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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919191

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Treatment decisions for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) are complicated, and multi-modal treatments are usually indicated. However, it is challenging for older patients to complete treatments. Thus, we investigated disease characteristics, real-world treatment, and outcomes in older LA-HNSCC patients. @*Methods@#Older patients (aged ≥ 70 years) were selected from a large nationwide cohort that included 445 patients with stage III–IVB LA-HNSCC from January 2005 to December 2015. Their data were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those of younger patients. @*Results@#Older patients accounted for 18.7% (83/445) of all patients with median age was 73 years (range, 70 to 89). Proportions of primary tumors in the hypopharynx and larynx were higher in older patients and older patients had a more advanced T stage and worse performance status. Regarding treatment strategies of older patients, 44.5% of patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), 41.0% underwent surgery, and 14.5% did not complete the planned treatment. Induction chemotherapy (IC) was administered to 27.7% (23/83) of older patients; the preferred regimen for IC was fluorouracil and cisplatin (47.9%). For CCRT, weekly cisplatin was prescribed 3.3 times more often than 3-weekly cisplatin (62.2% vs. 18.9%). Older patients had a 60% higher risk of death than younger patients (hazard ratio, 1.6; p = 0.035). Oral cavity cancer patients had the worst survival probability. @*Conclusions@#Older LA-HNSCC patients had aggressive tumor characteristics and received less intensive treatment, resulting in poor survival. Further research focusing on the older population is necessary.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874362

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to validate the Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral to Care (SPARC) as an effective tool for screening palliative care needs among Korean cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#The English version of the SPARC was translated by four Korean oncologists and reconciled by a Korean language specialist and a medical oncologist fluent in English. After the first version of the Korean SPARC (K-SPARC) was developed, back-translation into English was performed by a professional translator and bilingual oncologist. The back-translated version was reviewed by the original author (S.H.A.), and modifications were made (ver. 2). The second version of the K-SPARC was tested against other questionnaires, including the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). @*Results@#Thirty patients were enrolled in the pilot trial. Fifteen were male, and the median age was 64.5 years. Six patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or more. All patients except one were receiving chemotherapy. Regarding internal consistency, the Cronbach’s α scores for physical symptoms, psychological issues, religious and spiritual issues, independency and activity, family and social issues, and treatment issues were 0.812, 0.804, 0.589, 0.843, 0.754, and 0.822, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the SPARC and FACT-G were 0.479 (p=0.007) for the physical domain and –0.130 (p=0.493) for the social domain. @*Conclusion@#This pilot study indicates that the K-SPARC could be a reliable tool to screen for palliative care needs among Korean cancer patients. A further study to validate our findings is ongoing.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917765

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#At the end of life, communication is a key factor for good care. However, in clinical practice, it is difficult to adequately discuss end-of-life care. In order to understand and analyze how decision-making related to life-sustaining treatment (LST) is performed, the shared decision-making (SDM) behaviors of physicians were investigated. @*Methods@#A questionnaire was designed after reviewing the literature on attitudes toward SDM or decision-making related to LST. A final item was added after consulting experts. The survey was completed by internal medicine residents and hematologists/medical oncologists who treat terminal cancer patients. @*Results@#In total, 202 respondents completed the questionnaire, and 88.6% said that the decision to continue or end LST is usually a result of SDM since they believed that sufficient explanation is provided to patients and caregivers, patients and caregivers make their own decisions according to their values, and there is sufficient time for patients and caregivers to make a decision. Expected satisfaction with the decisionmaking process was the highest for caregivers (57.4%), followed by physicians (49.5%) and patients (41.1%). In total, 38.1% of respondents said that SDM was adequately practiced when making decisions related to LST. The most common reason for inadequate SDM was time pressure (89.6%). @*Conclusion@#Although most physicians answered that they practiced SDM when making decisions regarding LST, satisfactory SDM is rarely practiced in the clinical field. A model for the proper implementation of SDM is needed, and additional studies must be conducted to develop an SDM model in collaboration with other academic organizations.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917763

