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1.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 501-511, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001958

ABSTRACT

The new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations without a race coefficient have gained recognition across the United States. We aimed to test whether these new equations performed well in Korean patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: This study included 2,149 patients with CKD G1–G5 without kidney replacement therapy from the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients with CKD (KNOW-CKD). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the new CKD-EPI equations with serum creatinine and cystatin C. The primary outcome was 5-year risk of kidney failure with replacement therapy (KFRT). Results: When we adopted the new creatinine equation [eGFRcr (NEW)], 81 patients (23.1%) with CKD G3a based on the current creatinine equation (eGFRcr) were reclassified as CKD G2. Accordingly, the number of patients with eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 decreased from 1,393 (64.8%) to 1,312 (61.1%). The time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for 5-year KFRT risk was comparable between the eGFRcr (NEW) (0.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.922–0.960) and eGFRcr (0.941; 95% CI, 0.922–0.961). The eGFRcr (NEW) showed slightly better discrimination and reclassification than the eGFRcr. However, the new creatinine and cystatin C equation [eGFRcr-cys (NEW)] performed similarly to the current creatinine and cystatin C equation. Furthermore, eGFRcr-cys (NEW) did not show better performance for KFRT risk than eGFRcr (NEW). Conclusion: Both the current and the new CKD-EPI equations showed excellent predictive performance for 5-year KFRT risk in Korean patients with CKD. These new equations need to be further tested for other clinical outcomes in Koreans.

2.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 535-546, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000235

ABSTRACT

Background@#The optimal level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to prevent adverse clinical outcomes is unknown in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). @*Methods@#We analyzed 707 patients with CKD G1-G5 without kidney replacement therapy and T2DM from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD), a nationwide prospective cohort study. The main predictor was time-varying HbA1c level at each visit. The primary outcome was a composite of development of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) or all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included the individual endpoint of MACEs, all-cause mortality, and CKD progression. CKD progression was defined as a ≥50% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline or the onset of end-stage kidney disease. @*Results@#During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the primary outcome occurred in 129 (18.2%) patients. In time-varying Cox model, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for the primary outcome were 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 2.49) and 1.99 (95% CI, 1.24 to 3.19) for HbA1c levels of 7.0%–7.9% and ≥8.0%, respectively, compared with <7.0%. Additional analysis of baseline HbA1c levels yielded a similar graded association. In secondary outcome analyses, the aHRs for the corresponding HbA1c categories were 2.17 (95% CI, 1.20 to 3.95) and 2.26 (95% CI, 1.17 to 4.37) for MACE, and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.68 to 2.72) and 2.08 (95% CI, 1.06 to 4.05) for all-cause mortality. However, the risk of CKD progression did not differ between the three groups. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that higher HbA1c levels were associated with an increased risk of MACE and mortality in patients with CKD and T2DM.

3.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 753-763, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967921

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer disease (AD) and depressive disorder (DD) are prevalent among elderly end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. However, whether preexisting mental health disorders increase the risk of ESKD is not well understood. The risk of incident ESKD in patients with or without underlying AD or DD was evaluated in a nationwide cohort of elderly people in Republic of Korea. Methods: This study used data from the National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort in Republic of Korea. Among the 558,147 total subjects, 49,634 and 54,231 were diagnosed with AD (AD group) or DD (DD group), respectively, during the follow-up period. Propensity score matching was conducted to create non-AD and non-DD groups of subjects. AD and DD diagnoses were analyzed as time-varying exposures, and the study outcome was development of ESKD. Results: The incidence rates of ESKD were 0.36 and 1.17 per 1,000 person-years in the non-AD and AD groups, respectively. After adjustment for clinical variables and competing risks of death, the risk of incident ESKD was higher in the AD group than in the nonAD group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34–2.08). The incidence rates of ESKD in the non-DD and DD groups were 0.36 and 0.91 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The risk of ESKD development was also higher in the DD group than the non-DD group (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.19–1.76). Conclusion: The risk of ESKD development was higher in subjects diagnosed with AD or DD, suggesting that central nervous system diseases can adversely affect kidney function in elderly people.

