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1.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 123-133, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917386

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Atherectomy as a pretreatment has the potential to improve the outcomes of drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment by reducing and modifying atherosclerotic plaques. The present study investigated the outcomes of atherectomy plus DCB (A+DCB) compared with DCB alone for the treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease. @*Methods@#A total of 311 patients (348 limbs) underwent endovascular therapy using DCB for native femoropopliteal artery lesions at two endovascular centers. Of these, 82 limbs were treated with A+DCB and 266 limbs with DCB alone. After propensity score matching based on clinical and lesion characteristics, a total of 82 pairs was compared for immediate and mid-term outcomes. @*Results@#For the matched study groups, the lesion length was 172.7±111.2 mm, and severe calcification was observed in 43.3%. The technical success rate was higher in the A+DCB group than in the DCB group (80.5% vs. 62.2%, p=0.015). However, the A+DCB group showed more procedure-related minor complications (37.0% vs. 13.4%, p=0.047). At 2-year follow-up, primary clinical patency (73.8% vs. 82.6%, p=0.158) and the target lesion revascularization (TLR)-free survival (84.3% vs. 88.2%, p=0.261) did not differ between the two groups. In Cox proportional hazard analysis, atherectomy showed no significant impact on the outcome of DCB treatments. @*Conclusions@#The pretreatment with atherectomy improved technical success of DCB treatment; however, it was associated with increased minor complications. In this study, A+DCB showed no clinical benefit in terms of TLR-free survival or clinical patency compared with DCB treatment alone.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913829

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Detection of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations is a crucial process in the integrated diagnosis of glioblastomas. However, the TERT promoter region is difficult to amplify because of its high guanine-cytosine (GC) content (> 80%). This study aimed to analyze the capturing of TERT mutations by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. @*Materials and Methods@#We compared the detection rate of TERT mutations between targeted NGS and Sanger sequencing in 25 cases of isocitrate dehydrgenase (IDH)-wildtype glioblastomas and 10 cases of non-neoplastic gastric tissues. Our customized panel consisted of 232 essential glioma-associated genes. @*Results@#Sanger sequencing detected TERT mutations in 17 out of 25 glioblastomas, but all TERT mutations were missed by targeted NGS. After the manual visualization of the NGS data using an integrative genomics viewer, 16 cases showed a TERT mutation with a very low read depth (mean, 21.59; median, 25), which revealed false-negative results using auto-filtering. We optimized our customized panel by extending the length of oligonucleotide baits and increasing the number of baits spanning the coverage of the TERT promoter, which did not amplify well due to the high GC content. @*Conclusion@#Our study confirmed that it is crucial to consider the recognition of molecular bias and to carefully interpret NGS data.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 990-996, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904278

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Concerns have been consistently raised in regards to the considerable amount of contrast dye used during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with renal insufficiency. In the present study, we introduced minimal contrast TAVR and compared its 30-day clinical outcomes with conventional TAVR. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 369 patients who underwent TAVR between July 2011 and April 2020 in our institute. Among them, 93 patients with severe aortic stenosis and renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤50 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) were included and divided into a conventional TAVR group (n=56) and a minimal contrast TAVR group (n=37). In the minimal contrast TAVR group, the total amount of contrast was <10 mL during the entire TAVR procedure. Thirty-day major adverse clinical events (MACE), including death, stroke, implantation of permanent pacemaker, and initiation of hemodialysis, were investigated. @*Results@#The incidence of MACE was significantly lower in the minimal contrast TAVR group than the conventional TAVR group (16.2% vs. 42.9%, p=0.010). Death occurred in 9 patients (16.1%) in the conventional TAVR group and in 0 patients in the minimal contrast group (p=0.011). Hemodialysis was initiated in 2 patients (5.4%) in the minimal contrast TAVR group and in 7 patients (12.5%) in the conventional TAVR group (p=0.256). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the minimal contrast TAVR procedure was an independent predictor for reducing MACE (hazard ratio 0.208, 95% confidence interval: 0.080–0.541, p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#Minimal contrast TAVR is feasible and shows more favorable short-term clinical outcomes than conventional TAVR in patients with renal insufficiency.

