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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 25-34, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968885

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hypoxaemia is a significant adverse event during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) under monitored anaesthesia care (MAC); however, no model has been developed to predict hypoxaemia. We aimed to develop and compare logistic regression (LR) and machine learning (ML) models to predict hypoxaemia during ERCP under MAC. @*Materials and Methods@#We collected patient data from our institutional ERCP database. The study population was randomly divided into training and test sets (7:3). Models were fit to training data and evaluated on unseen test data. The training set was further split into k-fold (k=5) for tuning hyperparameters, such as feature selection and early stopping. Models were trained over k loops; the i-th fold was set aside as a validation set in the i-th loop. Model performance was measured using area under the curve (AUC). @*Results@#We identified 6114 cases of ERCP under MAC, with a total hypoxaemia rate of 5.9%. The LR model was established by combining eight variables and had a test AUC of 0.693. The ML and LR models were evaluated on 30 independent data splits. The average test AUC for LR was 0.7230, which improved to 0.7336 by adding eight more variables with an l 1 regularisation-based selection technique and ensembling the LRs and gradient boosting algorithm (GBM). The high-risk group was discriminated using the GBM ensemble model, with a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 72.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#We established GBM ensemble model and LR model for risk prediction, which demonstrated good potential for preventing hypoxaemia during ERCP under MAC.

2.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 118-125, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001252

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study was conducted to identify the level of mental health and burnout of medical staff at hospitals and public health centers, which responded to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea and to suggest appropriate management plans. @*Methods@#The mental health and burnout levels of medical staff responding to COVID-19 were evaluated through an online survey conducted during the period July 1–14, 2021. To analyze the mental health status of the participants according to their demographic characteristics, the chisquare test, t-test, and an analysis of variance were conducted, followed by Scheffe post-hoc tests for pairwise comparisons. @*Results@#A total of 773 participants were included in the study. An analysis of the clinically significant symptoms of the group showed that 29.5% had posttraumatic stress symptoms, 30.6% had depression, 15.8% had anxiety, 39.8% had somatic symptoms, and 4.5% were seen to be at risk of suicide. The average scores for burnout were as follows: 3.55±1.75 for emotional exhaustion, 2.68±1.73 for depersonalization, and 3.89±1.40 for personal accomplishment. Mental health problems and burnout were found to be high in women, those in the 20–39-year age bracket, those with less than 5 years of work experience, and public health center workers. @*Conclusion@#The medical staff responding to COVID-19 were observed to experience high levels of mental health and burnout problems. Work-related characteristics, such as younger age, lower work experience, and employment at a public health center, may have a negative impact on mental health and cause burnout. Therefore, individualized and systemic support for mental health and to prevent the burnout of medical staff responding to cases of COVID-19 is needed.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 279-287, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000126

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Even though studies using machine learning on sleep-wake states have been performed, studies in various conditions are still necessary. This study aimed to examine the performance of the prediction model of locomotor activities on sleep-wake states using machine learning algorithms. @*Methods@#The processed data using moving average of locomotor activities were used as predicting features. The sleep-wake states were used as true labels. The prediction models were established by machine learning classifiers such as support vector machine with radial basis function (SVM-RBF), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), naïve Bayes, and random forest (RF). The prediction model was evaluated by a six-fold cross validation. @*Results@#The SVM-RBF and RF showed acceptable performance within a window of moving average from 480 to 1,200 seconds. The highest accuracy (0.869) was shown by the RF at the interval of 480 seconds. Meanwhile, the highest area under the curve (0.939) was shown by LDA at the interval of 870 seconds. @*Conclusion@#This study suggested that the prediction model on sleep-wake state using machine learning could show an improvement of the model performance when using moving average with raw data. The prediction model using locomotor activity can be useful in research on sleep-wake state.

