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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913845

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In 2017, the Children’s Hepatic Tumors International Collaboration-Hepatoblastoma Stratification (CHIC-HS) system was introduced. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CHIC-HS System for the prediction of event-free survival (EFS) in Korean pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#This two-center retrospective study included consecutive Korean pediatric patients with histopathologically confirmed hepatoblastoma from March 1988 through September 2019. We compared EFS among four risk groups according to the CHIC-HS system. Discriminatory ability of CHIC-HS system was also evaluated using optimism-corrected C-statistics. Factors associated with EFS were explored using multivariable Cox regression analysis. @*Results@#We included 129 patients (mean age, 2.6±3.3 years; female:male, 63:66). The 5-year EFS rates in the very low, low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, according to the CHIC-HS system were 90.0%, 82.8%, 73.5%, and 51.3%, respectively. The CHIC-HS system aligned significantly well with EFS outcomes (p=0.004). The optimism-corrected C index of CHIC-HS was 0.644 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.561 to 0.727). Age ≥ 8 (vs. age ≤ 2; hazard ratio [HR], 2.781; 95% CI, 1.187 to 6.512; p=0.018), PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor (PRETEXT) stage IV (vs. PRETEXT I or II; HR, 2.774; 95% CI, 1.228 to 5.974; p=0.009), and presence of metastasis (HR, 2.886; 95% CI, 1.457 to 5.719; p=0.002), which are incorporated as the first three nodes in the CHIC-HS system, were independently associated with EFS. @*Conclusion@#The CHIC-HS system aligned significantly well with EFS outcomes in Korean pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. Age group, PRETEXT stage, and presence of metastasis were independently associated with EFS.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915541

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the clinical findings of choroideremia patients and perform genetic analysis by whole-exome sequencing (WES). @*Methods@#A total of 94 patients initially diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at another hospital, and who visited our hospital for genetic analysis by WES, were included in the study, along with 64 family members. All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FAG), visual field (VF), electroretinogram (ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). @*Results@#In six male patients with suspected choroideremia, extensive retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and severe loss of choroid were observed in the fundus, but not in the macula. CHM gene mutation was confirmed in five patients. A novel single nucleotide variant at a splice site was observed in one patient. OCT showed marked thinning of the outernuclear layer and choroid, except in the macula. FAF showed a small area of hyperfluorescence in the posterior pole. In addition, characteristic interlaminar bridges were observed in four patients. On FAG, hypofluorescence was seen up to the far-peripheral retina in five patients. @*Conclusion@#Of the 94 patients initially diagnosed with RP, CHM mutation was identified in five (5.3%) by WES. Choroideremia should be considered as a differential diagnosis of RP.WES would be useful for identifying the causes of hereditary retinal disease.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

5.
Blood Research ; : 6-16, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874333

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a condition characterized by abnormal blood clot formation in the pulmonary arteries and the deep venous vasculature. It is often serious and sometimes even fatal if not promptly and appropriately treated. Moreover, the later consequences of VTE may result in reduced quality of life. The treatment of VTE depends on various factors, including the type, cause, and patient comorbidities. Furthermore, bleeding may occur as a side effect of VTE treatment. Thus, it is necessary to carefully weigh the benefits versus the risks of VTE treatment and to actively monitor patients undergoing treatment. Asian populations are known to have lower VTE incidences than Western populations, but recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of VTE in Asia. A variety of treatment options are currently available owing to the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants.The current VTE treatment recommendation is based on evidence from previous studies, but it should be applied with careful consideration of the racial, genetic, and social characteristics in the Korean population.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1185-1193, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894733

