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1.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 105-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925454

ABSTRACT

Background@#In South Korea, there have been few nationwide epidemiologic studies about premalignant actinic keratosis (AK), squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen’s disease), nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), malignant melanoma of the skin (MM), Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), connective and soft tissue cancers, or mycosis fungoides (MF). @*Objective@#Using a nationwide population-based study, we attempted to measure the incidence and the prevalence of the above-mentioned tumors in South Korea. @*Methods@#The database we used included all claims in the Korean National Health Insurance program and the Korean Medical Aid program from 2008 to 2016. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) was used to record diagnoses in this database. This data included AK, Bowen’s disease, NMSC, MM, KS, connective and soft tissue cancers, and MF. @*Results@#The age-standardized incidence and prevalence rate of AK, Bowen’s disease, NMSC, MM, KS, connective and soft tissue cancers, as well as MF increased during the periods we investigated. The incidence and prevalence rate of AK and NMSC have increased two- to three-fold. In the case of Bowen’s disease, MM, KS, connective and soft tissue cancers, or MF, we observed no significant tendency in age-standardized incidence or prevalence. @*Conclusion@#We confirmed that the age-standardized incidence and prevalence rates of NMSC and AK tended to increase. These results might contribute to developing preventive and therapeutic strategies for skin cancers and may become a source for further studies.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875561

ABSTRACT

The gut is a complex organ that has played an important role in digestion, absorption, endocrine functions, and immunity. The gut mucosal barriers consist of the immunologic barrier and nonimmunologic barrier. During critical illnesses, the gut is susceptible to injury due to the induction of intestinal hyperpermeability. Gut hyperpermeability and barrier dysfunction may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Additionally, gut microbiota are altered during critical illnesses. The etiology of such microbiome alterations in critical illnesses is multifactorial. The interaction or systemic host defense modulation between distant organs and the gut microbiome is increasingly studied in disease research. No treatment modality exists to significantly enhance the gut epithelial integrity, permeability, or mucus layer in critically ill patients. However, multiple helpful approaches including clinical and preclinical strategies exist. Enteral nutrition is associated with an increased mucosal barrier in animal and human studies. The trophic effects of enteral nutrition might help to maintain the intestinal physiology, prevent atrophy of gut villi, reduce intestinal permeability, and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. The microbiome approach such as the use of probiotics, fecal microbial transplantation, and selective decontamination of the digestive tract has been suggested. However, its evidence does not have a high quality. To promote rapid hypertrophy of the small bowel, various factors have been reported, including the epidermal growth factor, membrane permeant inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, mucus surrogate, pharmacologic vagus nerve agonist, immune-enhancing diet, and glucagon-like peptide-2 as preclinical strategies. However, the evidence remains unclear.

3.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 497-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913456

ABSTRACT

Background@#In 2015, the Korean Atopic Dermatitis Association (KADA) working group published consensus guidelines for treating atopic dermatitis (AD). @*Objective@#We aimed to provide updated consensus recommendations for systemic treatment of AD in South Korea based on recent evidence and experience. @*Methods@#We compiled a database of references from relevant systematic reviews and guidelines on the systemic management of AD. Evidence for each statement was graded and classified based on thestrength of the recommendation. Forty-two council members from the KADA participated in three rounds of voting to establish a consensus on expert recommendations. @*Results@#We do not recommend long-term treatment with systemic steroids forpatients with moderate-to-severe AD due to the risk of adverse effects. We recommend treatment with cyclosporine or dupilumab and selective treatment with methotrexate or azathioprine for patients with moderate-to-severe AD. We suggest treatment with antihistamines as an option for alleviating clinical symptoms of AD. We recommend selective treatment with narrowband ultraviolet B for patients with chronic moderate-to-severe AD. We do not recommend treatment with oral antibiotics for patients with moderate-to-severe AD but who have no signs of infection. We did not reach a consensus on recommendations for treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy, probiotics, evening primrose oil, orvitamin D for patients with moderate-to-severe AD. We also recommend educational interventions and counselling for patients with AD and caregivers to improve the treatment success rate. @*Conclusion@#We look forward to implementing a new and updated consensus of systemic therapy in controlling patients with moderate-to-severe AD.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893101

