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1.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 351-366, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977162

ABSTRACT

Along with the development of immunosuppressive drugs, major advances on xenotransplantation were achieved by understanding the immunobiology of xenograft rejection. Most importantly, three predominant carbohydrate antigens on porcine endothelial cells were key elements provoking hyperacute rejection: α1,3-galactose, SDa blood group antigen, and N-glycolylneuraminic acid. Preformed antibodies binding to the porcine major xenoantigen causes complement activation and endothelial cell activation, leading to xenograft injury and intravascular thrombosis. Recent advances in genetic engineering enabled knock-outs of these major xenoantigens, thus producing xenografts with less hyperacute rejection rates. Another milestone in the history of xenotransplantation was the development of co-stimulation blockaded strategy. Unlike allotransplantation, xenotransplantation requires blockade of CD40-CD40L pathway to prevent T-cell dependent B-cell activation and antibody production. In 2010s, advanced genetic engineering of xenograft by inducing the expression of multiple human transgenes became available.So-called ‘multi-gene’ xenografts expressing human transgenes such as thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor were introduced, which resulted in the reduction of thrombotic events and improvement of xenograft survival. Still, there are many limitations to clinical translation of cardiac xenotransplantation. Along with technical challenges, zoonotic infection and physiological discordances are major obstacles. Social barriers including healthcare costs also need to be addressed. Although there are several remaining obstacles to overcome, xenotransplantation would surely become the novel option for millions of patients with end-stage heart failure who have limited options to traditional therapeutics.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 442-451, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976719

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#An increasing number of patients with cancers are interested in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which lacks scientific evidence. This study aimed to determine how CAM was used and how media affected patients in online cancer support groups (OCSG). @*Materials and Methods@#Between August 18 and September 12, 2021, an online survey was conducted among the members of OCSG. The survey consisted of five parts: baseline characteristics, attitudes toward and experience with CAM, source of information and reliabilities, experience with anthelmintics, and online health information literacy and usage. @*Results@#Among the 644 responders, a total of 221 patients with cancer completed the survey, and 78.2% (173/221) used CAM. The users’ median age was 52 years; 46.8% were males, and 43.9% had metastatic disease. Fifty-three CAM users (30.6%) discussed their physicians about CAM. In addition, 16.2% (28/173) of CAM users had the experience of anthelmintics. The use of anthelmintics in patients with cancers was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.95), metastatic disease (OR, 10.88; 95% CI, 3.39 to 34.86), previous exposure to CAM information (OR, 5.57; 95% CI, 1.01 to 30.72), experience with more types of CAM (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.05), and side effects (OR, 5.10; 95% CI 1.46 to 17.75). @*Conclusion@#Use of anthelmintics, a CAM of which information is widespread online, is affected by several factors. This study will provide essential information for developing a CAM management strategy in this digital age.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 747-757, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003068

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Little attention is paid to chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) in Korea due to the rarity of the disease. With its rising incidence, we aimed to evaluate recent changes in treatment patterns and survival outcomes of patients with CLL/SLL. @*Methods@#A total of 141 patients diagnosed with CLL/SLL between January 2010 and March 2020 who received systemic therapy were analyzed in this multicenter retrospective study. @*Results@#The median patient age was 66 years at diagnosis, and 68.1% were male. The median interval from diagnosis to initial treatment was 0.9 months (range: 0–77.6 months), and the most common treatment indication was progressive marrow failure (50.4%). Regarding first-line therapy, 46.8% received fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, plus rituximab (FCR), followed by chlorambucil (19.9%), and obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (GC) (12.1%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 49.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.7–61.4), and median overall survival was not reached (95% CI, 98.4 mo– not reached). Multivariable analysis revealed younger age (≤ 65 yr) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; p < 0.001) and first-line therapy with FCR (HR, 0.64; p = 0.019) were independently associated with improved PFS. TP53 aberrations were observed in 7.0% (4/57) of evaluable patients. Following reimbursement, GC became the most common therapy among patients over 65 years and second in the overall population after 2017. @*Conclusions@#Age and reimbursement mainly influenced treatment strategies. Greater effort to apply risk stratifications into practice and clinical trials for novel agents could help improve treatment outcomes in Korean patients.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e249-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001069