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The accessibility of medical facilities for cancer patients affects both their comfort and survival. Patients in rural areas have a higher socioeconomic burden and are more vulnerable to emergency situations than urban dwellers. This study examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a cancer care model integrating a regional cancer center (RCC) and public health center (PHC). @*Methods@#This study analyzed the construction of a safety care network for cancer patients that integrated an RCC and PHC. Two public health institutions (an RCC in Gyeongnam and a PHC in Geochang County) collaborated on the development of the community care model. The study lasted 13 months beginning in February 2019 to February 2020. @*Results@#The RCC developed the protocol for evaluating and measuring 27 cancer-related symptoms, conducted education for PHC nurses, and administered case counseling. The staff at the PHC registered, evaluated, and routinely monitored patients through home visits. A smartphone application and regular video conferences were incorporated to facilitate mutual communication. In total, 177 patients (mean age: 70.9 years; men: 59%) were enrolled from February 2019 to February 2020. Patients’ greatest unmet need was the presence of a nearby cancer treatment hospital (83%). In total, 28 (33%) and 44 (52%) participants answered that the care model was very helpful or helpful, respectively. @*Conclusion@#We confirmed that a combined RCC-PHC program for cancer patients in rural areas is feasible and can bring satisfaction to patients as a safety care network. This program could mitigate health inequalities caused by accessibility issues.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913790

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The “Act on Hospice and Palliative Care and Decisions on Life-Sustaining Treatment for Patients at the End-of-Life” was enacted on February 3, 2016 and went into effect on February 4, 2018 in Korea. This study reviewed the first year of determination to life-sustaining treatment (LST) through data analysis of the National Agency for Management of Life-Sustaining Treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#The National Agency for Management of LST provided data between February 4, 2018 and January 31, 2019 anonymously from 33,549 patients. According to the forms patients were defined as either elf-determinants or family-determinants. @*Results@#The median age of the patient was 73 and the majority was male (59.9%). Cancer patients were 59% and self-determinants were 32.1%. Cancer patients had a higher rate of self-determinants than non-cancer (47.3% vs. 10.1%). Plan for hospice service was high in cancer patients among self-determinants (81.0% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.001). In comparison to family-determinants, self-determinants were younger (median age, 67 years vs. 75 years; p < 0.001) and had more cancer diagnosis (87.1% vs. 45.9%, p < 0.001). Decision of withholding or withdrawing of LSTs in cancer patients was higher than non-cancer patients in four items. @*Conclusion@#Cancer patients had a higher rate in self-determination and withholding or withdrawing of LSTs than non-cancer patients. Continued revision of the law and education of the public will be able to promote withdrawing or withholding the futile LSTs in patients at end-of-life. Further study following the revision of the law should be evaluated to change of end-of-life care.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913789

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In Korea, the “Act on Hospice and Palliative Care and Decisions on Life-sustaining Treatment for Patients at the End of Life” was enacted on February 4, 2018. This study was conducted to analyze the current state of life-sustaining treatment decisions based on National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data after the law came into force. @*Materials and Methods@#The data of 173,028 cancer deaths were extracted from NHIS qualification data between November 2015 and January 2019. @*Results@#The number of cancer deaths complied with the law process was 14,438 of 54,635 cases (26.4%). The rate of patient self-determination was 49.0%. The patients complying with the law process have used a hospice center more frequently (28% vs. 14%). However, the rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission was similar between the patients who complied with and without the law process (ICU admission, 23% vs. 21%). There was no difference in the proportion of patients who had undergone mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis in the comparative analysis before and after the enforcement of the law and the analysis according to the compliance with the law. The patients who complied with the law process received cardiopulmonary resuscitation at a lower rate. @*Conclusion@#The law has positive effects on the rate of life-sustaining treatment decision by patient’s determination. However, there was no sufficient effect on the withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining treatment, which could protect the patient from unnecessary or harmful interventions.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913788

