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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 238-247, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968746

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Daratumumab has shown an encouraging antitumor effect in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and was known to alter the immune properties by off-targeting immunosuppressive cells. Here, we aimed to evaluate the change in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) as a surrogate marker for predicting survival outcomes of patients treated with daratumumab. @*Methods@#Between 2018 and 2021, the medical records of patients with relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM) treated with daratumumab monotherapy at 10 centers in South Korea were reviewed. We collected the ALC data at pre-infusion (D0), day 2 after the first infusion (D2), and prior to the third cycle of daratumumab therapy (D56). @*Results@#Fifty patients who were administered at least two cycles of daratumumab were included. Overall response rate was 54.0% after two cycles of daratumumab treatment. On D2, almost all patients experienced a marked reduction in ALC. However, an increase in ALC on D56 (ALCD56) was observed in patients with non-progressive disease, whereas failure of ALC recovery was noted in those with progressive disease. Patients with ALCD56 > 700/μL (n = 39, 78.0%) had prolonged progression- free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with ALCD56 ≤ 700/μL (median PFS: 5.8 months vs. 2.6 months, p = 0.025; median OS: 24.1 months vs. 6.1 months, p = 0.004). In addition, ALCD56 >700/μL was a significant favorable prognostic factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.22; p = 0.003) and OS (HR, 0.23; p = 0.012). @*Conclusions@#Increase in ALC during daratumumab treatment was significantly associated with prolonged survival outcomes in patients with RRMM. The ALC value can predict clinical outcomes in patients treated with daratumumab.

2.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 70-92, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938666

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis. Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

3.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 10-19, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913536

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The clinical significance of margin status in pancreatic head cancer is still controversial due to the nonstandardized definition of R status and pathologic reporting. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the margin status including location and the role of radiation therapy in pancreatic head cancer. @*Methods@#A total of 314 patients who underwent curative-intent surgery for pancreatic head cancer between 2010 and 2017 were analyzed. Demographics, survival, and local recurrences were compared according to 2 definitions: 0-mm R1 as direct involvement and 1-mm R1 as close resection margin less than 1 mm. The specific margins were divided into 4 groups according to the location around the pancreas: pancreas transection, anterior surface, posterior surface, and vessel (superior mesenteric artery/superior mesenteric vein) margin. @*Results@#The 0-mm R1-rate was 15.6%, and increased to 36.3% in 1-mm R1. The median overall survival rate of 0-mm R0 vs. R1 was 26 months vs. 16 months (P = 0.052) and that of 1-mm R0 vs. R1 was 27 months vs. 18 months, respectively (P = 0.016). In individual margins, posterior, anterior surface, and pancreas transection margin involvement were associated with poor outcome, and the 1 mm posterior surface involvement was an independent risk factor for disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 1.63). Adjuvant radiation therapy had oncologic benefits, especially in R1 patients (P = 0.011) compared to R0 patients (P = 0.088). @*Conclusion@#Margin status, especially 1-mm R1 status is an important predictive factor, and involved posterior surface has a clinical impact. Patients with positive margins should be considered adjuvant radiation therapy.

4.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 65-72, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913530

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Various hemostatic agents have been introduced in therapy as postoperative bleeding is a poor prognostic factor for postoperative outcomes. These products can be divided into those that directly promote the hemostatic cascade and those that physically form a barrier by absorbing blood. The latter, powder-type hemostatic agents have the advantages of being inexpensive and more absorbable with less foreign body reactions (FBRs) and are applicable to a relatively wide area. This study was conducted to verify the safety and efficacy of a newly invented polysaccharide product (OOZFIX, Theracion Biomedical), which improves blood absorption and hemostatic effects. @*Methods@#Two separate animal experiments were performed. The first evaluated FBRs histologically at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks, after implantation of OOZFIX in rats, and the second compared hemostatic performance of OOZFIX and Arista AH (Bard) in the porcine liver punch biopsy model. @*Results@#We found minimal FBRs in the 3-day group and no reactions in both the 2-week and 4-week groups after implantation of hemostatic agents. The time to hemostasis of OOZFIX was not significantly different from that of Arista AH (median [interquartile range]: 9 [6–10] minutes vs. 8 [6–10] minutes, respectively; P = 0.522). When comparing the serial bleeding grade tendency, there was no statistical difference between OOZFIX and Arista AH (P = 0.656). @*Conclusion@#OOZFIX caused a minimal FBR that disappeared within 2 weeks in vivo, and its hemostatic performance was comparable with that of an existing agent, Arista AH. Further clinical studies are required in the future.