5.
Blood Research ; : 266-278, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913726

ABSTRACT

Background@#Treatment protocols for light chain (AL) amyloidosis have been derived from myeloma treatment. Bortezomib is a key drug used for the treatment of myeloma and AL amyloidosis. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and toxicity of bortezomib-based chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis. @*Methods@#We reviewed the outcomes of newly diagnosed autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT)-ineligible AL amyloidosis patients who received bortezomib-based chemotherapy at a referral center between 2011 and 2017. @*Results@#Of 63 patients who received bortezomib-based chemotherapy, 32 were male, and the median age was 66 years (range, 42‒82 yr). The hematologic overall response rate (ORR) was 65.1%, and the chemotherapy regimen with the best hematologic response was VMP (75.7%, 28/37). Sixty patients had significant organ (heart or kidney) involvement; 28.3% of patients (N=17) had major organ responses after chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 34 months, there was no significant difference in progression-free survival (P =0.49) or overall survival (P =0.67) according to regimen. Most hematologic and non-hematologic problems were manageable. @*Conclusion@#Various chemotherapy combinations based on bortezomib are currently employed in the clinical setting, but no difference was found in terms of efficacy or toxicity.

6.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 222-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901647

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been reported as a good alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with small aortic annulus. Head-to-head comparisons of different transcatheter aortic valves in these patients are insufficient. We compared the outcomes after TAVR between two different types of recent transcatheter aortic valves (self-expanding vs. balloon-expandable) in patients with small aortic annulus. @*Methods@#A total of 70 patients with severe aortic stenosis and small annulus (mean diameter ≤23 mm or minimal diameter ≤21 mm on computed tomography) underwent TAVR with either a self-expanding valve with supra-annular location (n=45) or a balloon-expandable valve with intra-annular location (n=25). The echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters after TAVR and 1-year follow-up were compared. @*Results@#Between the self-expanding and balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the clinical outcomes including permanent pacemaker implantation (11.1% vs. 8.0%), acute kidney injury stage 2 or 3 (4.4% vs. 4.0%), and major vascular complication (4.4% vs. 0.0%) were similar without all-cause mortality, stroke, and life-threatening bleeding during 30-day follow-up. Compared with the balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the self-expanding valve-treated patients presented larger effective orifice area (EOA) (1.46±0.28 vs. 1.75±0.42 cm2 , p=0.002) and indexed EOA (0.95±0.21 vs. 1.18±0.28 cm2 /m2 , p=0.001), whereas mean aortic valve gradient (11.7±2.9 vs. 8.9±5.2 mmHg, P=0.005) and incidence of ≥moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch (36.0% vs. 8.9%, p=0.009) were lower. These hemodynamic differences were maintained at 1-year follow-up. @*Conclusions@#TAVR with self-expanding valves was associated with superior hemodynamic outcomes compared with balloon-expandable valves in patients with small aortic annulus.

7.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 626-638, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901619

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Prior studies have shown that stroke patients treated with percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) experience better outcomes than similar patients treated with warfarin. We investigated the impact of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure on post-stroke neurological outcomes in NVAF patients, compared with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy. @*Methods@#Medical records for 1,427 patients in multiple registries and for 1,792 consecutive patients at 6 Korean hospitals were reviewed with respect to LAAO or NOAC treatment.Stroke severity in patients who experienced ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack after either treatment was assessed with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scoring at hospital discharge and at 3 and 12 months post-stroke. @*Results@#mRS scores were significantly lower in LAAO patients at 3 (p<0.01) and 12 months (p<0.01) post-stroke, despite no significant differences in scores before the ischemic cerebrovascular event (p=0.22). The occurrences of disabling ischemic stroke in the LAAO and NOAC groups were 36.7% and 44.2% at discharge (p=0.47), 23.3% and 44.2% at 3 months post-stroke (p=0.04), and 13.3% and 43.0% at 12 months post-stroke (p=0.01), respectively.Recovery rates for disabling ischemic stroke at discharge to 12 months post-stroke were significantly higher for LAAO patients (50.0%) than for NOAC patients (5.6%) (p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#Percutaneous LAAO was associated with more favorable neurological outcomes after ischemic cerebrovascular event than NOAC treatment.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 990-996, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896574

