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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 661-669, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969206

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of additional radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment for benign thyroid nodules. @*Methods@#Electronic medical records at a single institution from September 2008 to August 2016 were searched, and consecutive patients treated with RFA due to benign thyroid nodules with cosmetic or symptomatic problems were enrolled. All patients were followed up for at least 30 months. The nodules were divided into three groups: group 1 included nodules that met the criteria for additional treatment and underwent additional treatment, group 2 included nodules that met the criteria but did not undergo additional treatment, and group 3 included nodules that did not meet the criteria. The ablation results were compared among the three groups in terms of the initial ablation ratio (IAR) and volume reduction ratio (VRR). @*Results@#Ninety nodules from 88 patients were included in the study. At the last follow-up, group 1 showed a significantly smaller nodule volume and larger VRR (2.5 mL and 84.6%, respectively) than group 2 (8.1 mL and 39.8%, respectively, P<0.001), but did not present a significant difference from group 3 (0.9 mL, P=0.347, and 92.8%, P=0.238). The IAR was significantly higher in group 3 (94.5%) than in the other two groups (group 1, 81.1%; group 2, 82.8%; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Multiple treatment sessions achieve greater VRR. Therefore, additional treatment could be considered for patients who meet the corresponding criteria.

2.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 914-922, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901313

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) after > 10 years of follow-up. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included five patients who underwent RFA to treat PTMCs (five lesions, mean diameter 0.5 cm, range 0.4–0.7 cm) between November 2006 and December 2009. The inclusion criteria were histopathologically confirmed PTMCs, a single PTMC lesion without extrathyroidal extension, no metastasis, and ineligibility or refusal to undergo surgery. RFA was performed by a single radiologist using a radiofrequency generator and an internally cooled electrode. We retrospectively analyzed the procedure-induced complications, serial changes in ablated tumors, recurrence, and local as well as lymph node metastasis based on data obtained from medical records and radiological images. @*Results@#The mean follow-up period was 130.6 months (range 121–159 months). Three patients underwent a single RFA session, and two patients underwent two RFA sessions. We observed no procedure-induced complications. Three tumors completely disappeared after ablation, and ablation of the other two tumors resulted in the formation of a small scar that showed long-term stability (mean duration 16.8 months, range 12–27 months). At the last follow-up, no patient showed recurrence or lymph node metastasis, and serum thyroglobulin levels were within normal limits in all patients. @*Conclusion@#RFA may be effective and safe to treat low-risk PTMC in patients who refuse or are ineligible for surgery.

3.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 914-922, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893609

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) after > 10 years of follow-up. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included five patients who underwent RFA to treat PTMCs (five lesions, mean diameter 0.5 cm, range 0.4–0.7 cm) between November 2006 and December 2009. The inclusion criteria were histopathologically confirmed PTMCs, a single PTMC lesion without extrathyroidal extension, no metastasis, and ineligibility or refusal to undergo surgery. RFA was performed by a single radiologist using a radiofrequency generator and an internally cooled electrode. We retrospectively analyzed the procedure-induced complications, serial changes in ablated tumors, recurrence, and local as well as lymph node metastasis based on data obtained from medical records and radiological images. @*Results@#The mean follow-up period was 130.6 months (range 121–159 months). Three patients underwent a single RFA session, and two patients underwent two RFA sessions. We observed no procedure-induced complications. Three tumors completely disappeared after ablation, and ablation of the other two tumors resulted in the formation of a small scar that showed long-term stability (mean duration 16.8 months, range 12–27 months). At the last follow-up, no patient showed recurrence or lymph node metastasis, and serum thyroglobulin levels were within normal limits in all patients. @*Conclusion@#RFA may be effective and safe to treat low-risk PTMC in patients who refuse or are ineligible for surgery.