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The main purpose of the Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions Act recently enacted in Korea is to respect the patient’s self-determination. We aimed to investigate the current status and features of patient self-determination after implementation of the law. @*Materials and Methods@#Between February 2018 and January 2019, 54,635 cancer deaths were identified from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. We analyzed the characteristics of decedents who complied with the law process by self-determination compared with decedents with family determination and with decedents who did not comply with the law process. @*Results@#In multivariable analysis, patients with self-determination were younger, were less likely to live in rural areas, were less likely to belong to the highest income quintile, were less likely to be treated in general hospitals, and were more likely to show a longer time from cancer diagnosis compared with patients with family determination. Compared with patients who did not comply with the law process, patients with self-determination were younger, lived in Seoul or capital area, were less likely to belong to the highest income quintile, were treated in general hospitals, were less likely to have genitourinary or hematologic malignancies, scored higher on the Charlson comorbidity index, and showed a longer time from cancer diagnosis. Patients with self-determination were more likely to use hospice and less likely to use intensive care units (ICUs) at the end-of-life (EOL). @*Conclusion@#Decedents with self-determination were more likely to be younger, reside in the Seoul or capital area, show a longer time from cancer diagnosis, and were less likely to belong to the highest income quintile. They utilized hospice more frequently, and received less ICU care at the EOL.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913787

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Six forms relating to decisions on life-sustaining treatment (LST) for patients at the end-of-life (EOL) in hospital are required by the “Act on Decision of LST for Patients at the EOL.” We investigated the preparation and creation status of these documents from the database of the National Agency for Management of LST. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed the contents and details of each document necessary for decisions on LST, and the creation status of forms. We defined patients completing form 1 as “self-determined” of LST, and those whose family members had completed form 11/12 as “family decision” of LST. According to the determination subject, we compared the four items of LST on form 13 (the paper of implementation of LST) and the documentation time interval between forms. @*Results@#The six forms require information about the patient, doctor, specialized doctor, family members, institution, decision for LST, and intention to use hospice services. Of 44,381 who had completed at least one document, 36,693 patients had form 13. Among them, 11,531, 10,976, and 12,551 people completed forms 1, 11, and 12, respectively. The documentation time interval from forms 1, 11, or 12 to form 13 was 8.6±13.6 days, 1.0±9.5 days, and 1.5±9.7 days, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The self-determination rate of LST was 31% and the mean time interval from self-determination to implementation of LST was 8.6 days. The creation of these forms still takes place when the patients are close to death.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901240

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to investigate the current status and demands of domestic infertility counseling and to investigate the predictors of infertile women’s needs for infertility counseling in order to improve the development of an infertility counseling delivery system. @*Methods@#A total of 1,131 infertile Korean women from 116 public health centers, 2 infertility clinics, a counseling center of a demonstration project and an online infertility café participated in the study. A selfreport survey was utilized to collect data, including medical information and infertility counseling requirements. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a 1-way analysis of variance, and stepwise multiple regression. @*Results@#The utilization rate of infertility counseling was 3.8%, with 81.6% of those who received counseling reporting that they were satisfied with the infertility counseling. Of the participants, 88.1% reported a high demand for infertility counseling and were found to have a higher need for counseling if they had higher incomes, were married for longer, were infertile longer, or were undergoing in vitro fertilization. Stepwise regression analyses showed that high level of psychological distress was a significant predictor for the need for infertility counseling. @*Conclusion@#In order to develop a client-centered infertility counseling delivery system, the levels of psychological distress of infertile women must be assessed and the development of a stepped care approach is proposed.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899762

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899715

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. @*Results@#For most illnesses, most physicians (adjusted proportions – end-organ failure, 99.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 98.5%; acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], 98.4%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 96.0%; and dementia, 89.6%) and members of the general public (end-organ failure, 92.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 92.5%; AIDS, 91.5%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 92.1%; and dementia, 86.9%) wanted to be informed if they had a terminal prognosis. For physicians and the general public, the primary factor to consider when disclosing terminal status was “the patient's right to know his/her condition” (31.0%). Yet, the general public was less likely to prefer prognostic disclosure than physicians. Particularly, when their family members were patients, more than 10% of the general public did not want patients to be informed of their terminal prognosis. For the general public, the main reason for not disclosing prognosis was “psychological burden such as anxiety and depression” (35.8%), while for the physicians it was “disclosure would have no beneficial effect” (42.4%). @*Conclusion@#Most Physicians and the general public agreed that disclosure of a terminal prognosis respects patient autonomy for several serious illnesses. The low response rate of physicians might limit the generalizability of the results.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892058