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Concerns have been consistently raised in regards to the considerable amount of contrast dye used during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with renal insufficiency. In the present study, we introduced minimal contrast TAVR and compared its 30-day clinical outcomes with conventional TAVR. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively investigated 369 patients who underwent TAVR between July 2011 and April 2020 in our institute. Among them, 93 patients with severe aortic stenosis and renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤50 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) were included and divided into a conventional TAVR group (n=56) and a minimal contrast TAVR group (n=37). In the minimal contrast TAVR group, the total amount of contrast was <10 mL during the entire TAVR procedure. Thirty-day major adverse clinical events (MACE), including death, stroke, implantation of permanent pacemaker, and initiation of hemodialysis, were investigated. @*Results@#The incidence of MACE was significantly lower in the minimal contrast TAVR group than the conventional TAVR group (16.2% vs. 42.9%, p=0.010). Death occurred in 9 patients (16.1%) in the conventional TAVR group and in 0 patients in the minimal contrast group (p=0.011). Hemodialysis was initiated in 2 patients (5.4%) in the minimal contrast TAVR group and in 7 patients (12.5%) in the conventional TAVR group (p=0.256). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the minimal contrast TAVR procedure was an independent predictor for reducing MACE (hazard ratio 0.208, 95% confidence interval: 0.080–0.541, p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#Minimal contrast TAVR is feasible and shows more favorable short-term clinical outcomes than conventional TAVR in patients with renal insufficiency.

9.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 222-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893943

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been reported as a good alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with small aortic annulus. Head-to-head comparisons of different transcatheter aortic valves in these patients are insufficient. We compared the outcomes after TAVR between two different types of recent transcatheter aortic valves (self-expanding vs. balloon-expandable) in patients with small aortic annulus. @*Methods@#A total of 70 patients with severe aortic stenosis and small annulus (mean diameter ≤23 mm or minimal diameter ≤21 mm on computed tomography) underwent TAVR with either a self-expanding valve with supra-annular location (n=45) or a balloon-expandable valve with intra-annular location (n=25). The echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters after TAVR and 1-year follow-up were compared. @*Results@#Between the self-expanding and balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the clinical outcomes including permanent pacemaker implantation (11.1% vs. 8.0%), acute kidney injury stage 2 or 3 (4.4% vs. 4.0%), and major vascular complication (4.4% vs. 0.0%) were similar without all-cause mortality, stroke, and life-threatening bleeding during 30-day follow-up. Compared with the balloon-expandable valve-treated patients, the self-expanding valve-treated patients presented larger effective orifice area (EOA) (1.46±0.28 vs. 1.75±0.42 cm2 , p=0.002) and indexed EOA (0.95±0.21 vs. 1.18±0.28 cm2 /m2 , p=0.001), whereas mean aortic valve gradient (11.7±2.9 vs. 8.9±5.2 mmHg, P=0.005) and incidence of ≥moderate prosthesis-patient mismatch (36.0% vs. 8.9%, p=0.009) were lower. These hemodynamic differences were maintained at 1-year follow-up. @*Conclusions@#TAVR with self-expanding valves was associated with superior hemodynamic outcomes compared with balloon-expandable valves in patients with small aortic annulus.

10.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 626-638, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893915

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Prior studies have shown that stroke patients treated with percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) experience better outcomes than similar patients treated with warfarin. We investigated the impact of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure on post-stroke neurological outcomes in NVAF patients, compared with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy. @*Methods@#Medical records for 1,427 patients in multiple registries and for 1,792 consecutive patients at 6 Korean hospitals were reviewed with respect to LAAO or NOAC treatment.Stroke severity in patients who experienced ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack after either treatment was assessed with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scoring at hospital discharge and at 3 and 12 months post-stroke. @*Results@#mRS scores were significantly lower in LAAO patients at 3 (p<0.01) and 12 months (p<0.01) post-stroke, despite no significant differences in scores before the ischemic cerebrovascular event (p=0.22). The occurrences of disabling ischemic stroke in the LAAO and NOAC groups were 36.7% and 44.2% at discharge (p=0.47), 23.3% and 44.2% at 3 months post-stroke (p=0.04), and 13.3% and 43.0% at 12 months post-stroke (p=0.01), respectively.Recovery rates for disabling ischemic stroke at discharge to 12 months post-stroke were significantly higher for LAAO patients (50.0%) than for NOAC patients (5.6%) (p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#Percutaneous LAAO was associated with more favorable neurological outcomes after ischemic cerebrovascular event than NOAC treatment.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 209-214, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875617