ABSTRACT

Since nonsurgical treatment of vitiligo is not always successful, surgical interventions are viable options for patients with refractory vitiligo. Surgical treatment is a method in which melanocytes of normal skin are transplanted into vitiligo lesions and provided as a repigmentation source. Such treatments are primarily divided into tissue grafting and cellular grafting, depending on the nature of the graft. Tissue grafting includes split-thickness skin grafting, suction blister grafting, punch grafting, hair follicle transplantation, and smashed-skin grafting. Cellular grafting includes non-cultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation, non-cultured follicular cell suspension transplantation, and cultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation. Among these, suction blister grafting and micro-punch grafting have been widely performed for localized refractory vitiligo, and non-cultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation is adopted as the standard treatment for extensive vitiligo. Research on cultured cellular grafting to treat larger vitiligo areas is also ongoing. Selecting patients with stable vitiligo that has not spread for over 12 months is the most critical factor in the surgical outcome. It is also important to choose an appropriate surgical modality for each patient, and a combination of various procedures often improves the overall outcome. In conclusion, surgical intervention can be an effective and safe option for patients with vitiligo refractory to conventional treatments. Non-cultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation, which was denied by New Health Technology Assessment in Korea, should be approved to benefit patients with refractory vitiligo.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891158

ABSTRACT

The retroperitoneum is a posterior space of the peritoneum, which has many visceral and vascular structures. Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhages have variable causes, the most common of which are diseases of retroperitoneal organs. However, retroperitoneal hemorrhages may be caused by bare area injury. In this case study, a bare area was observed in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the retroperitoneum, the posterosuperior region of Couinaud liver segment 7 (bare area) is directly connected to the anterior pararenal space. The rupture or exophyte of the hepatocellular carcinoma on the bare area could invade the retroperitoneum, which may lead to inaccurate diagnosis of the condition. When the mass or the hemorrhage in the RUQ of the retroperitoneum is observed in computed tomography images, it is possible that ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma or a mass on the bare area of the liver, looks like a spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage in the RUQ area for example a right adrenal hemorrhage.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836151

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Gastric subepithelial tumor (GST) is a disease entity that includes all gastric subepithelial lesions. The oncologically safe surgical technique is complete resection with adequate resection margins. Most of the studies about laparoscopic gastric wedge rsection (LGWR) in GST focus on oncologic curability or surgical effectiveness. However, studies on the factors associated with the operation time are rare. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze and compare the factors associated with the operation time of LGWR. @*Methods@#From 2010 to 2019, 145 consecutive patients undergoing LGWR were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics of GST and operation time were analyzed and compared. @*Results@#A total of 145 patients was enrolled and reviewed. There were 59 males (40.7%) and 86 females (59.3%) with a mean age of 53.6 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.9 kg/m 2 . Mean tumor size was 2.9 cm and mean operation time was 66.0 minutes. In statistically, the mean operation time showed significant association with tumor size, BMI, longitudinal tumor location and tumor location between lesser and greater curvature. In multivariate analysis, tumor size, BMI and longitudinal classification of tumor location are statistically significant. @*Conclusion@#A shorter operation time is expected when there is a small tumor, low BMI and mid portion of the stomach GST. Preoperative evaluation for tumor size and body weight is important. In patients with large GST, obesity and both end stomach GST, we think that pre-operative preparation for long operation time should be considered.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832671

ABSTRACT

Background@#Micropigmentation is a medical tattooing procedure in which pigments are implanted into the superficial dermis using a manual or electrically driven needle. @*Objective@#We aimed to assess the benefit and risk of micropigmentation in the treatment of acral vitiligo refractory to the conventional treatment. @*Methods@#An open-label study was conducted from December 2018 to March 2019. A total of 12 patients with 20 acral vitiligo lesions were treated with micropigmentation using an electric tattooing machine. The micropigmentation treatment was repeated for a few sessions to achieve optimal pigmentation. Color matching between the lesion and peri-lesional skin was assessed using a 4-point grading scale (poor, fair, good, and excellent). @*Results@#Overall, 85% (17 of 20) showed excellent color matching after a median of 2 (range: 1∼5) treatment sessions. The post-treatment color was darker than the surrounding skin immediately after the procedure, but it gradually faded over time. Pain during the procedure was not mild, but local anesthetic injection was not required. Post-treatment erythema and swelling occurred, but they resolved within a few days. No allergic reaction to the pigment or koebnerization of the vitiligo was noted. @*Conclusion@#Micropigmentation could be a promising treatment option for refractory acral vitiligo. A few treatment sessions (i.e., retouch) may be required for desired outcomes. The crucial parts of micropigmentation are pigment selection and implantation depth. It does not require injection of local anesthetics and provides immediate treatment effects after the procedure.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901931