4.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 141-144, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977059

ABSTRACT

Headache is a frequent complaint in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients. Nevertheless, no detailed information on the pathophysiology of headache in COVID-19 infection is currently limited. We encountered a patient developing headache, diplopia, and intracranial hypertension after COVID-19 infection. The patient no more complained of headache and diplopia after the intracranial pressure was normalized. Our case suggests that intracranial hypertension is a mechanism of headache in COVID-19 infection. We report herein a case of transient intracranial hypertension after COCVID-19 infection.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 531-541, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976713

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Mutations in the PIK3CA gene occur frequently in breast cancer patients. Activating PIK3CA mutations confer resistance to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted treatments. In this study, we investigated whether PIK3CA mutations were correlated with treatment response or duration in patients with HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical information of patients with HER2+ breast cancer who received HER2-targeted therapy for early-stage or metastatic cancers. The pathologic complete response (pCR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were compared between patients with wild-type PIK3CA (PIK3CAw) and those with mutated PIK3CA (PIK3CAm). Next-generation sequencing was combined with examination of PFS associated with anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment. @*Results@#Data from 90 patients with HER2+ breast cancer were analyzed. Overall, 34 (37.8%) patients had pathogenic PIK3CA mutations. The pCR rate of the PIK3CAm group was lower than that of the PIK3CAw group among patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cancer. In the metastatic setting, the PIK3CAm group showed a significantly shorter mean PFS (mPFS) with first-line anti-HER2 mAb. The mPFS of second-line T-DM1 was lower in the PIK3CAm group than that in the PIK3CAw group. Sequencing revealed differences in the mutational landscape between PIK3CAm and PIK3CAw tumors. @*Conclusion@#Patients with HER2+ breast cancer with activating PIK3CA mutations had lower pCR rates and shorter PFS with palliative HER2-targeted therapy than those with wild-type PIK3CA. Precise targeted-therapy is needed to improve survival of patients with HER2+/PIK3CAm breast cancer.

6.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 76-81, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968467

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to survey current status of preparedness for neonatal resuscitation in delivery rooms in Korea. @*Methods@#We analyzed data regarding preparedness for the resuscitation in terms of personnel, equipment, and education using a questionnaire, which was developed by the Korean Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. From August 2020 through January 2021, the questionnaires were sent to hospitals affiliated with the Korean Association of Maternity Hospitals or the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) operated by the Korean Society of Neonatology. As per the affiliated society, the hospitals were grouped as the maternity hospitals or the KNN hospitals. The questionnaires were delivered in 3 steps: mailout, electronic mail, and phone calls. @*Results@#Response rate was 21.3% (115 of 541) and 65.3% (49 of 75) in the maternity and KNN hospitals, respectively. The maternity hospitals showed a higher mean number of delivery and fewer pediatricians. In the KNN hospitals, pediatricians played a leading role during the resuscitation, but in the maternity hospitals, their role as a leader was less conspicuous. The KNN hospitals were better equipped with masks of variable sizes, oxygen blender, T-piece resuscitator, and electrocardiographic monitor (all Ps < 0.001). In the maternity hospitals, the preparedness of oxygen blender or T-piece resuscitator was positively associated with the number of pediatricians (P = 0.005). Although bag-mask ventilation was mostly feasible in both groups, endotracheal intubation was less feasible in the maternity hospitals (P = 0.007). The annual participation in resuscitation training for providers was higher in the KNN hospitals (P < 0.001). In the maternity hospitals, the annual participation was positively associated with the numbers of deliveries, obstetricians, and pediatricians. @*Conclusion@#This preliminary survey indicates the need for further improvement in preparing in personnel, equipment, and education, particularly in maternity hospitals.

7.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 59-64, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968345

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dopamine D2 and D3 receptor agonist quinpirole have been tried as one of drug-induced bipolar animal models. An open-field test is used to assess locomotor activity related to anxiety. Not many studies have analyzed the effects of quinpirole dosages on locomotor activity. The purpose of this study was to look at the locomotor activity of quinpirole-injected mice in an open-field test. @*Methods@#The open-field test was used to observe the locomotor activities of 28 mice. Quinpirole was administrated at 0.05-5 mg/kg and normal saline were used as a control. The Mann-Whitney U-test was employed to compare the locomotor activities in the quinpirole and control groups. @*Results@#Quinpirole-induced locomotor activities reduced as time elapsed during the first 30 minutes following the injection in most mice, then increased or fluctuated in the later 30 minutes. As the dosage was increased, there was a stronger initial inhibition, followed by a rapid and further increase in the last 30 minutes. @*Conclusion@#This study showed the differential effects of quinpirole-induced locomotor activities depending on dosage, and initial suppression of locomotor activities by quinpirole was observed. Additionally, longitudinal observation of more than 1 hour would be required to look into the biphasic pattern of quinpirole in an animal model.