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute coronary occlusion is a rare but fatal complication that may occur during trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and appears more frequently in patients with low coronary heights. We evaluated the feasibility of self-expanding valves in patients with low coronary heights undergoing TAVI. @*Materials and Methods@#TAVI for native aortic valve stenosis was conducted in 276 consecutive patients between 2015 and 2019 at our institute. Using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), information on the aortic valve, coronary arteries, and vascular anatomy in 269 patients was analyzed. Patients with low coronary heights were defined as those with coronary heights of 10 mm or less during MDCT analysis. @*Results@#Among the 269 patients, 29 (10.8%) patients had coronary arteries with low heights. The mean coronary height was 8.9±1.2 mm in the left coronary artery. These patients with low coronary heights were treated with self-expandable (n=28) or balloon-expandable (n=1) valves. Prophylactic coronary protection with a guidewire, balloon, or stent prepositioned down at-risk coronary arteries was not pursued in all patients. No acute coronary occlusion occurred in any of these patients during TAVI. Five patients (17.9%) died during follow-up (average of 553.8 days), including four from non-cardiogenic causes and one from a cardiogenic (aggravation of heart failure) cause. @*Conclusion@#A considerable number of patients with low coronary heights were observed among TAVI candidates in this study. Use of a self-expandable valve may be feasible for successful TAVI without acute coronary occlusion in patients with low coronary heights.

12.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 443-457, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate an anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in normoglycemic atherosclerotic rabbit model.METHODS: Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=26) were fed with a 1% high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks followed by normal diet for 2 weeks. After balloon catheter injury, the rabbits were administered with the Dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or control-medium for 8 weeks (n=13 for each group). All lesions were assessed with angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histological assessment.RESULTS: Atheroma burden (38.51±3.16% vs. 21.91±1.22%, p<0.01) and lipid accumulation (18.90±3.63% vs. 10.20±2.03%, p=0.047) was significantly decreased by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. The SGLT-2 inhibitor group showed lower macrophage infiltration (20.23±1.89% vs. 12.72±1.95%, p=0.01) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (31.17±4.40% vs. 19.47±2.10%, p=0.025). Relative area of inducible nitric oxide synthase+ macrophages was tended to be lower in the SGLT-2 inhibitor-treated group (1.00±0.16% vs. 0.71±0.10%, p=0.13), while relative proportion of Arg1⁺ macrophage was markedly increased (1.00±0.27% vs. 2.43±0.64%, p=0.04). As a result, progression of atherosclerosis was markedly attenuated in SGLT-2 inhibitor treated group (OCT area stenosis, 32.13±1.20% vs. 22.77±0.88%, p<0.01). Mechanistically, SGLT-2 treatment mitigated the inflammatory responses in macrophage. Especially, Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and their downstream effectors such as interleukin-6 and TNF-α were markedly suppressed by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment.CONCLUSIONS: These results together suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitor exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through favorable modulation of inflammatory response as well as macrophage characteristics in non-diabetic situation.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Atherosclerosis , Catheters , Constriction, Pathologic , Diet , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Male , Nitric Oxide , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Rabbits , Toll-Like Receptors , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 851-859, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833398

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150×103 /μL) is associated with poor outcomes in various critical illness settings. However, the prognostic value of platelet count in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) remains unclear. @*Materials and Methods@#We enrolled 1202 patients between January 2014 and December 2018 from a multicenter retrospective– prospective cohort registry of CS. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between the patients with and without thrombocytopenia. @*Results@#At presentation with CS, 244 (20.3%) patients had thrombocytopenia. The patients with thrombocytopenia had lower blood pressure, hemoglobin level, and worse liver and renal functions compared to the patients without. During hospitalization, the patients with thrombocytopenia had more frequent gastrointestinal bleeding (10.5% vs. 3.8%, p=0.009), sepsis (8.3% vs. 2.6%, p=0.013), requirement of renal replacement therapy (36.5% vs. 18.9%, p<0.001), requirement of mechanical ventilation (65.2% vs.54.4%, p=0.003), longer intensive care unit stay (8 days vs. 4 days, p<0.001), and thirty-day mortality (40.2% vs. 28.5%, p<0.001) compared to those without. In addition, the platelet count was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (per 103 /µL decrease; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.002, 95% confidence interval: 1.000–1.003, p=0.021). @*Conclusion@#Thrombocytopenia at CS presentation was associated with worse clinical findings, higher frequencies of complications, and longer stay at the intensive care unit. Also, thrombocytopenia was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality.(Clinical trial registration No. NCT02985008).