4.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 332-341, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938432

ABSTRACT

Comorbid conditions impact the survival of patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) who require continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The weights assigned to comorbidities in predicting survival vary based on type of index, disease, and advances in management of comorbidities. We developed a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) for use in patients with AKI requiring CRRT (mCCI-CRRT) and improved the accuracy of risk stratification for mortality. Methods: A total of 828 patients who received CRRT between 2008 and 2013, from three university hospital cohorts was included to develop the comorbidity score. The weights of the comorbidities were recalibrated using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for demographic and clinical information. The modified index was validated in a university hospital cohort (n = 919) using the data of patients treated from 2009 to 2015. Results: Weights for dementia, peptic ulcer disease, any tumor, and metastatic solid tumor were used to recalibrate the mCCI-CRRT. Use of these calibrated weights achieved a 35.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.1%–48.1%) higher performance than unadjusted CCI in reclassification based on continuous net reclassification improvement in logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. After additionally adjusting for hemoglobin and albumin, consistent results were found in risk reclassification, which improved by 35.9% (95% CI, 23.3%–48.5%). Conclusion: The mCCI-CRRT stratifies risk of mortality in AKI patients who require CRRT more accurately than does the original CCI, suggesting that it could serve as a preferred index for use in clinical practice.

5.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 175-187, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938415

ABSTRACT

Shared decision-making is a two-way symmetrical communication process in which clinicians and patients work together to achieve the best outcome. This study aimed to develop self-assessment items as a decision aid for choosing a dialysis modality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to assess the construct validity of the newly developed items. Methods: Five focus group interviews were performed to extract specific self-assessment items regarding patient values in choosing a dialysis modality. After survey items were refined, a survey of 330 patients, consisting of 152 hemodialysis (HD) and 178 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, was performed to validate the self-assessment items. Results: The self-assessment for the decision aid was refined to 35 items. The structure of the final items appeared to have three dimensions of factors; health, lifestyle, and dialysis environment. The health factor consisted of 12 subscales (α = 0.724), the lifestyle factor contained 11 subscales (α = 0.624), and the dialysis environment factor was represented by 12 subscales (α = 0.694). A structural equation model analysis showed that the relationship between the decision aid factors (health, lifestyle, and dialysis environment), patients’ CKD perception, and cognition of shared decision-making differed between HD patients and PD patients. Conclusion: We developed and validated self-assessment items as part of a decision aid to help patients with CKD. This attempt may assist CKD patients in making informed and shared decisions closely aligned with their values when considering dialysis modality.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1169-1180, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903733

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite controversy regarding the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), clinical outcomes may vary depending on the patient’s responsiveness to this therapy. This study evaluated long-term kidney outcomes according to the extent of proteinuria reduction after immunosuppression in IgAN patients. @*Methods@#Among 927 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN, 127 patients underwent immunosuppression. Time-averaged urine protein-creatinine ratio before and within 1 year after start of immunosuppression were calculated, and responsiveness to immunosuppression was assessed as the reduction of proteinuria between the two periods. Patients were classified into tertiles according to the extent of proteinuria reduction. We compared the slopes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline using a linear mixed model, and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for disease progression (defined as development of a ≥ 30% decline in eGFR or end-stage renal disease) using a Cox proportional hazard model. @*Results@#Median extent of proteinuria reduction was –2.1, –0.9, and –0.2 g/gCr in the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. There were concomitant changes in the slopes of annual eGFR decline: –2.03, –2.44, and –4.62 mL/min/1.73 m2 among the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. In multivariable Cox analysis, the HRs (95% confidence intervals) for disease progression were 0.30 (0.12 to 0.74) in the first tertile and 0.70 (0.34 to 1.45) in the second tertile compared with the thirdtertile. @*Conclusions@#This study showed that greater proteinuria reduction after immunosuppression was associated with a lower risk of disease progression in patients with IgAN, suggesting that responsiveness to immunosuppression may be an important determinant of kidney outcomes.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1169-1180, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896029