4.
Ultrasonography ; : 417-427, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919519

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanol ablation (EA) in the treatment of cystic thyroid nodules using low-dose ethanol regardless of the initial volume of the nodule or properties of the aspirate. @*Methods@#Sixty-one nodules in 60 patients were treated with EA from October 2013 to January 2020. In each patient, EA was performed only once, using less than 5 mL of ethanol (99.5%) instilled and removed completely after a few minutes of retention. Nodule volume, the symptom score, the cosmetic score, and complications were evaluated before and after treatment. The therapeutic success rate (TSR) and volume reduction rate (VRR) according to nodule volume and properties of the aspirate were evaluated. Therapeutic success was defined as the absence of any residual fluid or sufficient volume reduction (≥50%) with improvement of nodule-related symptoms. @*Results@#The 61 nodules comprised 38 pure cysts and 23 predominantly cystic nodules. The initial nodule volume was 21.9±15.2 mL (range, 4.4 to 77.2 mL). The TSR was 88.5% (100% in pure cysts and 69.6% in predominantly cystic nodules, P<0.001). The TSR of pure cysts was 100% regardless of nodule volume and properties of the aspirate. In predominantly cystic nodules, the TSR and VRR gradually decreased as volume increased. One patient experienced arrhythmia during the procedure, but completely recovered without sequelae. @*Conclusion@#Single-session EA using low-dose ethanol might be effective for the treatment of symptomatic cystic thyroid nodules regardless of the initial cyst volume and properties of the aspirate, especially in pure cysts.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 2094-2123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918179

ABSTRACT

Incidental thyroid nodules are commonly detected on ultrasonography (US). This has contributed to the rapidly rising incidence of low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma over the last 20 years. The appropriate diagnosis and management of these patients is based on the risk factors related to the patients as well as the thyroid nodules. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published consensus recommendations for US-based management of thyroid nodules in 2011 and revised them in 2016. These guidelines have been used as the standard guidelines in Korea. However, recent advances in the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules have necessitated the revision of the original recommendations. The task force of the KSThR has revised the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and recommendations for US lexicon, biopsy criteria, US criteria of extrathyroidal extension, optimal thyroid computed tomography protocol, and US follow-up of thyroid nodules before and after biopsy. The biopsy criteria were revised to reduce unnecessary biopsies for benign nodules while maintaining an appropriate sensitivity for the detection of malignant tumors in small (1–2 cm) thyroid nodules. The goal of these recommendations is to provide the optimal scientific evidence and expert opinion consensus regarding US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 609-620, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741439

ABSTRACT

Minimally invasive treatment of symptomatic thyroid nodules is now commonplace. Ethanol ablation (EA) of thyroid cystic nodules has been performed since the 1990s, but there is no global consensus or guideline. Although various limitations of EA have been described, recommendations for practical application are necessary. Therefore, the Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology initiated the present consensus statement and here we provide recommendations for the role of EA in the management of symptomatic thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on evidence to date from the literature and expert opinion.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Consensus , Ethanol , Expert Testimony , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 117-123, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763704

ABSTRACT

Thermal ablation (TA) procedures, such as radiofrequency ablation and laser ablation, are used for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. Short-term studies (<2 years) have demonstrated that TA is an effective and safe procedure to improve cosmetic or symptomatic problems. However, studies including a longer follow-up period show that treated thyroid nodules can increase in size after 2 to 3 years. Several studies suggest that this results from regrowth at the undertreated nodule margins. Here, we review current data on regrowth after TA and describe factors related to it and possible approaches to prevent it.


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Follow-Up Studies , Laser Therapy , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 167-174, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of thyroid radiofrequency (RF) ablation for benign thyroid nodules by trained radiologists according to a unified protocol in a multi-center study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2011, 345 nodules from 345 patients (M:F = 43:302; mean age ± SD = 46.0 ± 12.7 years, range = 15–79) who met eligibility criteria were enrolled from five institutions. At pre-ablation, the mean volume was 14.2 ± 13.2 mL (1.1–80.8 mL). For 12 months or longer after treatment, 276 lesions, consisting of 248 solid and 28 predominantly cystic nodules, were followed. All operators performed RF ablation with a cool-tip RF system and two standard techniques (a transisthmic approach and the moving-shot technique). Volume reduction at 12 months after RF ablation (the primary outcome), therapeutic success, improvement of symptoms as well as of cosmetic problems, and complications were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to identify factors that were independently predictive of volume reduction. RESULTS: The mean volume reduction at 12 months was 80.3% (n = 276) and at the 24-, 36-, 48-, and 60-month follow-ups 84.3% (n = 198), 89.2% (n = 128), 91.9% (n = 57), and 95.3% (n = 6), respectively. Our therapeutic success was 97.8%. Both mean symptom and cosmetic scores showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The rate of major complications was 1.0% (3/276). Solidity and applied energy were independent factors that predicted volume reduction. CONCLUSION: Radiofrequency ablation performed by trained radiologists from multiple institutions using a unified protocol and similar devices was effective and safe for treating benign thyroid nodules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheter Ablation , Follow-Up Studies , Linear Models , Prospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
10.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 765-775, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916088

