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1.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 189-199, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000754

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of bazedoxifene/vitamin D combination therapy in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. @*Methods@#This was an open-label, multicenter randomized-controlled, phase 4 clinical trial. Women between ages of 55 and 70 years in 9 medical tertiary centers in Korea were enrolled and assigned into 2 groups: an experiment group and a control group. The experimental group received bazedoxifene 20 mg/vitamin D 800 IU tablets for 6 months, and the control group received calcium 100 mg/vitamin D 1,000 IU tablets for 6 months. @*Results@#A total of 142 patients (70 in the experimental group and 72 in the control group) were included. The least-square mean±standard error of change in propeptide of type I collagen after 3 months was -6.87±2.56% in the experimental group and 1.22±2.54% in the control group. After 6 months, it was -21.07±2.75% in the experimental group and 1.26±2.71% in the control group. The difference between the 2 groups was -22.33% (p<0.01). The change of C-terminal telopeptide was -12.55±4.05% in the experimental group and 11.02±4.03% in the control group after 3 months. It was -22.0±3.95% and 10.20±3.89, respectively, after 6 months. The difference between the 2 groups was -32.21% (p<0.01) after 6 months. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the 2 groups. @*Conclusions@#The osteoporosis preventive effect and safety of administering bazedoxifene/vitamin D combination pill were confirmed in postmenopausal women who needed osteoporosis prevention.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 620-628, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000363

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) response score (URS) was developed to identify poor responders to UDCA before treatment, in order to offer timely and proactive intervention. However, validation of the URS in Asian population is warranted. @*Methods@#A total of 173 Asian patients diagnosed with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) between 2007 and 2016 at seven academic institutions in Korea who started UDCA treatment were analyzed to validate the performance of URS. UDCA response was defined as an alkaline phosphatase level less than 1.67 times the upper limit of normal after 1-year of UDCA treatment. In addition, prognostic performance of URS for liver-related events, defined as newly developed hepatic decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma was evaluated. @*Results@#After 1 year of UDCA treatment, 133 patients (76.9%) achieved UDCA response. UDCAresponse rate was 98.7% for those with URS ≥1.41 (n=76) and 58.8% for those with URS <1.41(n=97). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of URS in predicting UDCAresponse was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 0.88). During a median follow-up of 6.5years, liver-related events developed in 18 patients (10.4%). Among 117 patients with PBC stage I-III by histological evaluation, the 5-year liver-related event-free survival rate differed accordingto the URS; 100% for URS ≥1.41 and 86.5% for URS <1.41 (p=0.005). @*Conclusions@#URS demonstrated good performance in predicting a UDCA treatment response in Asian PBC patients. In addition, the risk of liver-related events differed according to the URS for the PBC stage. Thus, URS can be used to predict the response and clinical outcome in patients with PBC.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 373-380, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000301

ABSTRACT

Adrenal incidentalomas represent an increasingly common clinical conundrum with significant implications for patients. The revised 2023 European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) guideline incorporates cutting-edge evidence for managing adrenal incidentalomas. This paper provides a concise review of the updated contents of the revised guideline. In the 2023 guideline, in patients without signs and symptoms of overt Cushing’s syndrome, a post-dexamethasone cortisol level above 50 nmol/L (>1.8 μg/dL) should be considered as mild autonomous cortisol secretion. Regarding the criteria of benign adrenal adenomas, a homogeneous adrenal mass with ≤10 Hounsfield units on non-contrast computed tomography requires no further follow-up, irrespective of its size. The updated guideline also discusses steroid metabolomics using tandem mass spectrometry to discriminate malignancy. It underscores the importance of high-volume surgeons performing adrenalectomy and emphasizes the pivotal role of a multidisciplinary team approach in deciding the treatment plan for indeterminate adrenal masses. The guideline advocates for more proactive surgical treatment for indeterminate adrenal masses in young patients (<40 years) and pregnant women. This review of the 2023 ESE guideline underscores the ongoing evolution of the adrenal incidentaloma management landscape, emphasizing the need for further research and adaptation of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 362-371, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977395