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is the second-most common but extremely rare primary renal malignancy in children after Wilms’ tumor. The aims of this study were to evaluate the imaging features that could distinguish between CCSK and Wilms’ tumor and to assess the features with diagnostic value for identifying CCSK. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed the initial contrast-enhanced abdominal-pelvic CT scans of children with CCSK and Wilms’ tumor between 2010 to 2019. Fifty-eight children (32 males and 26 females; age, 0.3–10 years), 7 with CCSK, and 51 with Wilms’ tumor, were included. The maximum tumor diameter, presence of engorged perinephric vessels, maximum density of the tumor (Tmax) of the enhancing solid portion, paraspinal muscle, contralateral renal vein density, and density ratios (Tmax/muscle and Tmax/vein) were analyzed on the renal parenchymal phase of contrast-enhanced CT. Fisher’s exact tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to analyze the categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were also performed. @*Results@#The age, sex, and tumor diameter did not differ between the two groups. Engorged perinephric vessels were more common in patients in the CCSK group (71% [5/7] vs. 16% [8/51], p = 0.005). Tmax (median, 148.0 vs. 111.0 Hounsfield unit, p = 0.004), Tmax/muscle (median, 2.64 vs. 1.67, p = 0.002), and Tmax/vein (median, 0.94 vs. 0.59, p = 0.002) were higher in the CCSK compared to the Wilms’ group. Multiple logistic regression revealed that engorged vessels (odds ratio 13.615; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.770–104.730) and Tmax/muscle (odds ratio 5.881; 95% CI, 1.337–25.871) were significant predictors of CCSK. The cutoff values of Tmax/muscle (86% sensitivity, 77% specificity) and Tmax/vein (71% sensitivity, 86% specificity) for the diagnosis of CCSK were 1.97 and 0.76, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Perinephric vessel engorgement and greater tumor enhancement (Tmax/muscle > 1.97 or Tmax/vein > 0.76) are helpful for differentiating between CCSK and Wilms’ tumor in children aged below 10 years.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1185-1193, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902437

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is the second-most common but extremely rare primary renal malignancy in children after Wilms’ tumor. The aims of this study were to evaluate the imaging features that could distinguish between CCSK and Wilms’ tumor and to assess the features with diagnostic value for identifying CCSK. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed the initial contrast-enhanced abdominal-pelvic CT scans of children with CCSK and Wilms’ tumor between 2010 to 2019. Fifty-eight children (32 males and 26 females; age, 0.3–10 years), 7 with CCSK, and 51 with Wilms’ tumor, were included. The maximum tumor diameter, presence of engorged perinephric vessels, maximum density of the tumor (Tmax) of the enhancing solid portion, paraspinal muscle, contralateral renal vein density, and density ratios (Tmax/muscle and Tmax/vein) were analyzed on the renal parenchymal phase of contrast-enhanced CT. Fisher’s exact tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted to analyze the categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were also performed. @*Results@#The age, sex, and tumor diameter did not differ between the two groups. Engorged perinephric vessels were more common in patients in the CCSK group (71% [5/7] vs. 16% [8/51], p = 0.005). Tmax (median, 148.0 vs. 111.0 Hounsfield unit, p = 0.004), Tmax/muscle (median, 2.64 vs. 1.67, p = 0.002), and Tmax/vein (median, 0.94 vs. 0.59, p = 0.002) were higher in the CCSK compared to the Wilms’ group. Multiple logistic regression revealed that engorged vessels (odds ratio 13.615; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.770–104.730) and Tmax/muscle (odds ratio 5.881; 95% CI, 1.337–25.871) were significant predictors of CCSK. The cutoff values of Tmax/muscle (86% sensitivity, 77% specificity) and Tmax/vein (71% sensitivity, 86% specificity) for the diagnosis of CCSK were 1.97 and 0.76, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Perinephric vessel engorgement and greater tumor enhancement (Tmax/muscle > 1.97 or Tmax/vein > 0.76) are helpful for differentiating between CCSK and Wilms’ tumor in children aged below 10 years.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837105