8.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 264-270, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968293

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported that melatonin may be effective in treating sleep problems in children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the safety of melatonin use in children and adolescents in their growth and developmental stages is warranted. Therefore, we aimed to summarize the literature on the safety of melatonin use in children and adolescents with insomnia and sleep disturbances. According to existing evidence, there are no serious adverse effects of long-term melatonin use in children and adolescents. The common adverse effects reported in long-term studies are fatigue, somnolence, and mood swings. In addition, there is no evidence that long-term use of melatonin inhibits the natural secretion of melatonin. It is necessary to monitor potential drug interactions with medications such as inhibitors and enhancers of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2). Furthermore, low CYP1A2 expression in young children requires proper dose adjustment. Although sufficient experience of melatonin use in children and adolescents has yet to be attained, accumulating evidence suggests that the use of melatonin in children and adolescents with sleep problems might be effective and tolerable. Considering the abuse or overdose risk of hypnotics or benzodiazepines, melatonin supplements may be a good therapeutic alternative. Future studies on the long-term safety of melatonin for physiological and mental function in children and adolescents are required to establish certainty about melatonin use in children and adolescents.

9.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 127-133, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938809

ABSTRACT

Background@#Locomotor activity in mice may have an ultradian rest-activity rhythm. However, to date, no study has shown how locomotor activity can be explained statistically using fitted cosine curves. Therefore, this study explored whether the ultradian rhythm of locomotor activity in mice could be analyzed using cosine fitting analysis. @*Methods@#The locomotor activity of 20 male mice under a 12/12-hour dark/light cycle for 2 days was fitted to a cosine function to obtain the best fit. The mean absolute error (MAE) values were used to determine the explanatory power of the calculated cosine model for locomotor activity. The cosine fitting analysis was performed using R statistical software (version 4.1.1). @*Results@#The mean MAE was 0.2944, whereas the mean MAE for integrating the individual analyses in the two experimental groups was 0.3284. The periods of the estimated ultradian rest-activity rhythm ranged from 1.602 to 4.168 hours. @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that locomotor activity data reflect an ultradian rhythm better than a circadian rhythm. Locomotor activity can be statistically fitted to a cosine curve under well-controlled conditions. In the future, it will be necessary to explore whether this cosine-fitting analysis can be used to analyze ultradian rhythms under different experimental conditions.

10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 380-385, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926922

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Data processing in analysis of circadian rhythm was performed in various ways. However, there was a lack of evidence for the optimal analysis of circadian rest-activity rhythm. Therefore, we aimed to perform mathematical simulations of data processing to investigate proper evidence for the optimal analysis of circadian rest-activity rhythm. @*Methods@#Locomotor activities of 20 ICR male mice were measured by infrared motion detectors. The data of locomotor activities was processed using data summation, data average, and data moving average methods for cosinor analysis. Circadian indices were estimated according to time block, respectively. Also, statistical F and p-values were calculated by zero-amplitude test. @*Results@#The data moving average result showed well-fitted cosine curves independent of data processing time. Meanwhile, the amplitude, MESOR, and acrophase were properly estimated within 800 seconds in data summation and data average methods. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that data moving average would be an optimal method for data processing in a cosinor analysis and data average within 800-second data processing time might be adaptable. The results of this study can be helpful to analyze circadian restactivity rhythms and integrate the results of the studies using different data processing methods.

11.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 37-43, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925478

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate growth response in children with either idiopathic short stature (ISS) or growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD). @*Methods@#The data of prepubertal GHD or ISS children treated using recombinant human GH were obtained from the LG Growth Study database. GHD children were further divided into partial and complete GHD groups. Growth response and factors predicting growth response after 1 and 2 years of GH treatment were investigated. @*Results@#This study included 692 children (98 with ISS, 443 partial GHD, and 151 complete GHD). After 1 year, changes in height standard deviation score (ΔHt-SDS) were 0.78, 0.83, and 0.96 in ISS, partial GHD, and complete GHD, respectively. Height velocity (HV) was 8.72, 9.04, and 9.52 cm/yr in ISS, partial GHD, and complete GHD, respectively. ΔHt-SDS and HV did not differ among the 3 groups. Higher initial body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and midparental height standard deviation score (MPH-SDS) were predictors for better growth response after 1 year in ISS and the partial GHD group, respectively. In the complete GHD group, higher Ht-SDS and BMI-SDS predicted better growth response after 1 year. After 2 years of GH treatment, higher BMI-SDS and MPH-SDS predicted a better growth outcome in the partial GHD group, and higher MPH-SDS was a predictor of good growth response in complete GHD. @*Conclusion@#Clinical characteristics and growth response did not differ among groups. Predictors of growth response differed among the 3 groups, and even in the same group, a higher GH dose would be required when poor response is predicted.

