAs causes high hormonal activity with a limited proliferative capacity, as supported by transcriptome profiling.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874549

ABSTRACT

Significant progress in pituitary and adrenal diseases was made in 2020. This review presents major translational and clinical advances in research on pituitary and adrenal diseases, encompassing their epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical management. We address the controversy regarding the nomenclature of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors, omics-based molecular classification of pituitary adenomas, and novel drugs for Cushing’s disease in the field of pituitary diseases. In the field of adrenal diseases, we cover big data-driven epidemiology of adrenal tumors, steroid profiling as a new diagnostic tool, and the utility of scoring systems in the decision-making process of managing primary aldosteronism. This brief article will broaden readers’ understanding of pituitary and adrenal diseases.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874542

ABSTRACT

Background@#The influence of serial changes of adipokines on maternal glucose metabolism from pregnancy to postpartum periods in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) has not been thoroughly explored. We tried to examine the relationship between the serial changes of adipokines and the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in women with pGDM. @*Methods@#We longitudinally measured following adipokines: high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), lipocalin-2, and chemerin, during pregnancy, and at 2 months and 3 years after delivery. Based on glucose status at postpartum 3 years, we divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (GDM-NGT, n=20), impaired glucose tolerance (GDM-IGT, n=23), and GDM-DM (n=22). We analyzed the correlations between adipokines and various metabolic parameters. @*Results@#Plasma HMW adiponectin levels were not different among the three groups during pregnancy. However, HMW adiponectin levels increased at 3 years after the delivery in women with GDM-NGT compared with women with GDM-DM. In the GDM-IGT group, HMW adiponectin levels increased at 2 months postpartum compared to pregnancy period. In contrast, HMW adiponectin levels showed no alternation after parturition in women with GDM-DM. HMW adiponectin was negatively correlated with body mass index and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Other adipokines such as RBP-4, lipocalin-2, and chemerin neither showed any differences among the groups nor any significant correlations with 3 years postpartum status of glucose intolerance. @*Conclusion@#Serial changes of HMW adiponectin are associated with the maintenance of glucose metabolism in women with pGDM after delivery.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902542

ABSTRACT

Three neonatal pigs from the same litter in a domestic farm were born with skin lesions. Grossly, multiple wellcircumscribed, round papules distributed over the skin of the three piglets. Two piglets were submitted for a diagnosis of skin disease.Microscopically, epidermal hyperplasia with ballooning degeneration of stratum spinosum keratinocytes was observed. Some keratinocytes contained eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions and a central nuclear vacuole and chromatin margination. Swinepox (SWP) virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing, and Staphylococcus hyicus was isolated in skin lesions. Based on the gross findings and laboratory results, these piglets were diagnosed with congenital SWP with a secondary staphylococcal infection.

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899389

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the effects of a gender-friendly environment and the communication competence of male nursing students on college life adaptation. @*Methods@#The participants included 221 male nursing students from the nursing departments at five universities. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, one-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple regressions with SPSS/WIN 18.0. @*Results@#The participants’ scores on the gender-friendly environment, communication competence, and college life adaptation were 58.41±10.96, 56.19±7.32, and 117.37±16.86, respectively. Factors influencing male nursing students’ college adaptation included satisfaction with major, communication competence, academic grade, and economic level. These variables together explained 59% of college adaptation in male nursing students (F=26.74, p<.001). @*Conclusion@#The findings demonstrate that the development and application of educational programs for communication competence and a gender-friendly educational environment are essential in enhancing the adaptation of male nursing students to college life.

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