ABSTRACT

With growing interest in novel digital healthcare devices, such as artificial intelligence (AI) software for medical diagnosis and prediction, and their potential impacts on healthcare, discussions have taken place regarding the regulatory approval, coverage, and clinical implementation of these devices. Despite their potential, ‘digital exceptionalism’ (i.e., skipping the rigorous clinical validation of such digital tools) is creating significant concerns for patients and healthcare stakeholders. This white paper presents the positions of the Korean Society of Radiology, a leader in medical imaging and digital medicine, on the clinical validation, regulatory approval, coverage decisions, and clinical implementation of novel digital healthcare devices, especially AI software for medical diagnosis and prediction, and explains the scientific principles underlying those positions. Mere regulatory approval by the Food and Drug Administration of Korea, the United States, or other countries should be distinguished from coverage decisions and widespread clinical implementation, as regulatory approval only indicates that a digital tool is allowed for use in patients, not that the device is beneficial or recommended for patient care. Coverage or widespread clinical adoption of AI software tools should require a thorough clinical validation of safety, high accuracy proven by robust external validation, documented benefits for patient outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. The Korean Society of Radiology puts patients first when considering novel digital healthcare tools, and as an impartial professional organization that follows scientific principles and evidence, strives to provide correct information to the public, make reasonable policy suggestions, and build collaborative partnerships with industry and government for the good of our patients.

11.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 765-775, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766467

ABSTRACT

With growing interest in novel digital healthcare devices, such as artificial intelligence (AI) software for medical diagnosis and prediction, and their potential impacts on healthcare, discussions have taken place regarding the regulatory approval, coverage, and clinical implementation of these devices. Despite their potential, ‘digital exceptionalism’ (i.e., skipping the rigorous clinical validation of such digital tools) is creating significant concerns for patients and healthcare stakeholders. This white paper presents the positions of the Korean Society of Radiology, a leader in medical imaging and digital medicine, on the clinical validation, regulatory approval, coverage decisions, and clinical implementation of novel digital healthcare devices, especially AI software for medical diagnosis and prediction, and explains the scientific principles underlying those positions. Mere regulatory approval by the Food and Drug Administration of Korea, the United States, or other countries should be distinguished from coverage decisions and widespread clinical implementation, as regulatory approval only indicates that a digital tool is allowed for use in patients, not that the device is beneficial or recommended for patient care. Coverage or widespread clinical adoption of AI software tools should require a thorough clinical validation of safety, high accuracy proven by robust external validation, documented benefits for patient outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. The Korean Society of Radiology puts patients first when considering novel digital healthcare tools, and as an impartial professional organization that follows scientific principles and evidence, strives to provide correct information to the public, make reasonable policy suggestions, and build collaborative partnerships with industry and government for the good of our patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Delivery of Health Care , Device Approval , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Insurance Coverage , Korea , Patient Care , Societies , Software Validation , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 632-655, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716271

ABSTRACT

Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid tumors in 2012. As new meaningful evidences have accumulated, KSThR decided to revise the guidelines. The revised guideline is based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Advisory Committees , Catheter Ablation , Consensus , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 217-237, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208823

ABSTRACT

Core needle biopsy (CNB) has been suggested as a complementary diagnostic method to fine-needle aspiration in patients with thyroid nodules. Many recent CNB studies have suggested a more advanced role for CNB, but there are still no guidelines on its use. Therefore, the Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed the present consensus statement and recommendations for the role of CNB in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Advisory Committees , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Consensus , Diagnosis , Methods , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Medical Ultrasound ; : 95-102, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725542

ABSTRACT

Core needle biopsy is a complementary diagnostic method of fine needle aspiration for patients with thyroid nodules. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for diagnosis of thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers using core needle biopsy. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Advisory Committees , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Consensus , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
15.
Journal of the Korean Society of Medical Ultrasound ; : 73-80, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725433