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to capture multifaceted clinical characteristics of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection from diagnosis to treatment using a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrics, pediatrics, pathology, and otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective study including 30 consecutive cases of congenital CMV infection that were diagnosed at a single tertiary hospital located in Seoul, Korea from January 2009 to December 2020. Congenital CMV infection was defined as a positive result by polymerase chain reaction from urine, saliva or cerebrospinal fluid or positive CMV IgM from neonatal blood sampled within 3 weeks after birth. All cases were analyzed with respect to whole clinical characteristics from diagnosis to treatment of congenital CMV by a multidisciplinary approach including prenatal sonographic findings, maternal immune status regarding CMV infection, detailed placental pathology, neonatal clinical manifestation, auditory brainstem response test, and antiviral treatment (ganciclovir or valganciclovir). Long-term outcomes including developmental delay and hearing loss were also investigated. @*Results@#The total number of births during the study period in our institution was 19,385, with the prevalence of congenital infection estimated to be 0.15%. Among 30 cases of congenital CMV, the median gestational age at delivery was 32.2 weeks [range, 22.6–40.0] and 66.7% of these infants were delivered preterm at less than 37 weeks. Suspected fetal growth restriction was the most common prenatal ultrasound finding (50%) followed by ventriculomegaly (17.9%) and abnormal placenta (17.9%), defined as thick placenta with calcification. No abnormal findings on ultrasound examination were observed in one-third of births. Maternal CMV serology tests were conducted in only 8 cases, and one case each of positive and equivocal IgM were found. The most common placental pathologic findings were chronic villitis (66.7%) and calcification (63.0%), whereas viral inclusions were identified in only 22.2%. The most common neonatal manifestations were jaundice (58.6%) followed by elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (55.2%) and thrombocytopenia (51.7%). After excluding cases for which long-term outcomes were unavailable due to death (n = 4) or subsequent follow up loss (n = 3), developmental delay was confirmed in 43.5% of infants (10/23), and hearing loss was confirmed in 42.9% (9/21) during the follow-up period. In our cohort, 56.7% (17/30) of neonates were treated for congenital CMV with ganciclovir or valganciclovir. @*Conclusion@#Our data show that prenatal findings including maternal serologic tests and ultrasound have limited ability to detect congenital CMV in Korea. Given that CMV is associated with high rates of developmental delay and hearing loss in infants, there is an urgent need to develop specific strategies for the definite diagnosis of congenital CMV infection during the perinatal period by a multidisciplinary approach to decrease the risks of neurologic impairment and hearing loss through early antiviral treatment.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 123-133, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917386

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Atherectomy as a pretreatment has the potential to improve the outcomes of drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment by reducing and modifying atherosclerotic plaques. The present study investigated the outcomes of atherectomy plus DCB (A+DCB) compared with DCB alone for the treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease. @*Methods@#A total of 311 patients (348 limbs) underwent endovascular therapy using DCB for native femoropopliteal artery lesions at two endovascular centers. Of these, 82 limbs were treated with A+DCB and 266 limbs with DCB alone. After propensity score matching based on clinical and lesion characteristics, a total of 82 pairs was compared for immediate and mid-term outcomes. @*Results@#For the matched study groups, the lesion length was 172.7±111.2 mm, and severe calcification was observed in 43.3%. The technical success rate was higher in the A+DCB group than in the DCB group (80.5% vs. 62.2%, p=0.015). However, the A+DCB group showed more procedure-related minor complications (37.0% vs. 13.4%, p=0.047). At 2-year follow-up, primary clinical patency (73.8% vs. 82.6%, p=0.158) and the target lesion revascularization (TLR)-free survival (84.3% vs. 88.2%, p=0.261) did not differ between the two groups. In Cox proportional hazard analysis, atherectomy showed no significant impact on the outcome of DCB treatments. @*Conclusions@#The pretreatment with atherectomy improved technical success of DCB treatment; however, it was associated with increased minor complications. In this study, A+DCB showed no clinical benefit in terms of TLR-free survival or clinical patency compared with DCB treatment alone.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 75-83, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913829