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892011

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although international guidelines recommend palliative care approaches for many serious illnesses, the palliative needs of patients with serious illnesses other than cancer are often unmet, mainly due to insufficient prognosis-related discussion. We investigated physicians' and the general public's respective attitudes toward prognostic disclosure for several serious illnesses. @*Methods@#We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 928 physicians, sourced from 12 hospitals and the Korean Medical Association, and 1,005 members of the general public, sourced from all 17 administrative divisions in Korea. @*Results@#For most illnesses, most physicians (adjusted proportions – end-organ failure, 99.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 98.5%; acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS], 98.4%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 96.0%; and dementia, 89.6%) and members of the general public (end-organ failure, 92.0%; incurable genetic or neurologic disease, 92.5%; AIDS, 91.5%; stroke or Parkinson's disease, 92.1%; and dementia, 86.9%) wanted to be informed if they had a terminal prognosis. For physicians and the general public, the primary factor to consider when disclosing terminal status was “the patient's right to know his/her condition” (31.0%). Yet, the general public was less likely to prefer prognostic disclosure than physicians. Particularly, when their family members were patients, more than 10% of the general public did not want patients to be informed of their terminal prognosis. For the general public, the main reason for not disclosing prognosis was “psychological burden such as anxiety and depression” (35.8%), while for the physicians it was “disclosure would have no beneficial effect” (42.4%). @*Conclusion@#Most Physicians and the general public agreed that disclosure of a terminal prognosis respects patient autonomy for several serious illnesses. The low response rate of physicians might limit the generalizability of the results.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810945

ABSTRACT

While recently extending that research, however, the authors discovered that 236 members of the general population were mistakenly to be duplicated by the investigating agency (Word Research) and 1,241 were reported rather than 1,005. The authors present corrections and discuss the relevant data. The authors wish to apologize to the publisher and readers of Journal of Korean Medical Science for these errors.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893536

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to investigate the current status and demands of domestic infertility counseling and to investigate the predictors of infertile women’s needs for infertility counseling in order to improve the development of an infertility counseling delivery system. @*Methods@#A total of 1,131 infertile Korean women from 116 public health centers, 2 infertility clinics, a counseling center of a demonstration project and an online infertility café participated in the study. A selfreport survey was utilized to collect data, including medical information and infertility counseling requirements. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, a 1-way analysis of variance, and stepwise multiple regression. @*Results@#The utilization rate of infertility counseling was 3.8%, with 81.6% of those who received counseling reporting that they were satisfied with the infertility counseling. Of the participants, 88.1% reported a high demand for infertility counseling and were found to have a higher need for counseling if they had higher incomes, were married for longer, were infertile longer, or were undergoing in vitro fertilization. Stepwise regression analyses showed that high level of psychological distress was a significant predictor for the need for infertility counseling. @*Conclusion@#In order to develop a client-centered infertility counseling delivery system, the levels of psychological distress of infertile women must be assessed and the development of a stepped care approach is proposed.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831101

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to compare ramosetron (RAM), aprepitant (APR), and dexamethasone (DEX) [RAD] with palonosetron (PAL), APR, and DEX [PAD] in controlling highly-emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC)–induced nausea and vomiting. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive RAD or PAD:RAM (0.3 mg intravenously) or PAL (0.25 mg intravenously) D1, combined with APR (125 mg orally, D1 and 80 mg orally, D2-3) and DEX (12 mg orally or intravenously, D1 and 8 mg orally, D2-4). Patients were stratified by gender, cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and administration schedule. The primary endpoint was overall complete response (CR), defined as no emesis and no rescue regimen during 5 days of HEC. Secondary endpoints were overall complete protection (CP; CR+nausea score < 25 mm) and total control (TC; CR+nausea score < 5 mm). Quality of life was assessed by Functional Living Index Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire on D0 and D6. @*Results@#A total of 279 patients receiving RAD (n=137) or PAD (n=142) were evaluated. Overall CR rates in RAD and PAD recipients were 81.8% and 79.6% (risk difference [RD], 2.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], −7.1 to 11.4), respectively. Overall CP and TC rates for RAD and PAD were 56.2% and 58.5% (RD, −2.3%; 95% CI, −13.9 to 9.4) and 47.5% vs. 43.7% (RD, 3.8%; 95% CI, −7.9 to 15.5), respectively. FLIE total score ≥ 108 (no impact on daily life) was comparable between RAD and PAD (73.9% vs. 73.4%, respectively). Adverse events were similar between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#In all aspects of efficacy, safety and QOL, RAD is non-inferior to PAD for the control of CINV in cancer patients receiving HEC.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore the current awareness and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as attitudes toward CAM, in patients with cancer and their family members in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 21 and October 31, 2017, a 25-item questionnaire regarding CAM experiences among cancer patients and their family members was conducted in 10 oncology clinics in South Korea after institutional review board approval at each institution. RESULTS: In total, 283/310 patients were analyzed. The median age was 60 years, and 60% were male. Most of the patients were actively receiving anticancer treatment at the time of the survey. A total of 106 patients (37%) had experienced a median of two types (interquartile range, 1 to 3) of CAM. Belief in CAM (odds ratio [OR], 3.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.611 to 5.640) and duration of disease (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.020) were independent factors for using CAM in multivariable analysis. Belief in CAM was significantly associated with current use of CAM (OR, 3.633; 95% CI, 1.567 to 8.424). Lay referral was the most common reason for deciding to use CAM, and only 25% of patients (72/283) discussed CAM with their physicians. CONCLUSION: Patient attitudes toward and confidence in CAM modalities were strongly associated with their CAM experiences, and only a small number of patients had an open discussion about CAM with their physicians. A patient education program for CAM is needed.