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite controversy regarding the benefits of immunosuppressive therapy in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), clinical outcomes may vary depending on the patient’s responsiveness to this therapy. This study evaluated long-term kidney outcomes according to the extent of proteinuria reduction after immunosuppression in IgAN patients. @*Methods@#Among 927 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN, 127 patients underwent immunosuppression. Time-averaged urine protein-creatinine ratio before and within 1 year after start of immunosuppression were calculated, and responsiveness to immunosuppression was assessed as the reduction of proteinuria between the two periods. Patients were classified into tertiles according to the extent of proteinuria reduction. We compared the slopes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline using a linear mixed model, and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for disease progression (defined as development of a ≥ 30% decline in eGFR or end-stage renal disease) using a Cox proportional hazard model. @*Results@#Median extent of proteinuria reduction was –2.1, –0.9, and –0.2 g/gCr in the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. There were concomitant changes in the slopes of annual eGFR decline: –2.03, –2.44, and –4.62 mL/min/1.73 m2 among the first, second, and third tertiles, respectively. In multivariable Cox analysis, the HRs (95% confidence intervals) for disease progression were 0.30 (0.12 to 0.74) in the first tertile and 0.70 (0.34 to 1.45) in the second tertile compared with the thirdtertile. @*Conclusions@#This study showed that greater proteinuria reduction after immunosuppression was associated with a lower risk of disease progression in patients with IgAN, suggesting that responsiveness to immunosuppression may be an important determinant of kidney outcomes.

8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1131-1136, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918727

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Relationship between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and stress-related psychological measures are inconclusive, possibly due to overlooked heterogeneity regarding childhood trauma and a lack of comprehensive research on stress-related psychological factors. This study aims to compare young adults without history of childhood trauma to young adults who experienced childhood trauma using HCC and various stress-related psychological factors, as well as investigate the impacts of childhood trauma on the association between HCC and stress-related psychological measures. @*Methods@#A total of 206 young, healthy adults were recruited. We divided participants into two groups depending on whether or not they had suffered moderate-to-severe childhood trauma (CT+ and CT-) and compared HCC and various stress-related psychological measures between groups. Using multiple linear regression analyses, we assessed the associations between HCC and stress-related psychological measures for each group. @*Results@#We found no difference between the groups in HCC or the reported number of stressful life events in the past year; however, CT+ individuals reported higher stress perception, more depressive and anxiety-related symptoms, and more difficulties in emotion regulation than CT- individuals. HCC was associated with emotion dysregulation among the CT- individuals, but not among the CT+ individuals. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that history of childhood trauma should be considered in studies using HCC as a biomarker for stress in young adults. Furthermore, HCC might be a useful biomarker of stress and stress-related emotion dysregulation in individuals without moderate-to-severe childhood trauma.

9.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 445-456, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917057

ABSTRACT

Background@#The use of newly developed mixed-dilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) can supplement the weaknesses of pre- and postdilution HDF. However, it is unclear whether mixed-HDF performs well compared to predilution HDF. @*Methods@#We conducted a prospective, open-labeled, randomized controlled trial from two hemodialysis centers in Korea. Between January 2017 and September 2019, 60 patients who underwent chronic hemodialysis were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive either predilution HDF (n = 30) or mixed-HDF (n = 30) for 6 months. We compared convection volume, changes in small- and medium-sized molecule clearance, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, and dialysis-related parameters between the two dialysis modalities. @*Results@#A mean effective convection volume of 41.0 ± 10.3 L/session in the predilution HDF group and 51.5 ± 9.0 L/session in the mixed-HDF group was obtained by averaging values of three time-points. The difference in effective convection volume between the groups was 10.5 ± 1.3 L/session. This met the preset noninferiority criteria, suggesting that mixed-HDF was noninferior to predilution HDF. Moreover, the β2-microglobulin reduction rate was greater in the mixed-HDF group than in the predilution HDF group, while mixed-HDF provided greater transmembrane pressure. There were no significant between-group differences in Kt/V urea levels, changes in predialysis hs-CRP levels, proportions of overhydration, or blood pressure values. Symptomatic intradialytic hypotension episodes and other adverse events occurred similarly in the two groups. @*Conclusion@#Use of mixed-HDF was comparable to predilution HDF in terms of delivered convection volume and clinical parameters. Moreover, mixed-HDF provided better β2-microglobulin clearance than predilution HDF.

10.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 414-425, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901500

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of fluid balance on outcomes in elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal-replacement therapy (CRRT) is not explained well. We investigated outcomes according to cumulative fluid balance (CFB) in elderly patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. @*Methods@#A total of 607 patients aged 65 years or older who started CRRT due to AKI were enrolled and stratified into two groups (fluid overload [FO] vs. no fluid overload [NFO]) based on the median CFB value for 72 hours before CRRT initiation. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed. @*Results@#The median age of included patients was 73.0 years and 60.0% of the population was male. The median 72-hour CFB value was 2,839.0 mL. The overall cumulative survival and 28-day survival rates were lower in the FO group than in the NFO group (P < 0.001 for both) and remained so after propensity score-matching. Furthermore, patients in the FO group demonstrated a higher overall mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, Charlson comorbidity index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, serum albumin, creatinine, diuretic use, and mechanical ventilation status (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.89; P < 0.001). Among survivors, both the duration of CRRT and the total duration of hospitalization from CRRT initiation showed no difference between the FO and NFO groups. @*Conclusion@#A higher CFB value is associated with an increased risk of mortality in elderly patients with AKI requiring CRRT.