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) assay is widely used to screen for HCV infection, it has a high false-positive (FP) rate in low-risk populations. We investigated the accuracy of anti-HCV signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) ratio to distinguish true-positive (TP) from FP HCV infection. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 77,571 patients with anti-HCV results. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of anti-HCV S/CO ratio in anti-HCV positive patients. @*Results@#Overall, 1,126 patients tested anti-HCV positive; 34.7% of patients were FP based on HCV RNA and/or recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) results. The age and sex-adjusted anti-HCV prevalence was 1.22%. We identified significant differences in serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, anti-HCV S/CO ratio, and RIBA results between groups (viremia vs. non-viremia, TP vs. FP). Using ROC curves, the optimal cutoff values of anti-HCV S/CO ratio for HCV viremia and TP were 8 and 5, respectively. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.970 (95% CI, 0.959–0.982, p < 0.001), 99.7%, 87.5%, 87.4%, and 99.7%, respectively, for predicting HCV viremia at an anti-HCV S/CO ratio of 8 and 0.987 (95% CI, 0.980–0.994, p < 0.001), 95.3%, 94.7%, 97.1%, and 91.4%, respectively, for TP HCV infection at an anti-HCV S/CO ratio of 5. No patients with HCV viremia had an anti-HCV S/CO ratio below 5. @*Conclusions@#The anti-HCV S/CO ratio is highly accurate for discriminating TP from FP HCV infection and should be considered when diagnosing HCV infections.

5.
Korean Journal of Aerospace and Environmental Medicine ; : 3-8, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968677

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Higher education in Korea is becoming a fatal crisis for new students at each university due to the recent decrease in the school age population. In particular, local universities are facing a crisis due to insufficient recruitment of new students and a decrease in the enrollment rate. This is a serious problem in universities as the dropout rate increases as students take half of their classes after admission or transfer to the metropolitan area two years later. @*Methods@#This study aims to suggest improvement plans and directions necessary to improve the quality of aviation major education and to enhance the competitiveness of universities for survival. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between educational service quality factors affecting academic continuation intention of university students. @*Results@#As a result of the study, it was confirmed that among the sub-factors of educational service quality, the global support factor, environmental factor, reputation factor, and employment support factor had a significant effect on the intention to continue studying. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that the quality of education service is an important factor in increasing the intention to continue studying, because if students majoring in aviation have a good perception of the quality of education service in their major, they overcome it even if their studies are difficult and do not give up halfway.

6.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 10-24, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966831

ABSTRACT

The Korean National Health Information Database (NHID) contains big data combining information obtained from the National Health Insurance Service and health examinations. Data are provided in the form of a cohort, and the NHID can be used to conduct longitudinal studies and research on rare diseases. Moreover, data on the cause and date of death are provided by Statistics Korea. Research and publications based on the NHID have increased explosively in the field of endocrine disorders. However, because the data were not collected for research purposes, studies using the NHID have limitations, particularly the need for the operational definition of diseases. In this review, we describe the characteristics of the Korean NHID, operational definitions of endocrine diseases used for research, and an overview of recent studies in endocrinology using the Korean NHID.

7.
Korean Journal of Neurotrauma ; : 45-55, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968991

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The goal of the present study was to identify factors related to the growth and growth patterns of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). @*Methods@#Between January 2011 and December 2018, a total of 275 patients were diagnosed with UIAs in our institution. Of them, 91 patients were evaluated using computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, or digital subtraction angiography. Aneurysm size, morphology, location, and its changes were investigated. Patient factors, including gender, history of stroke, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and excessive alcohol consumption, were studied to identify factors associated with aneurysm growth. @*Results@#A total of 91 patients (121 aneurysms) with a mean follow-up duration of 37.2±23.9 months and a mean age of 64.0±11.4 years were included. The growth of unruptured aneurysms was identified in 23 patients (27 aneurysms, 22.3%). Regarding morphology, the diffuse growth pattern was the most common (12 aneurysms in 10 patients, 44.4%). Univariate analysis showed that patients with multiple aneurysms (p=0.010), history of stroke (p=0.021), and aneurysm location in the posterior circulation (p=0.029) were significantly associated with aneurysm growth. @*Conclusion@#The growth of an UIA is associated with the history of stroke, posterior location, and multiplicity. Considering the risk of unruptured aneurysm growth, patients with such risk factors should receive additional attention during follow-up.