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Detection of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations is a crucial process in the integrated diagnosis of glioblastomas. However, the TERT promoter region is difficult to amplify because of its high guanine-cytosine (GC) content (> 80%). This study aimed to analyze the capturing of TERT mutations by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. @*Materials and Methods@#We compared the detection rate of TERT mutations between targeted NGS and Sanger sequencing in 25 cases of isocitrate dehydrgenase (IDH)-wildtype glioblastomas and 10 cases of non-neoplastic gastric tissues. Our customized panel consisted of 232 essential glioma-associated genes. @*Results@#Sanger sequencing detected TERT mutations in 17 out of 25 glioblastomas, but all TERT mutations were missed by targeted NGS. After the manual visualization of the NGS data using an integrative genomics viewer, 16 cases showed a TERT mutation with a very low read depth (mean, 21.59; median, 25), which revealed false-negative results using auto-filtering. We optimized our customized panel by extending the length of oligonucleotide baits and increasing the number of baits spanning the coverage of the TERT promoter, which did not amplify well due to the high GC content. @*Conclusion@#Our study confirmed that it is crucial to consider the recognition of molecular bias and to carefully interpret NGS data.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 30-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

8.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 324-337, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926511

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Identifying patients with high bleeding risk (HBR) is important when making decisions for antiplatelet therapy strategy. This study evaluated the impact of ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) according to HBR in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients treated with drug eluting stents (DESs). @*Methods@#In this post-hoc analysis of the TICO trial, HBR was defined by 2 approaches: meeting Academic Research Consortium for HBR (ARC-HBR) criteria or Predicting Bleeding Complications in Patients Undergoing Stent Implantation and Subsequent DAPT (PRECISEDAPT) score ≥25. The primary outcome was a 3–12 months net adverse clinical event (composite of major bleeding and adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events). @*Results@#Of the 2,980 patients without adverse events during the first 3 months after DES implantation, 453 (15.2%) were HBR by ARC-HBR criteria and 504 (16.9%) were HBR by PRECISE-DAPT score. The primary outcome rate was higher in HBR versus non-HBR patients (by ARC-HBR criteria: hazard ratio [HR], 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76– 4.69; p<0.001; by PRECISE-DAPT score: HR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.92–4.98; p<0.001). Ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT was associated with lower primary outcome rate than ticagrelor-based 12-month DAPT regardless of HBR by ARC-HBR criteria, with similar magnitudes of therapy effect for HBR and non-HBR patients (p-interaction=0.400). Results were consistent by PRECISE-DAPT score (p-interaction=0.178). @*Conclusions@#In ACS patients treated with DESs, ticagrelor monotherapy after 3-month DAPT was associated with lower rate of adverse clinical outcomes regardless of HBR, with similar magnitudes of therapy effect between HBR and non-HBR.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02494895

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 488-496, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925669