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows for more precise treatment, reducing unwanted radiation to nearby structures. We investigated the safety and feasibility of IMRT for anaplastic ependymoma patients below 3 years of age. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 9 anaplastic ependymoma patients below 3 years of age, who received IMRT between October 2011 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions was 52.0 Gy (range, 48.0 to 60.0 Gy). Treatment outcomes and neurologic morbidities were reviewed in detail. @*Results@#The median patient age was 20.9 months (range, 12.1 to 31.2 months). All patients underwent surgery. The rates of 5-year overall survival, freedom from local recurrence, and progression-free survival were 40.6%, 53.3%, and 26.7%, respectively. Of the 9 patients, 5 experienced recurrences (3 had local recurrence, 1 had both local recurrence and cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] seeding, and 1 had CSF seeding alone). Five patients died because of disease progression. Assessment of neurologic morbidity revealed motor dysfunction in 3 patients, all of whom presented with hydrocephalus at initial diagnosis because of the location of the tumor and already had neurologic deficits before radiotherapy (RT). @*Conclusion@#Neurologic morbidity is not caused by RT alone but may result from mass effects of the tumor and surgical sequelae. Administration of IMRT to anaplastic ependymoma patients below 3 years of age yielded encouraging local control and tolerable morbidities. High-precision modern RT such as IMRT can be considered for very young patients with anaplastic ependymoma.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831054

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosomes 1p and 16q is a poor prognostic factor infavorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT). This study investigated the prevalence of LOH at1p and 16q and evaluated its prognostic value in Korean children with FHWT. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed 101 FHWT patients who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2016 in KoreanSociety of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Group hospitals. Using paraffin-embedded kidneytissue samples sent from each center, we reviewed LOH at 1p and 16q in each patient andassessed the prognostic value of LOH status for clinical parameters affecting event-freesurvival (EFS). @*Results@#Of the 101 patients, 12 (11.9%) experienced recurrence; the 3-year EFS was 87.6%. LOHat 1p or 16q was detected in 19 patients (18.8%), with five having LOH at both 1q and 16q.The frequency of LOH at 1p was higher among younger patients (p=0.049), but there wasno difference in LOH prevalence according to tumor stage. In the multivariate analysis, LOHat 16q was a significant negative prognostic factor affecting EFS (3-year EFS, 73.7% vs.91.1%; hazard ratio, 3.95; p=0.037), whereas LOH at 1p was not (p=0.786). @*Conclusion@#LOH at 16q was a significant negative prognostic factor affecting outcome in Korean pediatricFHWT patients. Due to the small sample size of this study, large-scale multicenter trialsare warranted to investigate the prognostic value of LOH at 1p and 16q in Korean childrenwith FHWT.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832094