8.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 93-101, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937748

ABSTRACT

Background@#A rapid increase in bone turnover and bone loss has been observed in response to the discontinuation of denosumab. It led to an acute increase in the fracture risk, similar to that observed in the untreated patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of denosumab on osteoclast (OC) precursor cells compared to that of zoledronate. @*Methods@#The study compared the effects of denosumab (60 mg/24-week) and zoledronate (5 mg/48-week) over 48 weeks in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. From patients’ peripheral mononuclear cells, CD14+/CD11b+/vitronectin receptor (VNR)- and CD14+/CD11b+/VNR+ cells were isolated using fluorescent-activated cell sorting, representing early and late OC precursors, respectively. The primary endpoint was the changes in OC precursors after 48 weeks of treatment. @*Results@#Among the 23 patients, 11 were assigned to the denosumab group and 12 to the zoledronate group (mean age, 69 years). After 48 weeks, the changes in OC precursors were similar between and within the groups. Serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with OC precursor levels after denosumab treatment (r=-0.72, P<0.001). Lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) increased in both groups. Lumbar spine BMD increased more significantly in the denosumab group than in the zoledronate group. @*Conclusions@#Denosumab and zoledronate treatments induced similar changes in OC precursors. During denosumab treatment, old age and suppressed bone turnover were associated with increased OC precursor cell populations. Further validation studies with prospective designs are required.

9.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 439-448, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926047

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are associated with hypothalamic damage that causes hypothalamic obesity, however, the mechanisms underlying CP-related postoperative weight gain remain debatable. This study aimed to elucidate whether the major determinant of postoperative weight gain in patients with CP is hypothalamic injury or steroid replacement therapy. @*Methods@#: We included 48 adult patients with CP (age ≥18 years) who underwent transsphenoidal surgery between 2010 and 2018 in a single tertiary center, and whose body weight was measured pre- and postoperatively (<120 days after the surgery). We recruited 144 age- and body mass index-matched patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) as controls. @*Results@#: Patients with CP experienced greater postoperative weight gain than patients with NFPA (3.0±5.1 vs. 0.1±3.6 kg, p<0.001). The prevalence of postoperative steroid use was significantly higher in patients with CP than in those with NFPA (89.6% vs. 34.0%, p<0.001). Steroid replacement therapy and CP were associated with postoperative weight gain after adjusting for covariates in overall patients (p=0.032 and 0.007, respectively). In subgroup analysis with postoperative steroid users, weight gain was significantly greater in patients with CP (n=43, 0.96±0.25 kg/month) than in patients with NFPA (n=49, 0.26±0.23 kg/month) even after adjusting for the daily steroid dose (p=0.048). @*Conclusion@#: Patients with CP experience greater postoperative weight gain than those with NFPA. Hypothalamic damage itself as well as steroid replacement may contribute to the postoperative weight gain in patients with CP.

10.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 121-133, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925287

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examined the impact of a virtual reality intervention program based on psychological needs on behavioral and psychological symptoms, apathy, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment living in nursing facilities. @*Methods@#This study is nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design of quasi-experimental study. The study collected data from November 18, 2020 to July 24, 2021 from patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group) at three nursing facilities in G city using self-reporting and caregiver-informant reporting methods. The analysis employed the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, paired t-test, independent t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann–Whitney U, repeated measures ANOVA, GEE, using SPSS/WIN 27.0. @*Results@#The severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms (Wald χ2 = 2.68, p = .102) and the care burden of caregivers (Wald χ2 = 1.72, p = .190) were not significant and was no significant time and group interaction effect (Wald χ2 = 0.63, p = .426, Wald χ2 = 0.52, p =. 471). The difference in apathy and QOL score were statistically significant for the group-time interaction (F = 43.65, p < .001; F = 4.35, p= .041). @*Conclusion@#The virtual reality intervention program of this study shows a positive effect on the apathy reduction and QOL of patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment residing in nursing facilities.