14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 597-605, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833347

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Although current guidelines recommend the administration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for up to 12 months after the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES), extended DAPT is frequently used in real-world practice. @*Materials and Methods@#From the Korean Multicenter Angioplasty Team registry, we identified a total of 1414 patients who used DAPT for >3 years after DES implantation (extended-DAPT group) and conducted a landmark analysis at 36 months after the index procedure. We evaluated the determinants for and long-term outcomes of extended DAPT and compared the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and stroke, between the extended-DAPT group and the guideline-DAPT group [DAPT <1 year after DES implantation (n=1273)]. @*Results@#Multivariate analysis indicated the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome as the most significant clinical determinant of the use of extended DAPT. Bifurcation, stent diameter ≤3.0 mm, total stented length ≥28 mm, and use of first-generation DESs were also significant angiographic and procedural determinants. MACCE rates were similar between the extended-DAPT group and the guideline-DAPT group in crude analysis [hazard ratio (HR), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69–1.68; p=0.739] and after propensity matching (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.72–2.07; p=0.453). Major bleeding rates were comparable between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, indefinite use of DAPT does not show superior outcomes to those of guideline-DAPT. Major bleeding rates are also similar.

15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 880-889, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833072

ABSTRACT

Previous pathologic, intravascular imaging, and clinical studies have investigated the association between adverse cardiac events and stent malapposition, including acute stent malapposition (ASM, that is detected at index procedure) and late stent malapposition (LSM, that is detected during follow-up) that can be further classified into late-persistent stent malapposition (LPSM, ASM that remains at follow-up) or late-acquired stent malapposition (LASM, newly developed stent malapposition at follow-up that was not present immediately after index stent implantation). ASM has not been associated with adverse cardiac events compared with non-ASM, even in lesions with large-sized malapposition. The clinical outcomes of LSM may depend on its subtype. The recent intravascular ultrasound studies with long-term follow-up have consistently demonstrated that LASM steadily increased the risk of thrombotic events in patients with first-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs). This association has not yet been identified in LPSM. Accordingly, it is reasonable that approaches to stent malapposition should be based on its relationship with clinical outcomes. ASM may be tolerable after successful stent implantation, whereas prolonged anti-thrombotic medications and/or percutaneous interventions to modify LASM may be considered in selected patients with first-generation DESs. However, these treatments are still questionable due to lack of firm evidences.

16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 443-457, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833044

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#We sought to investigate an anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in normoglycemic atherosclerotic rabbit model.@*METHODS@#Male New Zealand white rabbits (n=26) were fed with a 1% high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks followed by normal diet for 2 weeks. After balloon catheter injury, the rabbits were administered with the Dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or control-medium for 8 weeks (n=13 for each group). All lesions were assessed with angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and histological assessment.@*RESULTS@#Atheroma burden (38.51±3.16% vs. 21.91±1.22%, p<0.01) and lipid accumulation (18.90±3.63% vs. 10.20±2.03%, p=0.047) was significantly decreased by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment. The SGLT-2 inhibitor group showed lower macrophage infiltration (20.23±1.89% vs. 12.72±1.95%, p=0.01) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression (31.17±4.40% vs. 19.47±2.10%, p=0.025). Relative area of inducible nitric oxide synthase+ macrophages was tended to be lower in the SGLT-2 inhibitor-treated group (1.00±0.16% vs. 0.71±0.10%, p=0.13), while relative proportion of Arg1⁺ macrophage was markedly increased (1.00±0.27% vs. 2.43±0.64%, p=0.04). As a result, progression of atherosclerosis was markedly attenuated in SGLT-2 inhibitor treated group (OCT area stenosis, 32.13±1.20% vs. 22.77±0.88%, p<0.01). Mechanistically, SGLT-2 treatment mitigated the inflammatory responses in macrophage. Especially, Toll-like receptor 4uclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway, and their downstream effectors such as interleukin-6 and TNF-α were markedly suppressed by SGLT-2 inhibitor treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results together suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitor exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through favorable modulation of inflammatory response as well as macrophage characteristics in non-diabetic situation.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832867

