Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 46
Filter
1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 279-290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0–18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.

2.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 28-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966462

ABSTRACT

Medulloblastoma is the most common embryonal tumor of the central nervous system in childhood.Combined multimodality approaches, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, have improved the outcome of medulloblastoma. Advances in genomic research have shown that medulloblastoma is not a biologically or clinically discrete entity. Previously, the risk was divided according to histology, presence of metastasis, degree of resection, and age at diagnosis. Through the development of integrated genomics, new biology-based risk stratification methods have recently been proposed. It is also important to understand the genetic predisposition of patients with medulloblastoma. Therefore, treatment goal aimed to improve the survival rate with minimal additional adverse effects and reduced longterm sequelae. It is necessary to incorporate genetic findings into the standard of care, and clinical trials that reflect this need to be conducted.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 269-276, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare disease in children and there are some different characteristics between children and adult. We aimed to evaluate incidence, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pediatric APL in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Seventy-nine pediatric APL patients diagnosed from January 2009 to December 2016 in 16 tertiary medical centers in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. @*Results@#Of 801 acute myeloid leukemia children, 79 (9.9%) were diagnosed with APL. The median age at diagnosis was 10.6 years (range, 1.3 to 18.0). Male and female ratio was 1:0.93. Thirty patients (38.0%) had white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 10×109/L at diagnosis. All patients received induction therapy consisting of all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Five patients (6.6%) died during induction chemotherapy and 66 patients (86.8%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. The causes of death were three intracranial hemorrhage, one cerebral infarction, and one sepsis. Five patients (7.1%) suffered a relapse during or after maintenance chemotherapy. The estimated 4-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 82.1%±4.4%, 89.7%±5.1%, respectively. The 4-year OS was significantly higher in patients with initial WBC < 10×109/L than in those with initial WBC ≥ 10×109/L (p=0.020). @*Conclusion@#This study showed that the CR rates and survival outcomes in Korean pediatric APL patients were relatively good. The initial WBC count was the most important prognostic factor and most causes of death were related to serious bleeding in the early stage of treatment.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 30-39, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913822

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#K-MASTER project is a Korean national precision medicine platform that screened actionable mutations by analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) of solid tumor patients. We compared gene analyses between NGS panel from the K-MASTER project and orthogonal methods. @*Materials and Methods@#Colorectal, breast, non–small cell lung, and gastric cancer patients were included. We compared NGS results from K-MASTER projects with those of non-NGS orthogonal methods (KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer [CRC]; epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase [ALK] fusion, and reactive oxygen species 1 [ROS1] fusion in non–small cell lung cancer [NSCLC], and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) positivity in breast and gastric cancers). @*Results@#In the CRC cohort (n=225), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 87.4% and 79.3% (KRAS); 88.9% and 98.9% (NRAS); and 77.8% and 100.0% (BRAF), respectively. In the NSCLC cohort (n=109), the sensitivity and specificity of NGS for EGFR were 86.2% and 97.5%, respectively. The concordance rate for ALK fusion was 100%, but ROS1 fusion was positive in only one of three cases that were positive in orthogonal tests. In the breast cancer cohort (n=260), ERBB2 amplification was detected in 45 by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods that integrated immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 99.4%, respectively. In the gastric cancer cohort (n=64), ERBB2 amplification was detected in six by NGS. Compared with orthogonal methods, sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 98.2%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#The results of the K-MASTER NGS panel and orthogonal methods showed a different degree of agreement for each genetic alteration, but generally showed a high agreement rate.