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to assess the real-world efficacy of nab-paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#This is a retrospective study performed in two tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. Patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane®) between March 2016 and March 2020 were enrolled. @*Results@#A total of 102 patients with metastatic breast cancer were included. Patients were heavily pre-treated with a median of four prior lines of chemotherapy (5 lines when including endocrine therapy in hormone-receptor-positive patients), and 66 patients (64.7%) were exposed to taxanes in the metastatic setting. According to St. Gallen molecular subtypes, 36 patients (35.3%) were luminal A, 28 (27.5%) were luminal B, 18 (17.7%) were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive and 20 (19.6%) had triple-negative disease. Fifty patients (49.0%) were treated with a 3-weekly regimen (260 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks), and 52 (51.0%) were treated with a weekly regimen (100 mg/m2 every week). Objective response rate was 22.9%. After a median follow-up of 22.0 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 4.8) and median overall survival was 8.7 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 11.2). Patients treated with weekly regimen had longer PFS compared to 3-weekly regimen (5.5 vs. 2.3 months, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the treatment regimen as an independent prognostic factor for PFS. There was no grade 3 or 4 hypersensitivity reaction. @*Conclusion@#This real-world data shows that nab-paclitaxel is a reasonable treatment option in heavily pre-treated and/or taxane-exposed metastatic breast cancer patients.

10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 990-996, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904278

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Concerns have been consistently raised in regards to the considerable amount of contrast dye used during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with renal insufficiency. In the present study, we introduced minimal contrast TAVR and compared its 30-day clinical outcomes with conventional TAVR. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 369 patients who underwent TAVR between July 2011 and April 2020 in our institute. Among them, 93 patients with severe aortic stenosis and renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤50 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) were included and divided into a conventional TAVR group (n=56) and a minimal contrast TAVR group (n=37). In the minimal contrast TAVR group, the total amount of contrast was <10 mL during the entire TAVR procedure. Thirty-day major adverse clinical events (MACE), including death, stroke, implantation of permanent pacemaker, and initiation of hemodialysis, were investigated. @*Results@#The incidence of MACE was significantly lower in the minimal contrast TAVR group than the conventional TAVR group (16.2% vs. 42.9%, p=0.010). Death occurred in 9 patients (16.1%) in the conventional TAVR group and in 0 patients in the minimal contrast group (p=0.011). Hemodialysis was initiated in 2 patients (5.4%) in the minimal contrast TAVR group and in 7 patients (12.5%) in the conventional TAVR group (p=0.256). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the minimal contrast TAVR procedure was an independent predictor for reducing MACE (hazard ratio 0.208, 95% confidence interval: 0.080–0.541, p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#Minimal contrast TAVR is feasible and shows more favorable short-term clinical outcomes than conventional TAVR in patients with renal insufficiency.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 209-214, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875617

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute coronary occlusion is a rare but fatal complication that may occur during trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and appears more frequently in patients with low coronary heights. We evaluated the feasibility of self-expanding valves in patients with low coronary heights undergoing TAVI. @*Materials and Methods@#TAVI for native aortic valve stenosis was conducted in 276 consecutive patients between 2015 and 2019 at our institute. Using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), information on the aortic valve, coronary arteries, and vascular anatomy in 269 patients was analyzed. Patients with low coronary heights were defined as those with coronary heights of 10 mm or less during MDCT analysis. @*Results@#Among the 269 patients, 29 (10.8%) patients had coronary arteries with low heights. The mean coronary height was 8.9±1.2 mm in the left coronary artery. These patients with low coronary heights were treated with self-expandable (n=28) or balloon-expandable (n=1) valves. Prophylactic coronary protection with a guidewire, balloon, or stent prepositioned down at-risk coronary arteries was not pursued in all patients. No acute coronary occlusion occurred in any of these patients during TAVI. Five patients (17.9%) died during follow-up (average of 553.8 days), including four from non-cardiogenic causes and one from a cardiogenic (aggravation of heart failure) cause. @*Conclusion@#A considerable number of patients with low coronary heights were observed among TAVI candidates in this study. Use of a self-expandable valve may be feasible for successful TAVI without acute coronary occlusion in patients with low coronary heights.