5.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 100-109, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913526

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is distinguished into perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) and distal bile duct cancer (DBC). The studies for each subtype have been conducted separately. This study compared oncological outcomes between PHC and DBC. @*Methods@#From 2001 to 2017, patients who underwent surgery at Seoul National University Hospital for PHC or DBC were enrolled. T stage was reclassified for tumor extent as ‘confined to’ or ‘beyond’ the bile duct (BD). In survival analysis, stage matching was performed based on tumor extent and lymph node (LN) metastasis. @*Results@#There were 680 patients enrolled: 295 with PHC and 385 with DBC. The R0 resection rate was higher in DBC (77.3% vs. 89.9%, P = 0.001). Tumors confined to BD were more common in PHC (61.7% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.001). The 5-year survival rate (5YSR) was higher in DBC patients (30.8% vs. 47.8%, P = 0.001). After stage matching, DBC patients showed better 5YSR for tumors confined to BD/LN(–) (47.1% vs. 64.3%), confined to BD/LN(+) (22.0% vs. 35.0%), beyond BD/LN(–) (21.9% vs. 49.8%), and beyond BD/LN(+) (9.6% vs. 26.9%). The overall recurrence rate was higher in PHC (59.7% vs. 51.9%, P = 0.045), with no difference in the recurrence types between two groups. Radiation therapy was effective for patients with advanced stage disease (5YSR: 35.8% vs. 29.5%, P = 0.022); adjuvant chemotherapy was effective for patients receiving R1 resection (5YSR: 37.3% vs. 13.2%, P = 0.040). @*Conclusion@#Differences were identified in oncological outcomes between PHC and DBC, including pathologic findings and survival outcomes.

6.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 328-334, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925506

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#As pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) is a challenging anastomosis, an education program is needed to train young surgeons to perform PJ. This study evaluated the effects of simulation-based training of open PJ using pancreas and intestine silicone models. @*Methods@#Five videos pancreatobiliary clinical fellows who did not perform PJ participated in this study. After watching the master video created by a senior pancreatobiliary surgeon, each trainee performed the PJ using silicone models and recorded them 10 times using a video camera. Of these videos, 5 were randomly duplicated due to the validation of the scoring system. The scoring system developed consisted of 20 scores. Three pancreatobiliary professors scored their performance by watching videos. @*Results@#The mean procedure time of the 5 trainees was 25.4 minutes (range, 23.5–27.3 minutes) in the first video and 15.8 minutes (range, 13.8–19.1 minutes) in the 10th video. The mean score was 12.6 (range, 5–19) and 18.3 (range, 15–20) in the first and 10th videos, respectively. The scores were similar among the duplicated videos for each supervisor. @*Conclusion@#This education system would help pancreatobiliary trainees to overcome learning curves efficiently without ethical issues related to animal models or direct practice to human patients.

7.
Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; : 180-187, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901859

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated arthralgia and myalgia associated with the use of oral bisphosphonate (BP) by conducting a survey of patient. @*Methods@#The pharmacists conducted a survey between 1 Oct 2019 and 30 Sep 2020 among patients who were dispensed BP in community pharmacies to assess their demographic and medical characteristics, and their experiences with, and process for pain. Logistic regression analyses were performed to find the risk factors associated with the pain, and the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. @*Results@#A total of 160 patients who used BP participated in the survey (74 [46.3%] used risedronate; 61 [38.1%] used alendronate; 23 [14.4%] used ibandronate), and 20 (12.5%) of them experienced pain. Significant statistical differences of the characteristics between patients who experienced pain or not were observed regarding menopause, and parity. Compared with women who had one or two parity, women who had more than three parity were associated with the decreased risk of pain (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.04-0.98). Moreover, steady exercise was associated with the decreased risk of pain compared to less exercise (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14-0.98). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the risk of pain in BP-treated patients might be different regarding the different ingredients of BP, and dosing frequency. This survey highlights a need for a further safety research to understand the factors influencing the pain associated with the BP treatment.

8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S170-S179, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875509

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Thyroid hormones are involved in wide range of glucose metabolism functions. Overt thyroid dysfunctions are related to altered glucose homeostasis. However, it is not conclusive as to whether subtle changes in thyroid hormones within normal ranges can induce alterations in glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between thyroid hormone and glucose homeostasis parameters in subjects without overt thyroid dysfunction based on nationwide population data. @*Methods@#In the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015 (n = 7,380), data were collected from subjects with insulin and thyroid function measurements who were older than 19-years-old. After the exclusion of 5,837 subjects, a total of 1,543 patients were included in the analysis. Subjects were categorized into the quartiles of the free thyroxine (FT4). Fasting glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were considered to be glucose homeostasis parameters. @*Results@#Subjects with the highest FT4 quartile showed significantly lower fasting insulin and HbA1c levels. A significant inverse correlation FT4 and HbA1c levels was observed (β = –0.261, p = 0.025). In the logistic regression analysis, the highest quartile of FT4 was demonstrated to lower the risk of HbA1c to a greater degree than the median by approximately 40%, after adjusting for confounders, compared to the lowest quartile (p = 0.028). @*Conclusions@#We demonstrated subjects with a lower FT4 quartile exhibited high risk of HbA1c levels above the median value in a representative Korean population. Subjects with the lowest FT4 quartile should be cautiously managed in terms of altered glucose homeostasis.