5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1184-1194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913813

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Effectiveness and safety of clofarabine (one of the treatment mainstays in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]) was assessed in Korean pediatric patients with ALL to facilitate conditional coverage with evidence development. @*Materials and Methods@#In this multicenter, prospective, observational study, patients receiving clofarabine as mono/combination therapy were followed up every 4-6 weeks for 6 months or until hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Response rates, survival outcomes, and adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#Sixty patients (2-26 years old; 65% B-cell ALL, received prior ≥ 2 regimen, 68.3% refractory to previous regimen) were enrolled and treated with at least one dose of clofarabine; of whom 26 (43.3%) completed 6 months of follow-up after the last dose of clofarabine. Fifty-eight patients (96.7%) received clofarabine combination therapy. Overall remission rate (complete remission [CR] or CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) was 45.0% (27/60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32.4 to 57.6) and the overall response rate (CR, CRp, or partial remission [PR]) was 46.7% (28/60; 95% CI, 34.0 to 59.3), with 11 (18.3%), 16 (26.7%), and one (1.7%) patients achieving CR, CRp, and PR, respectively. The median time to remission was 5.1 weeks (95% CI, 4.7 to 6.1). Median duration of remission was 16.6 weeks (range, 2.0 to 167.6 weeks). Sixteen patients (26.7%) proceeded to HSCT. There were 24 deaths; 14 due to treatment-emergent adverse events. @*Conclusion@#Remission with clofarabine was observed in approximately half of the study patients who had overall expected safety profile; however, there was no favorable long-term survival outcome in this study.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 983-990, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913812

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to refine the radiotherapy (RT) volume and dose for intracranial germinoma considering recurrences and long-term toxicities. @*Materials and Methods@#Total 189 patients with intracranial germinoma were treated with RT alone (n=50) and RT with upfront chemotherapy (CRT) (n=139). All cases were confirmed histologically. RT fields comprised the extended-field and involved-field only for primary site. The extended-field, including craniospinal, whole brain (WB), and whole ventricle (WV) for cranial field, is followed by involved-field boost. The median follow-up duration was 115 months. @*Results@#The relapses developed in 13 patients (6.9%). For the extended-field, cranial RT dose down to 18 Gy exhibited no cranial recurrence in 34 patients. In CRT, 74 patients (56.5%) showed complete response to chemotherapy and no involved-field recurrence with low-dose RT of 30 Gy. WV RT with chemotherapy for the basal ganglia or thalamus germinoma showed no recurrence. Secondary malignancy developed in 10 patients (5.3%) with a latency of 20 years (range, 4 to 26 years) and caused mortalities in six. WB or craniospinal field rather than WV or involved-field significantly increased the rate of hormone deficiencies, and secondary malignancy. RT dose for extended-field correlated significantly with the rate of hormone deficiencies, secondary malignancy, and neurocognitive dysfunction. @*Conclusion@#De-intensifying extended-field rather than involved-field or total scheme of RT will be critical to decrease the late toxicities. Upfront chemotherapy could be beneficial for the patients with complete response to minimize the RT dose down to 30 Gy. Prospective trials focused on de-intensification of the extended-field RT are warranted.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

9.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 22-31, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832098

ABSTRACT

The survival rates for pediatric patients with solid tumors have improved dramatically in recent decades. However, patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis or progressive solid tumors still have a poor prognosis. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic strategy in the pediatric population. Although not widely used in Korea, the anti-GD2 treatment in neuroblastoma is one of the successes of immunotherapy. In addition, many early phase clinical trials for monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy and cancer vaccines are ongoing. According to results reported so far, a majority of pediatric solid tumors showed limited response to ICIs, except Hodgkin lymphoma and hypermutant pediatric tumors. These results indicate that children and adolescents need to be applied different immunotherapeutic approaches from adults. The aim of this review is to understand the immunological environment and immunotherapeutic challenges in pediatric solid tumors.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e393-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831569