11.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 414-425, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893796

ABSTRACT

Background@#The effect of fluid balance on outcomes in elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal-replacement therapy (CRRT) is not explained well. We investigated outcomes according to cumulative fluid balance (CFB) in elderly patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. @*Methods@#A total of 607 patients aged 65 years or older who started CRRT due to AKI were enrolled and stratified into two groups (fluid overload [FO] vs. no fluid overload [NFO]) based on the median CFB value for 72 hours before CRRT initiation. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed. @*Results@#The median age of included patients was 73.0 years and 60.0% of the population was male. The median 72-hour CFB value was 2,839.0 mL. The overall cumulative survival and 28-day survival rates were lower in the FO group than in the NFO group (P < 0.001 for both) and remained so after propensity score-matching. Furthermore, patients in the FO group demonstrated a higher overall mortality risk after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, Charlson comorbidity index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, serum albumin, creatinine, diuretic use, and mechanical ventilation status (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.89; P < 0.001). Among survivors, both the duration of CRRT and the total duration of hospitalization from CRRT initiation showed no difference between the FO and NFO groups. @*Conclusion@#A higher CFB value is associated with an increased risk of mortality in elderly patients with AKI requiring CRRT.

12.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 93-102, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834946

ABSTRACT

Background@#Higher statin intensity is associated with a lower risk of mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the relationship between statin intensity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. @*Methods@#We studied whether statin intensity affects kidney function decline in 1,073 patients from the Korean Cohort Study for Outcome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. The participants were classified based on statin intensity as low, moderate, and high. The study endpoint was CKD progression (composite of doubling of serum creatinine, ≥ 50% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] from baseline, or end-stage renal disease). @*Results@#The mean age was 56.0 ± 11.4 years, and 665 (62.0%) participants were male. The mean eGFR was 51.7 ± 26.7 mL/min/1.73 m2; there were no differences in baseline eGFR among statin intensity groups. During the median follow-up of 39.9 (25.4-61.6) months, 255 (23.8%) patients reached the study endpoint. In multivariable Cox model after adjustment of confounders, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for adverse kidney outcome were 0.97 (0.72-1.30) and 1.15 (0.60-2.20) in moderate and high statin intensity groups, respectively, compared with the low intensity group. In addition, no significant association was observed in subgroups stratified by age, sex, eGFR, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores. @*Conclusion@#We did not observe any significant association between intensity of statin therapy and progression of CKD. Long-term kidney outcomes may not be affected by statin intensity.

13.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 202-212, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834933

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although appropriate dietary adjustments in hemodialysis (HD) patients are important, most HD patients have difficulty adhering to dietary therapy due to the stress of a restricted-food diet or loss of appetite, which eventually leads to malnutrition and other complications. The dietary intake of HD patients stratified by nutritional status has not yet been studied. @*Methods@#In total, 111 HD patients from five dialysis centers were stratified into 2 groups based on the Subjective Global Assessment: the well-nourished group and the poorly nourished group. The 7-day dietary intake and food behaviors of the two groups were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to reveal the factors associated with poorly nourished status. @*Results@#The 7-day dietary survey showed a lower intake of total calories and protein and a higher intake of sodium and potassium than in the standard recommendations, but there were no differences between groups. The poorly nourished group ate fried food significantly more frequently than the well-nourished group. Moreover, higher hip and waist circumferences were significantly associated with poorly nourished status.