12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 990-996, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896574

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Concerns have been consistently raised in regards to the considerable amount of contrast dye used during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with renal insufficiency. In the present study, we introduced minimal contrast TAVR and compared its 30-day clinical outcomes with conventional TAVR. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 369 patients who underwent TAVR between July 2011 and April 2020 in our institute. Among them, 93 patients with severe aortic stenosis and renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤50 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) were included and divided into a conventional TAVR group (n=56) and a minimal contrast TAVR group (n=37). In the minimal contrast TAVR group, the total amount of contrast was <10 mL during the entire TAVR procedure. Thirty-day major adverse clinical events (MACE), including death, stroke, implantation of permanent pacemaker, and initiation of hemodialysis, were investigated. @*Results@#The incidence of MACE was significantly lower in the minimal contrast TAVR group than the conventional TAVR group (16.2% vs. 42.9%, p=0.010). Death occurred in 9 patients (16.1%) in the conventional TAVR group and in 0 patients in the minimal contrast group (p=0.011). Hemodialysis was initiated in 2 patients (5.4%) in the minimal contrast TAVR group and in 7 patients (12.5%) in the conventional TAVR group (p=0.256). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the minimal contrast TAVR procedure was an independent predictor for reducing MACE (hazard ratio 0.208, 95% confidence interval: 0.080–0.541, p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#Minimal contrast TAVR is feasible and shows more favorable short-term clinical outcomes than conventional TAVR in patients with renal insufficiency.

13.
Blood Research ; : 266-278, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913726

ABSTRACT

Background@#Treatment protocols for light chain (AL) amyloidosis have been derived from myeloma treatment. Bortezomib is a key drug used for the treatment of myeloma and AL amyloidosis. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and toxicity of bortezomib-based chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis. @*Methods@#We reviewed the outcomes of newly diagnosed autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT)-ineligible AL amyloidosis patients who received bortezomib-based chemotherapy at a referral center between 2011 and 2017. @*Results@#Of 63 patients who received bortezomib-based chemotherapy, 32 were male, and the median age was 66 years (range, 42‒82 yr). The hematologic overall response rate (ORR) was 65.1%, and the chemotherapy regimen with the best hematologic response was VMP (75.7%, 28/37). Sixty patients had significant organ (heart or kidney) involvement; 28.3% of patients (N=17) had major organ responses after chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 34 months, there was no significant difference in progression-free survival (P =0.49) or overall survival (P =0.67) according to regimen. Most hematologic and non-hematologic problems were manageable. @*Conclusion@#Various chemotherapy combinations based on bortezomib are currently employed in the clinical setting, but no difference was found in terms of efficacy or toxicity.

14.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 222-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901647

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been reported as a good alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with small aortic annulus. Head-to-head comparisons of different transcatheter aortic valves in these patients are insufficient. We compared the outcomes after TAVR between two different types of recent transcatheter aortic valves (self-expanding vs. balloon-expandable) in patients with small aortic annulus. @*Methods@#A total of 70 patients with severe aortic stenosis and small annulus (mean diameter ≤23 mm or minimal diameter ≤21 mm on computed tomography) underwent TAVR with either a self-expanding valve with supra-annular location (n=45) or a balloon-expandable valve with intra-annular location (n=25). The echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters after TAVR and 1-year follow-up were compared. @*Results@#Between the self-expanding and balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the clinical outcomes including permanent pacemaker implantation (11.1% vs. 8.0%), acute kidney injury stage 2 or 3 (4.4% vs. 4.0%), and major vascular complication (4.4% vs. 0.0%) were similar without all-cause mortality, stroke, and life-threatening bleeding during 30-day follow-up. Compared with the balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the self-expanding valve-treated patients presented larger effective orifice area (EOA) (1.46±0.28 vs. 1.75±0.42 cm2 , p=0.002) and indexed EOA (0.95±0.21 vs. 1.18±0.28 cm2 /m2 , p=0.001), whereas mean aortic valve gradient (11.7±2.9 vs. 8.9±5.2 mmHg, P=0.005) and incidence of ≥moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch (36.0% vs. 8.9%, p=0.009) were lower. These hemodynamic differences were maintained at 1-year follow-up. @*Conclusions@#TAVR with self-expanding valves was associated with superior hemodynamic outcomes compared with balloon-expandable valves in patients with small aortic annulus.