11.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 124-137, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924969

ABSTRACT

Background@#Monitoring adults with classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) is challenging due to variation in clinical and laboratory settings. Moreover, guidelines for adrenal imaging in 21OHD are not yet available. We evaluated the relationship between adrenal morphology and disease control status in classical 21OHD. @*Methods@#This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 90 adult 21OHD patients and 270 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We assessed adrenal volume, width, and tumor presence using abdominal computed tomography and evaluated correlations of adrenal volume and width with hormonal status. We investigated the diagnostic performance of adrenal volume and width for identifying well-controlled status in 21OHD patients (17α-hydroxyprogesterone [17-OHP] <10 ng/mL). @*Results@#The adrenal morphology of 21OHD patients showed hypertrophy (45.6%), normal size (42.2%), and hypotrophy (12.2%). Adrenal tumors were detected in 12 patients (13.3%). The adrenal volume and width of 21OHD patients were significantly larger than those of controls (18.2±12.2 mL vs. 7.1±2.0 mL, 4.7±1.9 mm vs. 3.3±0.5 mm, P<0.001 for both). The 17-OHP and androstenedione levels were highest in patients with adrenal hypertrophy, followed by those with normal adrenal glands and adrenal hypotrophy (P<0.05 for both). Adrenal volume and width correlated positively with adrenocorticotropic hormone, 17-OHP, 11β-hydroxytestosterone, progesterone sulfate, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in both sexes (r=0.33–0.95, P<0.05 for all). For identifying well-controlled patients, the optimal cut-off values of adrenal volume and width were 10.7 mL and 4 mm, respectively (area under the curve, 0.82–0.88; P<0.001 for both). @*Conclusion@#Adrenal volume and width may be reliable quantitative parameters for monitoring patients with classical 21OHD.

12.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 138-147, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924957

ABSTRACT

Background@#Previous studies on the epidemiology and complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were conducted in Western countries and in children/adolescents. We aimed to explore the epidemiology of CAH, as well as the risk of comorbidities and mortality, in a Korean nationwide case-control study. @*Methods@#CAH patients (n=2,840) were included between 2002 and 2017 from the National Health Insurance Service database and the Rare Intractable Disease program. CAH patients were compared, at a 1:10 ratio, with age-, sex-, and index year-matched controls (n=28,400). @*Results@#The point prevalence of CAH patients in Korea was 1 in 18,745 persons in 2017. The annual incidence rate declined between 2003 and 2017 from 3.25 to 0.41 per 100,000 persons. CAH patients were at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 1.9), stroke (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.0), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.6 to 3.1), dyslipidemia (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 2.2 to 2.6), and psychiatric disorders (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3 to 1.6). Fracture risk increased in CAH patients aged over 40 years (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7). CAH patients were at higher risk of mortality than controls (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.0). @*Conclusion@#Our nationwide study showed a recent decline in the incidence of CAH and an elevated risk for cardiovascular, metabolic, skeletal, and psychiatric disorders in CAH patients. Lifelong management for comorbidity risk is a crucial component of treating CAH patients.

13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 369-382, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924938