9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 136-140, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875423

ABSTRACT

Although ERCP is a therapeutic endoscopic procedure in pacreatico-biliary diseases, its rare complications, including pancreatitis, duodenal perforation, and bleeding, can be fatal. An 87-year-old woman with a history of gallbladder cancer presented with jaundice and general weakness. Her skin color was yellowish and epigastric tenderness was confirmed on a physical examination. On abdomen CT, the gallbladder cancer directly invaded the duodenum, common bile duct, and liver parenchyma. Enlarged portocaval lymph nodes obstructed the extrahepatic bile duct. ERCP was performed for bile duct decompression. When shortening of endoscopy was achieved, the duodenal lateral wall was perforated because of the endoscopic tip pressure. After inserting endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage and endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, endoclips were placed evenly around the defect, and a detachable snare was tightened around the endoclips. Three days later, the duodenal wall was not sealed on the abdomen CT scan. Repeat endoscopy was achieved, and the endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage, endoclips, and detachable snare were removed. From the distal margin of the perforation, band ligation was performed, and a detachable snare was applied. The patient's condition improved after the second procedure. A percutaneous biliary stent was inserted, and she was discharged. This case highlights the successful endoscopic management of ERCP-related duodenal perforation.

10.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 453-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 537-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898445

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in past decades; however, the trends in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) are inconsistent among regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in PUB incidence and the effect of risk factors on PUB in Korea. @*Methods@#The records of patients hospitalized with PUB from 2006 to 2015 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database. Standardized incidences of PUB were calculated, and the clinical characteristics such as age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, drug exposure, comorbidities, and mortality were obtained. @*Results@#In total, 151,507 hospitalizations with PUB were identified. The overall annual hospitalization rate was 34.98 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of PUB showed no significant change from 2006 to 2008 and decreased from 2008 to 2015, with an annual change of –2.7% (p<0.05); however, this change was only significant in men. The incidence of PUB was higher in men than in women between 40 and 70 years old and higher in women than in men older than 80 years. From 2006 to 2015, the H. pylori infection rate increased significantly in patients with PUB;however, there was no significant change in exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other drugs that increase the risk of PUB. @*Conclusions@#Over the past decade, the incidence of PUB has decreased in a sex-specific manner. There has been a decreasing trend in the H. pylori infection rate and no change in exposure to drugs that increase the risk of PUB in Korea.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 546-552, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898443

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Increased esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation is the most important mechanism involved in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). An endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP Ⓡ ) is a device used to quantify EGJ distensibility in routine endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to assess the usefulness of EndoFLIP Ⓡ for the diagnosis of GERD compared to normal controls. @*Methods@#We analyzed EndoFLIP Ⓡ data from 204 patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD), 310 patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), and 277 normal subjects. EndoFLIP Ⓡ uses impedance planimetry to measure 16 cross-sectional areas (CSAs) in conjunction with the corresponding intrabag pressure within a 4.6 cm cylindrical segment of a fluid-filled bag. The EGJ distensibility was assessed using 40 mL volume-controlled distensions. @*Results@#The mean distensibility index values were 13.98 mm 2 /mm Hg in ERD patients, 11.42 mm2 /mm Hg in NERD patients, and 9.1 mm 2 /mm Hg in normal subjects. There were significant differences in EGJ distensibility among the three groups (p<0.001). In addition, the CSAs were significantly higher in the ERD (291.03±160.77 mm 2 ) and NERD groups (285.87±155.47 mm2 ) than in the control group (249.78±144.76 mm 2, p=0.004). We determined the distensibility index cutoff value of EGJ as 10.95 for the diagnosis of GERD by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. @*Conclusions@#The EGJ distensibilities of GERD patients were higher than those of normal subjects, regardless of the presence of reflux esophagitis. Thus, the measurement of EGJ distensibility using the EndoFLIP Ⓡ system could be useful in the diagnosis of GERD.