15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 626-638, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901619

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Prior studies have shown that stroke patients treated with percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) experience better outcomes than similar patients treated with warfarin. We investigated the impact of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure on post-stroke neurological outcomes in NVAF patients, compared with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy. @*Methods@#Medical records for 1,427 patients in multiple registries and for 1,792 consecutive patients at 6 Korean hospitals were reviewed with respect to LAAO or NOAC treatment.Stroke severity in patients who experienced ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack after either treatment was assessed with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scoring at hospital discharge and at 3 and 12 months post-stroke. @*Results@#mRS scores were significantly lower in LAAO patients at 3 (p<0.01) and 12 months (p<0.01) post-stroke, despite no significant differences in scores before the ischemic cerebrovascular event (p=0.22). The occurrences of disabling ischemic stroke in the LAAO and NOAC groups were 36.7% and 44.2% at discharge (p=0.47), 23.3% and 44.2% at 3 months post-stroke (p=0.04), and 13.3% and 43.0% at 12 months post-stroke (p=0.01), respectively.Recovery rates for disabling ischemic stroke at discharge to 12 months post-stroke were significantly higher for LAAO patients (50.0%) than for NOAC patients (5.6%) (p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#Percutaneous LAAO was associated with more favorable neurological outcomes after ischemic cerebrovascular event than NOAC treatment.

16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 222-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893943

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been reported as a good alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with small aortic annulus. Head-to-head comparisons of different transcatheter aortic valves in these patients are insufficient. We compared the outcomes after TAVR between two different types of recent transcatheter aortic valves (self-expanding vs. balloon-expandable) in patients with small aortic annulus. @*Methods@#A total of 70 patients with severe aortic stenosis and small annulus (mean diameter ≤23 mm or minimal diameter ≤21 mm on computed tomography) underwent TAVR with either a self-expanding valve with supra-annular location (n=45) or a balloon-expandable valve with intra-annular location (n=25). The echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters after TAVR and 1-year follow-up were compared. @*Results@#Between the self-expanding and balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the clinical outcomes including permanent pacemaker implantation (11.1% vs. 8.0%), acute kidney injury stage 2 or 3 (4.4% vs. 4.0%), and major vascular complication (4.4% vs. 0.0%) were similar without all-cause mortality, stroke, and life-threatening bleeding during 30-day follow-up. Compared with the balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the self-expanding valve-treated patients presented larger effective orifice area (EOA) (1.46±0.28 vs. 1.75±0.42 cm2 , p=0.002) and indexed EOA (0.95±0.21 vs. 1.18±0.28 cm2 /m2 , p=0.001), whereas mean aortic valve gradient (11.7±2.9 vs. 8.9±5.2 mmHg, P=0.005) and incidence of ≥moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch (36.0% vs. 8.9%, p=0.009) were lower. These hemodynamic differences were maintained at 1-year follow-up. @*Conclusions@#TAVR with self-expanding valves was associated with superior hemodynamic outcomes compared with balloon-expandable valves in patients with small aortic annulus.

17.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 626-638, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893915

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Prior studies have shown that stroke patients treated with percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) experience better outcomes than similar patients treated with warfarin. We investigated the impact of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure on post-stroke neurological outcomes in NVAF patients, compared with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy. @*Methods@#Medical records for 1,427 patients in multiple registries and for 1,792 consecutive patients at 6 Korean hospitals were reviewed with respect to LAAO or NOAC treatment.Stroke severity in patients who experienced ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack after either treatment was assessed with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scoring at hospital discharge and at 3 and 12 months post-stroke. @*Results@#mRS scores were significantly lower in LAAO patients at 3 (p<0.01) and 12 months (p<0.01) post-stroke, despite no significant differences in scores before the ischemic cerebrovascular event (p=0.22). The occurrences of disabling ischemic stroke in the LAAO and NOAC groups were 36.7% and 44.2% at discharge (p=0.47), 23.3% and 44.2% at 3 months post-stroke (p=0.04), and 13.3% and 43.0% at 12 months post-stroke (p=0.01), respectively.Recovery rates for disabling ischemic stroke at discharge to 12 months post-stroke were significantly higher for LAAO patients (50.0%) than for NOAC patients (5.6%) (p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#Percutaneous LAAO was associated with more favorable neurological outcomes after ischemic cerebrovascular event than NOAC treatment.