ABSTRACT

Background@#In recent years, large amounts of data generated by patients have been accumulated on social media.We explored patients’ perspectives and experiences with vitiligo using web scraping data from the open internet community, NAVER Cafe. @*Objective@#To understand patients’ real concerns and thoughts about vitiligo. @*Methods@#Using vitiligo as a keyword, 1000 posts on NAVER Cafe were collected and categorized as follows: requests for recommendations for dermatology clinics; inquiries regarding vitiligo diagnosis, disease characteristics of vitiligo, and management of vitiligo; and advertisements. Essential contents were collected for each category to summarize patients’ perspectives and experiences. @*Results@#Of the 1000 posts, 284 were requests for clinical recommendations, 203 inquiries for diagnosis of their white spots, 132 inquiries regarding characteristics of vitiligo, 118 described experiences and emotions related to vitiligo, 105 inquiries regarding management of vitiligo, 103 advertisements, and 55 not related to vitiligo.Concerning the authors, 209 and 522 posts were written by patients and parents of children with vitiligo, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Patients with vitiligo have considerable concerns regarding their condition and actively communicate with each other through social media. Data mining on social media can provide a deeper understanding of patients’ thoughts and emotional distress with vitiligo as well as their families’.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900805

ABSTRACT

Since nonsurgical treatment of vitiligo is not always successful, surgical interventions are viable options for patients with refractory vitiligo. Surgical treatment is a method in which melanocytes of normal skin are transplanted into vitiligo lesions and provided as a repigmentation source. Such treatments are primarily divided into tissue grafting and cellular grafting, depending on the nature of the graft. Tissue grafting includes split-thickness skin grafting, suction blister grafting, punch grafting, hair follicle transplantation, and smashed-skin grafting. Cellular grafting includes non-cultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation, non-cultured follicular cell suspension transplantation, and cultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation. Among these, suction blister grafting and micro-punch grafting have been widely performed for localized refractory vitiligo, and non-cultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation is adopted as the standard treatment for extensive vitiligo. Research on cultured cellular grafting to treat larger vitiligo areas is also ongoing. Selecting patients with stable vitiligo that has not spread for over 12 months is the most critical factor in the surgical outcome. It is also important to choose an appropriate surgical modality for each patient, and a combination of various procedures often improves the overall outcome. In conclusion, surgical intervention can be an effective and safe option for patients with vitiligo refractory to conventional treatments. Non-cultured epidermal cell suspension transplantation, which was denied by New Health Technology Assessment in Korea, should be approved to benefit patients with refractory vitiligo.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898862

ABSTRACT

The retroperitoneum is a posterior space of the peritoneum, which has many visceral and vascular structures. Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhages have variable causes, the most common of which are diseases of retroperitoneal organs. However, retroperitoneal hemorrhages may be caused by bare area injury. In this case study, a bare area was observed in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the retroperitoneum, the posterosuperior region of Couinaud liver segment 7 (bare area) is directly connected to the anterior pararenal space. The rupture or exophyte of the hepatocellular carcinoma on the bare area could invade the retroperitoneum, which may lead to inaccurate diagnosis of the condition. When the mass or the hemorrhage in the RUQ of the retroperitoneum is observed in computed tomography images, it is possible that ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma or a mass on the bare area of the liver, looks like a spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage in the RUQ area for example a right adrenal hemorrhage.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896615