13.
Blood Research ; : 65-71, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897365

ABSTRACT

Background@#We analyzed cell-free serum Epstein‒Barr virus (EBV) DNA to identify its prognostic role in patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with lymphoma between January 2014 and July 2020. Patients were enrolled according to the following criteria: i) pathologically confirmed lymphomas according to the World Health Organization criteria, ii) age over 18 years, iii) serum EBV DNA measurement using polymerase chain reaction prior to first-line therapy, and iv) receipt of curative standard chemotherapy. In total, 263 patients met these criteria and were included in this study. @*Results@#Serum EBV DNA was detected in 79 patients (30.0%). Patients with positive serum EBV tended to be older (P =0.090), and the proportion of T-cell lineage lymphomas was higher than that of B-cell lymphomas (P =0.003). EBV positivity was significantly associated with more advanced disease based on the Ann Arbor staging system (P =0.008) and the International Prognostic Index (P =0.009). EBV positivity was also associated with higher disease relapse (P =0.038) and death rates (P =0.005). EBV-positive lymphomas further showed inferior long-term survival outcomes in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) (P =0.053) and overall survival (OS) (P =0.014). In the subgroup analyses, serum EBV positivity was a significant prognostic factor for patients with B-cell lineage lymphomas in terms of PFS (P =0.003) and OS (P =0.033). @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated that cell-free serum EBV DNA status at the time of diagnosis has potential as a prognostic biomarker for patients with newly diagnosed malignant lymphomas.

14.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 320-328, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897006

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) is widely performed but its efficacy and safety are not established for malignant lesions. This study was aimed to compare outcomes of LDP and open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). @*Methods@#Patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy for PDAC between 2009 and 2017 were enrolled. The preoperative clinical stage was evaluated and propensity score matching (PSM) was performed using age, sex, The American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th clinical T stage, and other organ involvement. @*Results@#In 186 patients enrolled, 35 (18.8%) received LDP. The ODP group showed larger tumor size and frequent involvement of other organs in preoperative images. However, after PSM, these differences were balanced. R0 resection (90.5% vs. 94.3%, P = 0.730), harvested lymph nodes (14.3 vs. 12.6, P = 0.380) and pathologic T stage (P = 0.474) were comparable between ODP and LDP groups, respectively. LDP demonstrated shorter operation time, less postoperative pain, and shorter hospitalization (14.4 days vs. 11.1 days, P = 0.026). In terms of long-term oncologic outcomes, median overall survival (32 months vs. 28 months, P = 0.724) and disease-free survival (18 months vs. 19 months, P = 0.926) were comparable. @*Conclusion@#LDP demonstrated better short-term outcomes and comparable long-term outcomes compared with ODP.LDP is a safe and feasible procedure for PDAC.

15.
Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; : 180-187, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894155

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated arthralgia and myalgia associated with the use of oral bisphosphonate (BP) by conducting a survey of patient. @*Methods@#The pharmacists conducted a survey between 1 Oct 2019 and 30 Sep 2020 among patients who were dispensed BP in community pharmacies to assess their demographic and medical characteristics, and their experiences with, and process for pain. Logistic regression analyses were performed to find the risk factors associated with the pain, and the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. @*Results@#A total of 160 patients who used BP participated in the survey (74 [46.3%] used risedronate; 61 [38.1%] used alendronate; 23 [14.4%] used ibandronate), and 20 (12.5%) of them experienced pain. Significant statistical differences of the characteristics between patients who experienced pain or not were observed regarding menopause, and parity. Compared with women who had one or two parity, women who had more than three parity were associated with the decreased risk of pain (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.04-0.98). Moreover, steady exercise was associated with the decreased risk of pain compared to less exercise (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14-0.98). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the risk of pain in BP-treated patients might be different regarding the different ingredients of BP, and dosing frequency. This survey highlights a need for a further safety research to understand the factors influencing the pain associated with the BP treatment.

16.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 453-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 537-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890741

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in past decades; however, the trends in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) are inconsistent among regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in PUB incidence and the effect of risk factors on PUB in Korea. @*Methods@#The records of patients hospitalized with PUB from 2006 to 2015 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database. Standardized incidences of PUB were calculated, and the clinical characteristics such as age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, drug exposure, comorbidities, and mortality were obtained. @*Results@#In total, 151,507 hospitalizations with PUB were identified. The overall annual hospitalization rate was 34.98 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of PUB showed no significant change from 2006 to 2008 and decreased from 2008 to 2015, with an annual change of –2.7% (p<0.05); however, this change was only significant in men. The incidence of PUB was higher in men than in women between 40 and 70 years old and higher in women than in men older than 80 years. From 2006 to 2015, the H. pylori infection rate increased significantly in patients with PUB;however, there was no significant change in exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other drugs that increase the risk of PUB. @*Conclusions@#Over the past decade, the incidence of PUB has decreased in a sex-specific manner. There has been a decreasing trend in the H. pylori infection rate and no change in exposure to drugs that increase the risk of PUB in Korea.