18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 78-88, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836639

ABSTRACT

Treatment of progressive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has advanced remarkably, due in part to the development of targeted therapies. Several gene alterations, including EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and BRAF, play important roles in carcinogenesis. Therefore, many targeted agents focusing these gene alterations have been developed and proving their therapeutic efficacies in many clinical trials. Now we should test these gene mutations and should apply treatments individually and properly to ensure the maximal survival benefit of each patient. In this review, we summarize the target genes and respective therapeutic agents in NSCLC.

19.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 283-290, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836070

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new generic rosuvastatin is non-inferior to a proprietary one in terms of lipid-lowering efficacy. We also evaluated its non-lipid effects including adverse events. @*Methods@#One-hundred and fifty-eight patients with cardiovascular risks requiring pharmacological lipid-lowering therapy were screened. After a 4-week run-in period, 126 individuals who met the lipid criteria for drug therapy were randomly assigned to receive the new generic or proprietary rosuvastatin 10 mg daily for 8 weeks. The primary outcome variables were low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction and LDL-C target achievement. Hematological and biochemical parameters and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#After 8 weeks of drug treatment, the mean percentage change in LDL-C was not different between the groups (−45.5%±19.9% and −45.1%±19.0% for generic and proprietary rosuvastatin, respectively; p=0.38). The LDL-C target achievement rate was similar between the groups (75.0% and 77.1% for generic and proprietary rosuvastatin, respectively; p=0.79). The percentage change in the other lipid profiles was not significantly different. Although generic- and proprietary rosuvastatins modestly affected creatine kinase and blood pressure, respectively, the changes were all within normal ranges. Incidence of adverse events did not differ between the receivers of the 2 formulations. @*Conclusion@#The new generic rosuvastatin was non-inferior to the proprietary rosuvastatin in terms of lipid-lowering efficacy. The rosuvastatin formulations did not exhibit clinically significant non-lipid effects with good safety profiles. Our study provides comprehensive data regarding 2 rosuvastatin formulations in East Asian subjects.

20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 851-859, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833398

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150×103 /μL) is associated with poor outcomes in various critical illness settings. However, the prognostic value of platelet count in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) remains unclear. @*Materials and Methods@#We enrolled 1202 patients between January 2014 and December 2018 from a multicenter retrospective– prospective cohort registry of CS. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between the patients with and without thrombocytopenia. @*Results@#At presentation with CS, 244 (20.3%) patients had thrombocytopenia. The patients with thrombocytopenia had lower blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and worse liver and renal functions compared to the patients without. During hospitalization, the patients with thrombocytopenia had more frequent gastrointestinal bleeding (10.5% vs. 3.8%, p=0.009), sepsis (8.3% vs. 2.6%, p=0.013), requirement of renal replacement therapy (36.5% vs. 18.9%, p<0.001), requirement of mechanical ventilation (65.2% vs.54.4%, p=0.003), longer intensive care unit stay (8 days vs. 4 days, p<0.001), and thirty-day mortality (40.2% vs. 28.5%, p<0.001) compared to those without. In addition, the platelet count was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (per 103 /µL decrease; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.002, 95% confidence interval: 1.000–1.003, p=0.021). @*Conclusion@#Thrombocytopenia at CS presentation was associated with worse clinical findings, higher frequencies of complications, and longer stay at the intensive care unit. Also, thrombocytopenia was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality.(Clinical trial registration No. NCT02985008).

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