12.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1029-1035, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901035

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare the long-term changes in surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in patients who underwent 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and cataract surgery together with patients who underwent cataract surgery only. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed SIA changes for 1 year after surgery in patients who received only cataract surgery using phacoemulsification (group 1) and patients who underwent 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and cataract surgery together (group 2). Flat keratometry (K1), steep keratometry (K2), and astigmatism axis were measured with automatic keratometry before and after the surgery. Vector analysis was used to calculate SIA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. We then examined whether the SIA values at each time point were different between the two groups. @*Results@#A total of 86 eyes were included in this study (group 1, n = 45; group 2, n = 41). The mean SIA values calculated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery in group 1 were 0.83 ± 0.37, 0.69 ± 0.39, 0.60 ± 0.33, and 0.59 ± 0.33, respectively. In group 2, the values were 0.82 ± 0.47, 0.69 ± 0.38, 0.62 ± 0.28, and 0.61 ± 0.30, respectively. Over time, SIA decreased in both groups (all p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean SIA between the two groups at each follow-up time point after surgery (p = 0.296, p = 0.728, p = 0.361, and p = 0.356, respectively). @*Conclusions@#When 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and cataract surgery were performed together, the astigmatism change caused by surgery did not show a significant difference compared with that of the group who received cataract surgery only. Thus, 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy may not significantly affect corneal astigmatism.

13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 875-884, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898198

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

14.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 303-312, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897911

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Behavioral assessments that effectively predict sleep-wake states were tried in animal research. This study aimed to examine the prediction power of an infrared locomotion detector on the sleep-wake states in ICR (Institute Cancer Research) mice. We also explored the influence of the durations and ways of data processing on the prediction power. @*Methods@#The locomotor activities of seven male mice in home cages were recorded by infrared detectors. Their sleep-wake states were assessed by video analysis. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off score was determined, then the area under the curve (AUC) values of the infrared motion detector that predicted sleep-wake states were calculated. In order to improve the prediction power, the four ways of data processing on the prediction power were performed by Matlab 2013b. @*Results@#In the initial analysis of raw data, the AUC value was 0.785, but it gradually reached to 0.942 after data summation. The simple data averaging and summation among four different methods showed the maximal AUC value. The 10-minute data summation improved sensitivity (0.889) and specificity (0.901) significantly from the baseline value (sensitivity 0.615; specificity 0.936) (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the locomotor activity measured by an infrared motion detector might be useful to predict the sleep-wake states in ICR mice. It also revealed that only simple data summation may improve the predictive power. Using daily locomotor activities measured by an infrared motion detector is expected to facilitate animal research related to sleep-wake states.

15.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 875-884, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890494

ABSTRACT

Background@#Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is performed to distinguish the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). The clinical implication of contralateral suppression (CS; aldosterone/cortisolnondominant0.26 after adjusting for other factors. @*Conclusion@#CS may not predict postoperative clinical and biochemical outcomes in subjects with unilateral aldosterone excess, but it is associated with postsurgical deterioration of renal function in subjects over 50 years with CSI ≤0.26.

16.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 303-312, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890207

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Behavioral assessments that effectively predict sleep-wake states were tried in animal research. This study aimed to examine the prediction power of an infrared locomotion detector on the sleep-wake states in ICR (Institute Cancer Research) mice. We also explored the influence of the durations and ways of data processing on the prediction power. @*Methods@#The locomotor activities of seven male mice in home cages were recorded by infrared detectors. Their sleep-wake states were assessed by video analysis. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off score was determined, then the area under the curve (AUC) values of the infrared motion detector that predicted sleep-wake states were calculated. In order to improve the prediction power, the four ways of data processing on the prediction power were performed by Matlab 2013b. @*Results@#In the initial analysis of raw data, the AUC value was 0.785, but it gradually reached to 0.942 after data summation. The simple data averaging and summation among four different methods showed the maximal AUC value. The 10-minute data summation improved sensitivity (0.889) and specificity (0.901) significantly from the baseline value (sensitivity 0.615; specificity 0.936) (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that the locomotor activity measured by an infrared motion detector might be useful to predict the sleep-wake states in ICR mice. It also revealed that only simple data summation may improve the predictive power. Using daily locomotor activities measured by an infrared motion detector is expected to facilitate animal research related to sleep-wake states.