ABSTRACT

Background@#Approximately 8% of male patients presenting with primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs) have Klinefelter syndrome (KS), while patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal GCTs also exhibit a range of chromosomal abnormalities. The exact mechanism underlying the development of GCTs in Klinefelter syndrome is unknown, but KS frequently goes underdiagnosed as a result of its varied symptoms and a low general awareness of this condition. Thus, the Children’s Oncology Group recommends screening of Klinefelter syndrome in pediatric and adolescent male subjects who present with GCTs. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of extragonadal germ cell tumor patients treated at Severance hospital, department of pediatrics or division of pediatric hematology-oncology over the last ten years. @*Results@#A total of 95 patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors were included in this study. Karyotyping was done in eight patients out of 95 patients, three patients with KS and one patient with Down syndrome. Twelve of extragonadal GCT patients presented at mediastinum, with most common histology of mature teratoma, and three patients presented with chromosomal abnormalities, two with KS and one with Down syndrome. A total of nine patients were diagnosed with retroperitoneal GCTs and only one had KS. @*Conclusion@#We described the characteristics of 95 cases of extragonadal GCTs. Although the mechanism of extragonadal GCTs in KS is not clear, karyotyping in pediatric and adolescent extragonadal GCT patients could be helpful in figuring out chromosomal abnormalities including KS and their roles in GCT pathophysiology, which can contribute to improve one’s health.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and neuromuscular monitoring in anesthetic management are integral for endotracheal intubation, better visualization of the surgical field, and prevention of residual neuromuscular blockade and pulmonary complications. Sugammadex is a drug that reduces risk of residual neuromuscular blockade, with more rapid recovery compared to anticholinesterase. The purpose of this study was to investigate current usage status of NMBAs and antagonist with neuromuscular monitoring, among anesthesiologists in Korea.METHODS: Anesthesiologists working in Korea were invited to participate in an online survey via email January 2–February 28, 2018. The questionnaire consisted of 45 items, including preferred NMBAs, antagonists, neuromuscular monitoring, and complications related to the use sugammadex. A total of 174 responses were analyzed.RESULTS: Rocuronium was a commonly used NMBA for endotracheal intubation (98%) of hospitals, and maintenance of anesthesia (83.3%) in of hospitals. Sugammadex, pyridostigmine, and neostigmine were used in 89.1%, 87.9%, and 45.4% of hospitals. Neuromuscular monitoring was employed in 79.3% of hospitals; however only 39.7% of hospitals used neuromuscular monitoring before antagonist administration. Usual dosage range of sugammadex was 2.1–4 mg/kg in 35.1% of hospitals, within 2 mg/kg in 34.5% of hospitals, and 1 vial regardless of body weight in 22.4% of hospitals. Sugammadex-related complications were encountered by 14.9% of respondents.CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates several minor problems associated with the use of antagonists and neuromuscular monitoring. However, most anesthesiologists appear to have appropriate information regarding the usage of NMBAs and sugammadex.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Body Weight , Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia , Electronic Mail , Intubation, Intratracheal , Korea , Neostigmine , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Pyridostigmine Bromide , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cerebral state index (CSI) is an anesthesia depth monitor alternative to bispectral index (BIS). Published comparative studies have used propofol or sevoflurane. However, studies using desflurane have not been reported yet. Different volatile anesthetics have different electroencephalography signatures. The performance of CSI may be different in desflurane anesthesia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare CSI and BIS during desflurane anesthesia. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were recruited. Desflurane and remifentanil were used to maintain general anesthesia. BIS and CSI were recorded simultaneously every minute. End-tidal concentration of desflurane was maintained at 4% from the beginning of surgery for 5 minutes. Pairwise data of CSI and BIS were obtained five times at one-minute intervals. This process was repeated in the order of 6%, 8%, and 10%. RESULTS: BIS and CSI were negatively correlated with the end-tidal concentration of desflurane with a similar degree of correlation (correlation coefficient BIS: –0.847, CSI: –0.844). The relationship between CSI and BIS had a good linearity with a slope close to 1 (R2 = 0.905, slope = 1.01). For the relationship between CSI and BIS at each end-tidal concentration of desflurane, CSI and BIS showed good linearity in 4% and 10% (R2 = 0.559, 0.540). However, the linearity and slope were decreased in 6% and 8% (R2 = 0.163, 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: CSI showed an equivalent degree of overall performance compared to BIS in desflurane anesthesia. Accounting for previous literature, CSI can be used as a good substitute for BIS regardless of the kind of anesthetics used.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Electroencephalography , Humans , Propofol
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714195

ABSTRACT

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhan's cell histiocytosis disorder characterized by replacement of normal tissue by lipid-laden histiocytes affecting various organs. A few pediatric cases have been reported worldwide. Here we present a child with leukemia who was diagnosed as ECD. A 2-year and 11-month old boy diagnosed with high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at the age of 17 months, received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at the age of 2 years old. Six months after the transplantation, the patient was admitted to the hospital with palpable left calf nodules. Bone marrow study suggested ECD without leukemia with complete chimerism status. Excisional biopsy of the left calf nodule showed ‘aggregation of non-Langerhan's cell type epitheloid histiocytes’; clinically suggestive of ECD. The patient was started on vinblastine and corticosteroid treatment.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Child , Chimerism , Erdheim-Chester Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Histiocytes , Histiocytosis , Humans , Leukemia , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Vinblastine
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714194