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894227

ABSTRACT

Background@#In recent years, large amounts of data generated by patients have been accumulated on social media.We explored patients’ perspectives and experiences with vitiligo using web scraping data from the open internet community, NAVER Cafe. @*Objective@#To understand patients’ real concerns and thoughts about vitiligo. @*Methods@#Using vitiligo as a keyword, 1000 posts on NAVER Cafe were collected and categorized as follows: requests for recommendations for dermatology clinics; inquiries regarding vitiligo diagnosis, disease characteristics of vitiligo, and management of vitiligo; and advertisements. Essential contents were collected for each category to summarize patients’ perspectives and experiences. @*Results@#Of the 1000 posts, 284 were requests for clinical recommendations, 203 inquiries for diagnosis of their white spots, 132 inquiries regarding characteristics of vitiligo, 118 described experiences and emotions related to vitiligo, 105 inquiries regarding management of vitiligo, 103 advertisements, and 55 not related to vitiligo.Concerning the authors, 209 and 522 posts were written by patients and parents of children with vitiligo, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Patients with vitiligo have considerable concerns regarding their condition and actively communicate with each other through social media. Data mining on social media can provide a deeper understanding of patients’ thoughts and emotional distress with vitiligo as well as their families’.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888911

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on a deep learning framework (deep learning-based CAD) improves the diagnostic performance of radiologists in differentiating between malignant and benign masses on breast ultrasound (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: B-mode US images were prospectively obtained for 253 breast masses (173 benign, 80 malignant) in 226 consecutive patients. Breast mass US findings were retrospectively analyzed by deep learning-based CAD and four radiologists. In predicting malignancy, the CAD results were dichotomized (possibly benign vs. possibly malignant). The radiologists independently assessed Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessments for two datasets (US images alone or with CAD). For each dataset, the radiologists' final assessments were classified as positive (category 4a or higher) and negative (category 3 or lower). The diagnostic performances of the radiologists for the two datasets (US alone vs. US with CAD) were compared. RESULTS: When the CAD results were added to the US images, the radiologists showed significant improvement in specificity (range of all radiologists for US alone vs. US with CAD: 72.8–92.5% vs. 82.1–93.1%; p < 0.001), accuracy (77.9–88.9% vs. 86.2–90.9%; p = 0.038), and positive predictive value (PPV) (60.2–83.3% vs. 70.4–85.2%; p = 0.001). However, there were no significant changes in sensitivity (81.3–88.8% vs. 86.3–95.0%; p = 0.120) and negative predictive value (91.4–93.5% vs. 92.9–97.3%; p = 0.259). CONCLUSION: Deep learning-based CAD could improve radiologists' diagnostic performance by increasing their specificity, accuracy, and PPV in differentiating between malignant and benign masses on breast US.


Subject(s)
Breast , Dataset , Diagnosis , Humans , Information Systems , Learning , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Mammary
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764190

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ensuring the stability of central venous catheter placement for treating patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit is very important. Although PICC requires an ultrasound and fluoroscopy machine, it is difficult to use a fluoroscopy machine for PICC insertion in the intensive care unit. This study analyzed the cases of the insertion of a PICC under ultrasonic guidance at the bedsides in the intensive care unit to determine the usefulness of PICC in the intensive care unit. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients hospitalized in the surgical intensive care unit and received PICC using ultrasonography at their bedsides from October 2015 to January 2018. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients were collected. The number of successful PICCs stood at 105 patients, which was equal to 87.5%. Among them, 65 and 55 cases had left and right insertion, respectively; the corresponding success rate was 81.8%, and 92.3%. No statistically significant difference in success rates was observed between the left and right, as well as in the success rates depending on the presence of shock, sepsis, acute kidney injury, and mechanical ventilation. In the failed 15 cases, seven cases were due to the course of the procedure and eight cases were confirmed have been malpositioned after insertion. CONCLUSION: PICC at the bedside in an intensive care unit is a safe method for central venous catheterization without severe complications and death. The insertion sites, left or right, are equally acceptable. Further study of the cases of malposition will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Catheterization , Catheterization, Central Venous , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Fluoroscopy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Methods , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Shock , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785293