14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 191-199, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#The optimal strategy for anticoagulation treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been established. We evaluated the efficacy and bleeding risk of warfarin and antiplatelet agents in patients with AF and ESRD.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 256 patients with AF and ESRD and included 158 patients (age, 63.7 ± 12.2 years; male sex, n = 103) with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 1 who were taking warfarin (n = 53) or an antiplatelet agent (n = 105).@*RESULTS@#During the follow-up period (31.0 ± 29.4 months), 10 ischemic events and 29 major bleeding events occurred. The thromboembolic event rate did not significantly differ between the warfarin and antiplatelet groups (1.9% and 8.6%, respectively; p = 0.166). However, the rate of major bleeding events was significantly higher in the warfarin group than it was in the antiplatelet group (32.1% and 11.4%, respectively; p = 0.002). Cox's regression analysis indicated that warfarin was related to an increased risk of major bleeding events (hazard ratio [HR], 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60–7.36; p = 0.001). Conversely, warfarin was not related to a decreased risk of thromboembolic events (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.04–2.70; p = 0.306).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In patients with AF and ESRD, warfarin use was associated with an increased risk of bleeding events, compared with antiplatelet agents.

15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 191-199, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The optimal strategy for anticoagulation treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been established. We evaluated the efficacy and bleeding risk of warfarin and antiplatelet agents in patients with AF and ESRD. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 256 patients with AF and ESRD and included 158 patients (age, 63.7 ± 12.2 years; male sex, n = 103) with a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 1 who were taking warfarin (n = 53) or an antiplatelet agent (n = 105). RESULTS: During the follow-up period (31.0 ± 29.4 months), 10 ischemic events and 29 major bleeding events occurred. The thromboembolic event rate did not significantly differ between the warfarin and antiplatelet groups (1.9% and 8.6%, respectively; p = 0.166). However, the rate of major bleeding events was significantly higher in the warfarin group than it was in the antiplatelet group (32.1% and 11.4%, respectively; p = 0.002). Cox's regression analysis indicated that warfarin was related to an increased risk of major bleeding events (hazard ratio [HR], 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60–7.36; p = 0.001). Conversely, warfarin was not related to a decreased risk of thromboembolic events (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.04–2.70; p = 0.306). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF and ESRD, warfarin use was associated with an increased risk of bleeding events, compared with antiplatelet agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Medical Records , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Warfarin
16.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 49-59, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease share several common risk factors. The Framingham risk score is hypothesized to predict chronic kidney disease development. We determined if the Framingham risk scoring system can correctly predict incident chronic kidney disease in the general population. METHODS: This study included 9,080 subjects who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2001 and 2014 and had normal renal function. The subjects were classified into low- ( 20%) risk groups based on baseline Framingham risk scores. The primary endpoint was de novo chronic kidney disease development (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], < 60 mL/min/1.73 m²). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up duration of 8.9 ± 4.3 years, 312 (5.3%), 217 (10.8%), and 205 (16.9%) subjects developed chronic kidney disease in the low, intermediate, and high risk groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis after adjustment for confounding factors showed the hazard ratios for the high- and intermediate risk groups were 2.674 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.197–3.255) and 1.734 (95% CI, 1.447–2.078), respectively. This association was consistently observed irrespective of proteinuria, age, sex, obesity, or hypertension. The predictive power of this scoring system was lower than that of renal parameters, such as eGFR and proteinuria, but increased when both were included in the prediction model. CONCLUSION: The Framingham risk score predicted incident chronic kidney disease and enhanced risk stratification in conjunction with traditional renal parameters in the general population with normal renal function.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cohort Studies , Epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Genome , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension , Obesity , Prospective Studies , Proteinuria , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors
17.
Electrolytes & Blood Pressure ; : 45-53, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Aldosterone-induced glomerular hyperfiltration can lead to masked preoperative renal dysfunction in primary aldosteronism(PA) patients. We evaluated whether PA patients had a higher prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after unilateral adrenalectomy. In addition, we identified risk factors for AKI in these subjects.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study included 107 PA patients, and 186 pheochromocytoma patients as a control group, all of whom underwent adrenalectomy between January 2006 and November 2017 at Yonsei University Severance Hospital. The primary outcome was AKI within 48 hours after adrenalectomy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of AKI after adrenalectomy.@*RESULTS@#Overall incidence of AKI was 49/293 (16.7%). In PA patients, the incidence of AKI was 29/107 (27.1%). In contrast, incidence of AKI was 20/186 (10.7%) in pheochromocytoma patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis both showed a higher risk of postoperative AKI in PA patients compared to pheochromocytoma patients. In addition, old age, diabetes, longer duration of hypertension, lower preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, high aldosterone-cortisol ratio (ACR) and lateralization index (LI) were identified as independent risk factors for postoperative AKI in PA patients after unilateral adrenalectomy.@*CONCLUSION@#Incidence and risk of postoperative AKI were significantly higher in PA patients after surgical treatment. High ACR on the tumor side and high LI were associated with higher risk of AKI in PA patients compared to pheochromocytoma patients.