ABSTRACT

Radiofrequency ablation is a new non-surgical treatment modality for patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers using radiofrequency ablation. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Advisory Committees , Consensus , Ethanol , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 117-125, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112478

ABSTRACT

Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies, and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Catheter Ablation/methods , Consensus , Informed Consent , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/parasitology , Patient Safety , Radio Waves , Republic of Korea , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Ultrasonography, Interventional
17.
Journal of the Korean Society of Medical Ultrasound ; : 181-188, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725584

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. RESULTS: Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 xBSA (m2, 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). CONCLUSION: This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Follow-Up Studies , Kidney , Prone Position
18.
Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 1029-1036, 2003.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107119

ABSTRACT

To report cases of metastasectomy for metastatic gynecologic malignancies, we reviewed the medical records of all patients who have undergone metastasectomy for metastatic gynecologic malignancies in Center for Uterine Cancer from June 2001 to October 2002. Six patients were identified with median age of 55 years (range 52-66 years). The metastatic sites and primary sites were as follows: 3 liver metastasis from ovary; 1 abdominal wall metastasis from uterus (endometrial cancer), 1 brain metastasis from ovary, 1 lung metastasis from uterus (sarcoma). The median disease free interval was 48 months (range 10 months-13 years). There was no perioperative mortality. Postoperative morbidity was tolerable with 1 case of bile leakage. In three patients with hepatectomy, one patient was dead of disease after 15 months, one patient is alive with disease at 20 months of follow up, one patient have no evidence of recurrence at 7 months follow up. The patient with brain metastasis was dead due to lung metastsis after 9 months later postoperatively. Remaining two patients with abdominal wall and lung metastasis have no evidence of tumor recurrence at 4, 7 months follow up respectively. Metastasectomy for metastatic gynecologic malignancies can be performed safely and may help prolong survival in carefully selected patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Abdominal Wall , Bile , Brain , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatectomy , Liver , Lung , Medical Records , Metastasectomy , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Ovary , Recurrence , Uterine Neoplasms , Uterus
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 357-361, 2001.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41063

ABSTRACT

Although well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM) is usually classified as benign, the natural history of this lesion has not been clearly established. We present a case of WDPM in 60-year old woman developing malignant mesothelioma with seeding mass on the trocar insertion site over a period of 2 years. The initial symptom exhibited by the patient was abdominal distension from massive ascitic fluid. With an impression of peritoneal carcinomatosis, we performed a diagnostic laparoscopy. On the laparoscopic finding, a small whitish nodule was found on the liver surface and the pathologic result revealed reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. At exploro-laparotomy, multiple small nodules were found on the omentum and a biopsy revealed well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum. The patient underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy and omentectomy of the colon and was followed for 2 years without any further treatment. Subsequently, she presented with abdominal distention with massive ascites and palpable abdominal wall mass at the previous trocar insertion site. Malignant mesothelioma was confirmed histologically via re- exploration. The rare transformation of well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma into a typically malignant diffuse mesothelioma and the unusual seeding on trocar insertion site prompted us to report this case.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Abdominal Wall , Ascites , Ascitic Fluid , Biopsy , Carcinoma , Colon , Hyperplasia , Laparoscopy , Liver , Lymph Node Excision , Mesothelioma , Natural History , Omentum , Peritoneum , Surgical Instruments
20.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 195-200, 2001.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19160

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To retrospectively compared the usefulness of the transrectal ultrasonography LEAVE A SPACE(TRUS) and systemic sextant biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 84 patients with clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of prostate cancer underwent TRUS and systemic sextant biopsy. Nine patients with diffuse prostatic lesion had been excluded from the list. Following sonographic evaluation, additional targeted biopsy for the focal lesion was performed in 14 patients. A total of 464 biopsy specimens were obtained and retrospectively compared with the sonographic findings. RESULTS: For cancer, the sensitivity, specificity and false-positive rate of TRUS were 48%, 97% and 53%, respectively. The hypoechoic nodules seen in prostate cancer were more commonly located in the outer half of the peripheral zone of the prostate, while most BPH lesions were located in the inner half of this zone. Between prostate cancer and BPH there was a statistically significant difference in the location of hypoechoic nodules revealed by TRUS (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The location of the hypoechoic nodules provides useful information for differentiating between BPH nodoles and malignant prostatic nodules and may reduce the false-positive rate of TRUS in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography
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