ABSTRACT

Cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity is an uncommon complication especially in patients who have never undergone mediastinal irradiation or cardiotoxic chemotherapy and do not have underlying cardiac diseases. Here, we describe the case of a 19-year-old female with chronic myeloid leukemia. She was previously treated with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors and developed cardiomyopathy after receiving infusion of 60 mg/kg intravenous cyclophosphamide for two days with a conditioning regimen for allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Severe thickening of the left ventricle and reduced ejection fraction without triggering agents were characteristic for cyclophosphamide-induced cardiomyopathy. Her NT-pro BNP and troponin T concentrations surged to >70,000 pg/mL (0=130 pg/mL) and 2,031 pg/mL (0-14 pg/mL), respectively, during the course of the therapy and multiple organ failure seemed imminent evidenced by unresponsive decline in blood pressure. However, with close monitoring and persistent conservative management which consisted of intravenous hydration, continuous hemodialysis, and mechanical ventilation, her condition recovered.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiomyopathies , Cardiotoxicity , Cyclophosphamide , Drug Therapy , Female , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles , Heart , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Multiple Organ Failure , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Renal Dialysis , Respiration, Artificial , Troponin T , Young Adult
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive clinical and radiologic follow-up is needed to preserve joint functions and quality of life in hemophilia using clinimetric tools such as Hemophilia joint health score (HJHS) or Pettersson score (PS). We investigated the joint health status evaluated using the tools in Korean hemophilia patients. METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively medical records to collect clinical parameters, HJHS and PS, who were followed up in Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The correlation between HJHS and PS, and the effect of the prophylaxis for hemophilia on the outcomes measured with the scores were evaluated. The prophylaxis proportion (PP) was calculated as the proportion of prophylaxis duration to each patient's life time. RESULTS: Total of 28 patients with severe hemophilia were enrolled. Twelve patients (42.8%) were less than 20 years old. Total of 23 patients had experienced prophylaxis during their lives, and median PP was 39.7%. There was significant correlation between HJHS and PS (P 20 years old. CONCLUSION: HJHS and PS were positively correlated. Each score increased as the patient's age increased. The prophylaxis had protective effect on joint health. The prospective evaluation of HJHS and PS will be needed to prove the effect of proper management on the joint health status.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Health Status , Hemophilia A , Humans , Joints , Korea , Medical Records , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Seoul
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in calpain-10 and adiponectin gene are known to influence insulin secretion and resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in calpain-10 and adiponectin gene have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes and various metabolic derangements. We investigated the associations between specific calpain-10 and adiponectin gene polymorphisms and Korean type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Overall, 249 type 2 diabetes patients and 131 non-diabetic control subjects were enrolled in this study. All the subjects were genotyped for SNP-43 and -63 of calpain-10 gene and G276T and T45G frequencies of the adiponectin gene. The clinical characteristics and measure of glucose metabolism were compared within these genotypes. RESULTS: Among calpain-10 polymorphisms, SNP-63 T/T were more frequent in diabetes patients, and single SNP-63 increases the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. However, SNP-43 in calpain-10 and T45G and intron G276T in adiponectin gene were not significantly associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, nor insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: Variations in calpain-10, SNP-63 seems to increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Koreans while SNP-43 and adiponectin SNP-45, -276 are not associated with impaired glucose metabolism.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Glucose , Humans , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Introns , Metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715966

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows simultaneous sequencing of multiple cancer susceptibility genes and may represent a more efficient and less expensive approach than sequential testing. We assessed the frequency of germline mutations in individuals with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), using multi-gene panels and NGS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with EOC (n=117) with/without a family history of breast or ovarian cancer were recruited consecutively, from March 2016 toDecember 2016.GermlineDNAwas sequenced using 35-gene NGS panel, in order to identify mutations. Upon the detection of a genetic alteration using the panel, results were cross-validated using direct sequencing. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients (32.5%) had 39 pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in eight genes, including BRCA1 (n=21), BRCA2 (n=10), BRIP1 (n=1), CHEK2 (n=2), MSH2 (n=1), POLE (n=1), RAD51C (n=2), and RAD51D (n=2). Among 64 patients with a family history of cancer, 27 (42.2%) had 27 pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations, and six (9.3%) had mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2, such as CHECK2, MSH2, POLE, and RAD51C. Fifty-five patients (47.0%) were identified to carry only variants of uncertain significance. CONCLUSION: Using the multi-gene panel test, we found that, of all patients included in our study, 32.5% had germline cancer-predisposing mutations. NGS was confirmed to substantially improve the detection rates of a wide spectrum of mutations in EOC patients compared with those obtained with the BRCA1/2 testing alone.


Subject(s)
Breast , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Ovarian Neoplasms , Prevalence
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