18.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 239-247, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a lifesaving therapy used in critically ill patients with severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is supplemented to treat fluid overload, acute kidney injury, and electrolyte disturbances during ECMO. However, the best time to initiate CRRT is not well-defined. We performed this study to identify the optimal timing of CRRT for ECMO. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of 296 patients over 12 years. Patients received CRRT during ECMO at Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, or Yonsei University Hospital. We assigned patients to an early or late CRRT group depending on the CRRT initiation time. We considered early CRRT to be CRRT instituted within 72 hours of ECMO initiation. RESULTS: Among 296 patients, 212 patients (71.6%) received early CRRT. After using a propensity score matching method, 47 patients were included in each group. The time from ECMO initiation to CRRT initiation was 1.1 ± 0.9 days in the early CRRT group and 14.6 ± 18.6 days in the late CRRT group. No difference in patients’ mortality (P = 0.834) or hospital stay (P = 0.627) between the early and late CRRT groups was found. After adjusting all covariables, there was no significant difference in mortality between the early and late CRRT groups (hazard ratio, 0.697; 95% confidence interval, 0.410–1.184; P = 0.182). CONCLUSION: This study showed that early CRRT may not be superior to late CRRT in ECMO patients. Further clinical trials are warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Length of Stay , Methods , Mortality , Propensity Score , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Time-to-Treatment
19.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 426-440, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The valid assessment of food and nutrients intakes using appropriate dietary intake method is necessary to improve the nutritional status of the hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study was conducted to compare the method between newly developed, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (Semi-FFQ) and 7-day dietary records (7-DRs) for hemodialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted both methods on 53 maintenance HD patients in two university hospitals. We calibrated the frequency, portion size and daily intake of 47 food items reported in Semi-FFQ. The food and nutrients intake was compared and the correlation of the two methods was analyzed. Also each nutrient intake was compared to recommended dietary allowance for Korean (KDRIs) and recommended nutrient reference value for HD patients. RESULTS: Energy and energy-yielding nutrients intakes were significantly higher in the two methods (p<0.01). These support the possible reliability between Semi-FFQ and 7-DRs that is similar with regard to most mineral and vitamin intakes. Thus, the Semi-FFQ used in this study for the assessment of nutrient intakes of HD patients can be reliable for the assessment of the nutrient intake along with the 7-DRs. The correlation coefficients were higher for foods consumed daily, such as steamed rice, meat and chicken, bean, egg, milk, coffee and alcohol than for those of foods eaten rarely (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The Semi-FFQ used in this study can be a reliable tool for the assessment of the HD patients' nutrient intake along with the 7-DRs, despite its limitations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chickens , Coffee , Diet Records , Hospitals, University , Meat , Methods , Milk , Miners , Nutritional Status , Ovum , Portion Size , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Reference Values , Renal Dialysis , Steam , Vitamins
20.
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 258-266, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120967

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Several definitions of AKI have been proposed recently, and include both increases in serum creatinine levels and decreases in urine output as diagnostic criteria. The pathophysiology of postoperative AKI is complex and involves both ischemic injury and systemic inflammation. Identifying risk factors, such as old age, underlying diabetes, heart failure, and obesity, may aid in the application of preventative methods for postoperative AKI. Additionally, recognizing different risks after different types of surgical procedures would be valuable. Novel biomarkers that could detect AKI more precisely at an earlier time point are being investigated. Several new biomarkers have been assessed in large multi-center studies and are believed to accommodate conventional clinical findings in diagnosing postoperative AKI. In high-risk patients, preventative measures, such as the maintenance of adequate hemodynamics and sufficient fluid resuscitation, could lower the incidence of postoperative AKI. Avoiding nephrotoxic agents and optimizing preoperative hemoglobin levels to avoid excessive transfusions would also be beneficial. In situations in which medical management fails to maintain sufficient urine output and acid–base and electrolyte homeostasis, early initiation of renal replacement therapy should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury , Biomarkers , Creatinine , Heart Failure , Hemodynamics , Homeostasis , Incidence , Inflammation , Obesity , Postoperative Complications , Renal Replacement Therapy , Resuscitation , Risk Factors , Thoracic Surgery
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