ABSTRACT

Background@#Optimal management of primary aldosteronism (PA) is crucial due to the increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard method for determining subtype but is technically challenging and invasive. Some PA patients do not benefit clinically from surgery. We sought to develop an algorithm to improve decision- making before engaging in AVS and surgery in clinical practice. @*Methods@#We conducted the ongoing Korean Primary Aldosteronism Study at two tertiary centers. Study A involved PA patients with successful catheterization and a unilateral nodule on computed tomography and aimed to predict unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (n=367). Study B involved similar patients who underwent adrenalectomy and aimed to predict postoperative outcome (n=330). In study A, we implemented important feature selection using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. @*Results@#We developed a unilateral PA prediction model using logistic regression analysis: lowest serum potassium level ≤3.4 mEq/L, aldosterone-to-renin ratio ≥150, plasma aldosterone concentration ≥30 ng/mL, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 (area under the curve, 0.819; 95% confidence interval, 0.774 to 0.865; sensitivity, 97.6%; specificity, 25.5%). In study B, we identified female, hypertension duration <5 years, anti-hypertension medication <2.5 daily defined dose, and the absence of coronary artery disease as predictors of clinical success, using stepwise logistic regression models (sensitivity, 94.2%; specificity, 49.3%). We validated our algorithm in the independent validation dataset (n=53). @*Conclusion@#We propose this new outcome-driven diagnostic algorithm, simultaneously considering unilateral aldosterone excess and clinical surgical benefits in PA patients.

14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 344-358, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924933

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although recent studies comparing various dosages and intervals of vitamin D supplementation have been published, it is yet to be elucidated whether there is an appropriate dose or interval to provide benefit regarding fracture risk. We aimed to assess the published evidence available to date regarding the putative beneficial effects of vitamin D supplements on fractures and falls according to various dosages and intervals. @*Methods@#We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies reporting associations between vitamin D supplementation and the risks of fractures and falls in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. Studies with supplements of ergocalciferol or calcitriol, those with a number of event ≤10, or those with a follow-up duration of less than 6 months were also excluded. @*Results@#Thirty-two studies were included in the final analysis. Vitamin D supplementation with daily dose of 800 to 1,000 mg was associated with lower risks of osteoporotic fracture and fall (pooled relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.97 and RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98), while studies with 1,000 mg/day did not. Also, among intervals, daily administration of vitamin D was associated with the reduced risk of falls, while intermittent dose was not. Also, patients with vitamin D deficiency showed a significant risk reduction of falls after vitamin D supplementation. @*Conclusion@#Daily vitamin D dose of 800 to 1,000 IU was the most probable way to reduce the fracture and fall risk. Further studies designed with various regimens and targeted vitamin D levels are required to elucidate the benefits of vitamin D supplements.

15.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 51-56, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874549

ABSTRACT

Significant progress in pituitary and adrenal diseases was made in 2020. This review presents major translational and clinical advances in research on pituitary and adrenal diseases, encompassing their epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical management. We address the controversy regarding the nomenclature of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors, omics-based molecular classification of pituitary adenomas, and novel drugs for Cushing’s disease in the field of pituitary diseases. In the field of adrenal diseases, we cover big data-driven epidemiology of adrenal tumors, steroid profiling as a new diagnostic tool, and the utility of scoring systems in the decision-making process of managing primary aldosteronism. This brief article will broaden readers’ understanding of pituitary and adrenal diseases.

16.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 114-122, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874542

ABSTRACT

Background@#The influence of serial changes of adipokines on maternal glucose metabolism from pregnancy to postpartum periods in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) has not been thoroughly explored. We tried to examine the relationship between the serial changes of adipokines and the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in women with pGDM. @*Methods@#We longitudinally measured following adipokines: high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), lipocalin-2, and chemerin, during pregnancy, and at 2 months and 3 years after delivery. Based on glucose status at postpartum 3 years, we divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (GDM-NGT, n=20), impaired glucose tolerance (GDM-IGT, n=23), and GDM-DM (n=22). We analyzed the correlations between adipokines and various metabolic parameters. @*Results@#Plasma HMW adiponectin levels were not different among the three groups during pregnancy. However, HMW adiponectin levels increased at 3 years after the delivery in women with GDM-NGT compared with women with GDM-DM. In the GDM-IGT group, HMW adiponectin levels increased at 2 months postpartum compared to pregnancy period. In contrast, HMW adiponectin levels showed no alternation after parturition in women with GDM-DM. HMW adiponectin was negatively correlated with body mass index and a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Other adipokines such as RBP-4, lipocalin-2, and chemerin neither showed any differences among the groups nor any significant correlations with 3 years postpartum status of glucose intolerance. @*Conclusion@#Serial changes of HMW adiponectin are associated with the maintenance of glucose metabolism in women with pGDM after delivery.