ABSTRACT

Botryoid Wilms tumor, a very rare variant of Wilms tumor, arises from the pelvocalyceal system, and its occurrence in the fetal or neonatal period has never been reported in the literature. Herein, we report an exceedingly rare and challenging case of botryoid Wilms tumor in a neonate who initially presented with fetal hydronephrosis. Postnatal ultrasonography revealed multiple lobulating hypoechoic masses with varying degrees of intralesional vascularity within the dilated pelvocalyceal system. To our knowedge, this is a case report of botryoid Wilms tumor of the youngest child in English literature.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832396

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study assessed the proportion of risk-stratified Korean patients with dyslipidemia achieving their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets as defined by the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) (2011) guidelines while receiving lipid-modifying treatments (LMTs). @*Methods@#In this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study, we evaluated data from Korean patients aged ≥19 years who were receiving LMTs for ≥3 months and had an LDL-C value within the previous 12 months on the same LMT. Data were collected for demographics, cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, medical history, and healthcare consumption. Patients were risk-stratified according to the ESC Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) chart and LDL-C target achievement rate was assessed. @*Results@#Guideline-based risk-stratification of the 1,034 patients showed the majority (72.2%) to be in the very high-risk category. Investigators’ assessment of risk was underestimated in 71.6% compared to ESC/EAS guidelines. Overall LDL-C target achievement rate was 44.3%; target achievement was the highest (66.0%) in moderate-risk patients and the lowest (39.0%) in very high-risk patients. Overall 97.1% patients were receiving statin therapy, mostly as a single-agent (89.2%). High-intensity statins and the highest permissible dose of high-intensity statins had been prescribed to only 9.1% and 7.3% patients in the very high-risk group, respectively. Physician satisfaction with patients’ LDL-C levels was the primary reason for non-intensification of statin therapy. @*Conclusion@#Achievement of target LDL-C level is suboptimal in Korean patients with dyslipidemia, especially in those at very high-risk of CV events. Current practices in LMTs need to be improved based on precise CV risk evaluation posed by dyslipidemia.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831886

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The prognosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is still poor because of rapid recurrence, despite good response to initial chemotherapy. Additionally, patients’ old ages and comorbidities are often obstacles that make it difficult to apply subsequent treatment after initial treatment. This retrospective study analyzed the correlation of post-progression survival (PPS) with overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors including comorbidities to figure out impact of subsequent chemotherapy on OS in elderly extensive disease SCLC. @*Methods@#We analyzed 101 patients of age 65 years or older who were recently diagnosed with extensive disease SCLC (ED-SCLC) in Korea University Medical Center between January 1995 and December 2015. The degree of comorbidity was scored using simplified comorbidity score (SCS). Correlation between PPS, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS was analyzed using a Pearson correlation coefficient. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to examine the influence of clinical variables on survival. @*Results@#Median age of patients was 71 years old (range, 65 to 83). Median OS was 8.7 months (range, 0.3 to 42.7). PPS was a reliable factor on OS than PFS (R2 = 0.852, p 4 cycles of first line chemotherapy and subsequent second line chemotherapy. @*Conclusions@#PPS was more correlated with OS than PFS in elderly patients with ED-SCLC. The most important prognostic factors for PPS and OS included SCS and second line chemotherapy. Patients receiving subsequent treatment had increased OS regardless of degree of comorbidity.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831773

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) generally have poor clinical outcomes. Early determination of their prognosis is crucial for developing a therapeutic strategy. Recently, various inflammatory markers have been validated as prognostic indicators for many cancers, including PC. However, few studies have evaluated these markers together. Thus, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the value of inflammatory markers as prognostic indicators in patients with advanced PC treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as the first line regimen. @*Methods@#This was a single-center retrospective study evaluating 302 patients with advanced PC who began first line treatment between November 2004 and August 2016. These patients were monitored until June 2017. Survival rates were assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Continuous variables were separated using the normal range or ideal cut-off levels determined by receiver operating curve analyses. @*Results@#Among inflammatory markers evaluated, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CRP-albumin ratio) were independent predictors of overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.712, 1.345, and 1.454, respectively). Difference in survival rates was significant (p < 0.001) among three groups divided by the number of marker-related risks. @*Conclusions@#Baseline inflammatory markers including NLR, PLR, and CRP-albumin ratio are useful in predicting survival rates in patients with PC. Combining these three markers is proven to be valuable.

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