18.
Gut and Liver ; : 546-552, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890739

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Increased esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation is the most important mechanism involved in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). An endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP Ⓡ ) is a device used to quantify EGJ distensibility in routine endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to assess the usefulness of EndoFLIP Ⓡ for the diagnosis of GERD compared to normal controls. @*Methods@#We analyzed EndoFLIP Ⓡ data from 204 patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD), 310 patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), and 277 normal subjects. EndoFLIP Ⓡ uses impedance planimetry to measure 16 cross-sectional areas (CSAs) in conjunction with the corresponding intrabag pressure within a 4.6 cm cylindrical segment of a fluid-filled bag. The EGJ distensibility was assessed using 40 mL volume-controlled distensions. @*Results@#The mean distensibility index values were 13.98 mm 2 /mm Hg in ERD patients, 11.42 mm2 /mm Hg in NERD patients, and 9.1 mm 2 /mm Hg in normal subjects. There were significant differences in EGJ distensibility among the three groups (p<0.001). In addition, the CSAs were significantly higher in the ERD (291.03±160.77 mm 2 ) and NERD groups (285.87±155.47 mm2 ) than in the control group (249.78±144.76 mm 2, p=0.004). We determined the distensibility index cutoff value of EGJ as 10.95 for the diagnosis of GERD by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. @*Conclusions@#The EGJ distensibilities of GERD patients were higher than those of normal subjects, regardless of the presence of reflux esophagitis. Thus, the measurement of EGJ distensibility using the EndoFLIP Ⓡ system could be useful in the diagnosis of GERD.

19.
Blood Research ; : 65-71, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889661

ABSTRACT

Background@#We analyzed cell-free serum Epstein‒Barr virus (EBV) DNA to identify its prognostic role in patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with lymphoma between January 2014 and July 2020. Patients were enrolled according to the following criteria: i) pathologically confirmed lymphomas according to the World Health Organization criteria, ii) age over 18 years, iii) serum EBV DNA measurement using polymerase chain reaction prior to first-line therapy, and iv) receipt of curative standard chemotherapy. In total, 263 patients met these criteria and were included in this study. @*Results@#Serum EBV DNA was detected in 79 patients (30.0%). Patients with positive serum EBV tended to be older (P =0.090), and the proportion of T-cell lineage lymphomas was higher than that of B-cell lymphomas (P =0.003). EBV positivity was significantly associated with more advanced disease based on the Ann Arbor staging system (P =0.008) and the International Prognostic Index (P =0.009). EBV positivity was also associated with higher disease relapse (P =0.038) and death rates (P =0.005). EBV-positive lymphomas further showed inferior long-term survival outcomes in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) (P =0.053) and overall survival (OS) (P =0.014). In the subgroup analyses, serum EBV positivity was a significant prognostic factor for patients with B-cell lineage lymphomas in terms of PFS (P =0.003) and OS (P =0.033). @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated that cell-free serum EBV DNA status at the time of diagnosis has potential as a prognostic biomarker for patients with newly diagnosed malignant lymphomas.

20.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 320-328, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889302

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) is widely performed but its efficacy and safety are not established for malignant lesions. This study was aimed to compare outcomes of LDP and open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). @*Methods@#Patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy for PDAC between 2009 and 2017 were enrolled. The preoperative clinical stage was evaluated and propensity score matching (PSM) was performed using age, sex, The American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th clinical T stage, and other organ involvement. @*Results@#In 186 patients enrolled, 35 (18.8%) received LDP. The ODP group showed larger tumor size and frequent involvement of other organs in preoperative images. However, after PSM, these differences were balanced. R0 resection (90.5% vs. 94.3%, P = 0.730), harvested lymph nodes (14.3 vs. 12.6, P = 0.380) and pathologic T stage (P = 0.474) were comparable between ODP and LDP groups, respectively. LDP demonstrated shorter operation time, less postoperative pain, and shorter hospitalization (14.4 days vs. 11.1 days, P = 0.026). In terms of long-term oncologic outcomes, median overall survival (32 months vs. 28 months, P = 0.724) and disease-free survival (18 months vs. 19 months, P = 0.926) were comparable. @*Conclusion@#LDP demonstrated better short-term outcomes and comparable long-term outcomes compared with ODP.LDP is a safe and feasible procedure for PDAC.

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