17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 400-407, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938655

ABSTRACT

Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency is associated with insulin resistance, elevated cardiovascular risk profile, increased fat mass, reduced muscle mass, skeletal fragility, and impaired quality of life. GH replacement therapy improves body composition, exercise capacity, skeletal health, cardiovascular outcomes, and quality of life, while reducing mortality. Prior to initiation of GH replacement therapy, it is essential to diagnose GH deficiency via a GH stimulation test in adults suspicious of such deficiency. Therapy should be started using (individualized) low dose of GH, followed by titration to the normal range of insulin-like growth factor-1. Clinical improvements should be monitored and side effects should be minimized.

18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e97-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899851

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although long-term dopamine agonist (DA) therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for prolactinoma, some patients may prefer surgical treatment because of the potential adverse effects of long-term medication, or the desire to become pregnant. This study aimed to determine whether surgical treatment of prolactinomas could be an alternative to DA therapy. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 96 consecutive patients (74 female, 22 male) underwent primary pituitary surgery without long-term DA treatment for prolactinomas at a single institution from 1990 to 2010. All patients underwent primary surgical treatment in the microscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA). @*Results@#The median age and median follow-up period were 31 (16–73) years and 139.1 (12.2–319.6) months, respectively. An initial overall remission was accomplished in 47.9% (46 of 96 patients, 33 macroadenomas, and 13 microadenomas) of patients. DA dose reduction was achieved in all patients after TSA. A better remission rate was independently predicted by lower diagnostic prolactin levels and by a greater extent of surgical resection. Overall remission at the last follow-up was 33.3%, and the overall recurrence rate was 30.4%. The permanent complication rate was 3.1%, and there was no mortality. @*Conclusion@#TSA can be considered a safe and potentially curative treatment for selective microprolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with a long-term DA.

19.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 101-113, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891237

ABSTRACT

The trabecular bone score (TBS) was introduced as an indirect index of trabecular microarchitecture, complementary to bone mineral density (BMD), and is derived using the same dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images. Recently, it has been approved for clinical use in Korea. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review to optimize the use of TBS in clinical practice. The TBS is an independent predictor of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women and men aged >50 years. The TBS is potentially useful in monitoring the skeletal effects of anabolic agents but not of antiresorptive agents. In postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the TBS assesses osteoporotic fracture risk not captured by BMD. However, high body mass index and soft tissue thickness can cause underestimation of the TBS; however, this limitation has been improved in recent versions of the TBS software. However, a high precision error and low reproducibility limit the use of TBS. This review may provide information on the application of the TBS in clinical practice based on reliable evidence.

20.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 885-894, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890498

ABSTRACT

Background@#There has been controversy regarding the association between primary aldosteronism (PA) and dyslipidemia and few studies considered the effects of diabetes and renal function on lipid metabolism. We analyzed lipid profiles of PA patients and compared them to propensity-score (PS)-matched essential hypertension (EH) patients adjusting for glycemic status and renal function. @*Methods@#Patients who were diagnosed with PA using a saline-infusion test at Seoul National University Hospital from 2000 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. EH patients who had aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) results were selected as controls. Covariates, including diabetes, were PS-matched for patients with PA, lateralized PA, non-lateralized PA, and high ARR to EH patients, respectively. @*Results@#Among a total of 80 PA and 80 EH patients, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly lower in the PA patients than in the EH patients (least-squares mean±standard error: 185.5±4.4 mg/dL vs. 196.2±4.4 mg/dL, P=0.047, for TC; and 132.3±11.5 mg/dL vs. 157.4±11.4 mg/dL, P=0.035, for TG) in fully adjusted model (adjusting for multiple covariates, including diabetes status, glycosylated hemoglobin level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). There were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. According to increments in aldosterone levels, an increasing tendency of HDL-C and decreasing tendencies of TG and non-HDL-C were observed. @*Conclusion@#PA patients had lower TC and TG levels than EH patients, independent of glycemic status and renal function.

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