ABSTRACT

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is rare, accounting for 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. MPNST is characteristically aggressive and has a poor prognosis. Fifty percent of patients with MPNST have neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). NF-associated MPNST occurs more often at younger ages than sporadic MPNST, but the survival difference is controversial. Superficial MPNST from a recurrent neurofibroma is extremely rare and only a limited number of cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report an unusual case of superficial MPNST from a recurrent neurofibroma in a patient without NF1.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Humans , Nerve Sheath Neoplasms , Neurilemmoma , Neurofibroma , Neurofibromatoses , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Neurofibrosarcoma , Peripheral Nerves , Prognosis , Sarcoma
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764379

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nutritional therapy (NT), such as enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN), is essential for the malnourished patients. Although the complications related to NT has been well described, multicenter data on symptoms in the patients with receiving NT during hospitalization are still lacking. METHODS: Nutrition support team (NST) consultations, on which NT-related complications were described, were collected retrospectively for one year. The inclusion criteria were patients who were (1) older than 18 years, (2) hospitalized, and (3) receiving EN or PN at the time of NST consultation. The patients' demographics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), type of NT and type of complication were collected. To compare the severity of each complication, the intensive care unit (ICU) admission, hospital stay, and type of discharge were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 14,600 NT-related complications were collected from 13,418 cases from 27 hospitals in Korea. The mean age and BMI were 65.4 years and 21.8 kg/m2. The complications according to the type of NT, calorie deficiency (32.4%, n=1,229) and diarrhea (21.6%, n=820) were most common in EN. Similarly, calorie deficiency (56.8%, n=4,030) and GI problem except for diarrhea (8.6%, n=611) were most common in PN. Regarding the clinical outcomes, 18.7% (n=2,158) finally expired, 58.1% (n=7,027) were admitted to ICU, and the mean hospital days after NT-related complication were 31.3 days. Volume overload (odds ratio [OR]=3.48) and renal abnormality (OR=2.50) were closely associated with hospital death; hyperammonemia (OR=3.09) and renal abnormality (OR=2.77) were associated with ICU admission; “micronutrient and vitamin deficiency” (geometric mean [GM]=2.23) and volume overload (GM=1.61) were associated with a longer hospital stay. CONCLUSION: NT may induce or be associated with several complications, and some of them may seriously affect the patient's outcome. NST personnel in each hospital should be aware of each problem during nutritional support.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Demography , Diarrhea , Enteral Nutrition , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperammonemia , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Length of Stay , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nutrition Therapy , Nutritional Support , Parenteral Nutrition , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Vitamins
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939330

ABSTRACT

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is rare, accounting for 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. MPNST is characteristically aggressive and has a poor prognosis. Fifty percent of patients with MPNST have neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). NF-associated MPNST occurs more often at younger ages than sporadic MPNST, but the survival difference is controversial. Superficial MPNST from a recurrent neurofibroma is extremely rare and only a limited number of cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report an unusual case of superficial MPNST from a recurrent neurofibroma in a patient without NF1.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of gray-scale ultrasonography (US), Doppler scan, and elastography using carotid artery pulsation in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules and to find a complementary role of elastography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 197 thyroid nodules with 91 malignant and 106 benign pathologic results from 187 patients (41 males and 146 females; age range, 20–83 years; mean age, 49.4 years) were included in this prospective study. The gray-scale, Doppler US images, elastography with elasticity contrast index (ECI), and stiffness color were assessed. The diagnostic performances of each dataset were assessed in order to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. RESULTS: The optimal cut-off value of the ECI was 1.71. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (Az value) was 0.821 for gray-scale US, 0.661 for the ECI, 0.592 for stiffness color, and 0.539 for Doppler US. The Az value for a combined assessment of gray-scale US and the ECI was higher than that for the gray-scale US alone; however, there was no statistical difference between the two (p = 0.219). The median ECI values of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) were significantly lower than those of the other malignant lesions (p = 0.005). Meanwhile, the diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC and a metastatic nodule showed the two highest median values of the ECI. CONCLUSION: For differentiating thyroid nodules, the diagnostic performances of the combination of gray-scale US and elastography with the ECI were similar to, but not superior, to those of gray-scale US alone. FVPTC and FTC have a significantly lower ECI value than those of the other malignant lesions.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Follicular , Carotid Arteries , Dataset , Diagnosis , Elasticity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
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