Subject(s)
Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics Committees, Research , Humans , Korea , Male , Patient Education as Topic , Referral and Consultation
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759852

ABSTRACT

Opioids are important drugs for the management of severe cancer pain without a ceiling effect. However, opioid administration leads to dose-limiting complications including drowsiness, hallucinations, delirium, respiratory depression, cognitive impairment, seizure, myoclonus, and hyperalgesia. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is a paradoxical phenomenon as opioid exposure increases pain sensitivity. Reducing or stopping opioids, opioid rotation, or co-administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists have been suggested for the management of OIH. In this study, we report two clinical cases of successful management of OIH in cancer pain patients that were treated with opioids.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Cognition Disorders , Delirium , Hallucinations , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Myoclonus , N-Methylaspartate , Pain Management , Respiratory Insufficiency , Seizures , Sleep Stages
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758558

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine whether psychological distress of infertile women would differ according to demographic and infertility characteristics, and psychosocial variables such as neuroticism, self-esteem, coping style, and dyadic communication patterns. METHODS: A total of 466 infertile Korean women attending four infertility clinics and being recruited through an online survey center participated in the study. Psychological distress was assessed using the Korean version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, a one-way analysis of variance, and hierarchical multiple regression. RESULTS: Overall psychological distress among infertile women did not differ significantly from that of healthy adult groups. However, infertile women who were of younger age or in the treatment preparation or rest period were shown to have a higher level of psychological distress. Hierarchical regression analyzes showed that after controlling demographic and infertility characteristics, psychosocial variables such as neuroticism, self-esteem, active/passive avoidance coping, and dyadic demanding/withdrawn communication patterns explained 52.5 % of psychological distress. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that a high-risk group is characterized with high neuroticism, low self-esteem, avoidance coping, and dyadic demanding/withdrawn communication pattern. There is a crucial need for developing an intervention which addresses infertile women's coping styles and marital communication.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety , Depression , Emotional Adjustment , Female , Humans , Infertility , Infertility, Female
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Despite increased demand for cancer patient's to make their own decisions based on an adequate understanding of what is involved in chemotherapy, the primary signing agent and the reasons for surrogate signing have not been appropriately evaluated.@*METHODS@#The ethics committee of the palliative medicine subgroup of the Korean Cancer Study Group designed this study and solid cancer patients to whom chemotherapy was offered, from seven institutions, were evaluated. The details relating to surrogate's signing of chemotherapy consent were evaluated. Then, we analyzed the factors associated with surrogate's signing according to patient's demographics and characteristics related to chemotherapy consent.@*RESULTS@#Surrogate's signing was noted for 20.7% (84/405) of patient and over half of surrogate signings were performed by the patients' son or daughter (60.7%). Two main reasons for surrogate signing were patient's incapacity (34.5%) and taking over authorization from patients (33.3%). The factors associated with more frequent surrogate's signing were absence of spouse, lower education level, outpatient, and when residents played a role as a principle provider of chemotherapy consent.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study suggests the lack of patients' own decision making for chemotherapy in some situations. This ethical dilemma must be considered for adequately informed decision making for chemotherapy while ensuring the patients' autonomy is maintained.

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