17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 159-163, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875590

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Nearly one third of all patients with an eating disorder (ED) present with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Although it is necessary to pay attention clinically to NSSI in ED patients due to an increased suicidal risk, there are limited data on potential predictors of NSSI in ED. We conducted this study to uncover predictors of NSSI in ED. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 1355 ED patients who visited an ED clinic was evaluated through structured interviews by psychiatrists. The demographic and clinical characteristics of ED patients with NSSI (NSSI group) and ED patients without NSSI (non-NSSI group) were analyzed to identify potential predictors of NSSI in ED. @*Results@#Among all ED individuals, 242 (17.9%) reported a history of NSSI. Compared to the non-NSSI group, the NSSI group reported more severe eating symptomatology, more comorbid psychiatric disease, and more suicidal risk. Comorbid alcohol use disorder, depressive disorder, purging behavior, history of suicide attempt, and rumination symptoms were uncovered as predictors of NSSI in ED. @*Conclusion@#The findings of the study are meaningful in that they highlight predictors of NSSI in ED in a large clinical sample. Understanding risk factors of NSSI and offering appropriate interventions are important to preventing suicidality in ED.

18.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 53-60, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874777

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study examined post-disaster mental health problems and related public perception of disaster-related mental health services. The differences of these perceptions according to the disaster experience and disaster type were also investigated. @*Methods@#Data were collected via telephone and online surveys, and information from 2928 respondents was analyzed. The participants were allocated across age, sex, and residence area. @*Results@#Those who had experienced disasters showed a more negative perception of post-disaster mental health services than those who had not. While natural disaster survivors most often reported financial problems as secondary stressors after a disaster, social disaster survivors were more likely to report mental health problems. Regarding national mental health support for disaster, disaster-experiencing respondents more often tended to prefer mental health services than non-disaster-experiencing respondents. @*Conclusion@#The current study can help understand the public perception of disaster-related mental health and the needs of mental health services. These findings could suggest directions and grounds for policies of a national support system for disaster-related mental health.

19.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1029-1035, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893331

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare the long-term changes in surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in patients who underwent 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and cataract surgery together with patients who underwent cataract surgery only. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed SIA changes for 1 year after surgery in patients who received only cataract surgery using phacoemulsification (group 1) and patients who underwent 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and cataract surgery together (group 2). Flat keratometry (K1), steep keratometry (K2), and astigmatism axis were measured with automatic keratometry before and after the surgery. Vector analysis was used to calculate SIA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. We then examined whether the SIA values at each time point were different between the two groups. @*Results@#A total of 86 eyes were included in this study (group 1, n = 45; group 2, n = 41). The mean SIA values calculated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery in group 1 were 0.83 ± 0.37, 0.69 ± 0.39, 0.60 ± 0.33, and 0.59 ± 0.33, respectively. In group 2, the values were 0.82 ± 0.47, 0.69 ± 0.38, 0.62 ± 0.28, and 0.61 ± 0.30, respectively. Over time, SIA decreased in both groups (all p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean SIA between the two groups at each follow-up time point after surgery (p = 0.296, p = 0.728, p = 0.361, and p = 0.356, respectively). @*Conclusions@#When 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and cataract surgery were performed together, the astigmatism change caused by surgery did not show a significant difference compared with that of the group who received cataract surgery only. Thus, 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy may not significantly affect corneal astigmatism.

20.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918516

ABSTRACT

The abnormalities caused by the melatonergic system have been associated with psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer’s dementia and schizophrenia, as well as with the pathogenesis of mood disorders. Abnormal melatonin secretion has been observed in the early phase of mood disorders in young patients and high-risk adults. This review summarizes and discusses the findings of studies that have investigated the melatonergic system in children, adolescents, and young adults with mood disorders. Furthermore, the factors associated with the changes caused by the melatonergic system during the early stage of mood disorders are evaluated.

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