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) constitutes 10%–20% of all malignant lymphomas and has a high cure rate (5-year survival, around 90%). Recently, interest has increased concerning preventing secondary complications (secondary cancer, endocrine disorders) in long-term survivors. We aimed to study the epidemiologic features and therapeutic outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a multicenter, retrospective study of 224 patients aged < 25 years diagnosed with HL at 22 participating institutes in Korea from January 2007 to August 2016. @*Results@#A higher percentage of males was diagnosed at a younger age. Nodular sclerosis histopathological HL subtype was most common, followed by mixed cellularity subtype.Eighty-one (36.2%), 101 (45.1%), and 42 (18.8%) patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine was the most common protocol (n = 102, 45.5%). Event-free survival rate was 86.0% ± 2.4%, while five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96.1% ± 1.4%: 98.7% ± 1.3%, 97.7% ± 1.6%, and 86.5% ± 5.6% in the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Five-year OS was worse in patients with B-symptoms, stage IV disease, highrisk, splenic involvement, extra-nodal lymphoma, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase level.In multivariate analysis, B-symptoms and extra-nodal involvement were prognostic factors for poor OS. Late complications of endocrine disorders and secondary malignancy were observed in 17 and 6 patients, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is the first study on the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of HL in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future prospective studies are indicated to develop therapies that minimize treatment toxicity while maximizing cure rates in children, adolescents, and young adults with HL.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e279-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 764-778, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831112

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to identify the concordant or discordant genomic profiling between primary and matched metastatic tumors in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to explore the clinical implication. @*Materials and Methods@#Surgical samples of primary and matched metastatic tissues from 158 patients (335 samples) with CRC at Korea University Anam Hospital were evaluated using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel. We compared genetic variants and classified them as concordant, primary-specific, and metastasis-specific variants. We used a combination of principal components analysis and clustering to find genomic groups. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to appraise survival between genomic groups. We used machine learning to confirm the correlation between genetic variants and metastatic sites. @*Results@#A total of 282 types of deleterious non-synonymous variants were selected for analysis. Of a total of 897 variants, an average of 40% was discordant. Three genomic groups were yielded based on the genomic discrepancy patterns. Overall survival differed significantly between the genomic groups. The poorest group had the highest proportion of concordant KRAS G12V and additional metastasis-specific SMAD4. Correlation analysis between genetic variants and metastatic sites suggested that concordant KRAS mutations would have more disseminated metastases. @*Conclusion@#Driver gene mutations were mostly concordant; however, discordant or metastasis-specific mutations were present. Clinically, the concordant driver genetic changes with additional metastasis-specific variants can predict poor prognosis for patients with CRC.

13.
Blood Research ; : 217-224, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897343

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutations in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed and identified 18 patients diagnosed with non-M3 AML with FLT3-ITD mutations at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and August 2019. @*Results@#The median age was 13 years (range, 6‒19 yr). The median follow-up time was 43 months (range, 6‒157 mo). Fourteen patients received BH-AC-based (N4-Behenoy1-1-β-D-arabinofuranosy1cytosine) and 4 received cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy.Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 72.2% of the patients after the first induction chemotherapy and 80% of the patients achieved CR after salvage therapy. The overall CR rate was 94% (17/18 patients). These 17 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (9 matched unrelated donors, 5 matched related donors, and 3 haploidentical donors). Relapse occurred in 22% of the patients. Event free survival and overall survival rates were 53.8±12.1% and 53.6±12.1%, respectively, and they were not significantly different according to the type of induction chemotherapy (P=0.690) or the type of donor (P =0.102). @*Conclusion@#This study outlines the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD-mutations in one institution over a decade. Outcomes were significantly improved in this study compared to our previous report in 2004, where RFS and EFS were 0%. This study can provide baseline data for pediatric patients in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era.

14.
Blood Research ; : 217-224, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889639

ABSTRACT

Background@#Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD mutations in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed and identified 18 patients diagnosed with non-M3 AML with FLT3-ITD mutations at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital between May 2008 and August 2019. @*Results@#The median age was 13 years (range, 6‒19 yr). The median follow-up time was 43 months (range, 6‒157 mo). Fourteen patients received BH-AC-based (N4-Behenoy1-1-β-D-arabinofuranosy1cytosine) and 4 received cytarabine-based induction chemotherapy.Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 72.2% of the patients after the first induction chemotherapy and 80% of the patients achieved CR after salvage therapy. The overall CR rate was 94% (17/18 patients). These 17 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (9 matched unrelated donors, 5 matched related donors, and 3 haploidentical donors). Relapse occurred in 22% of the patients. Event free survival and overall survival rates were 53.8±12.1% and 53.6±12.1%, respectively, and they were not significantly different according to the type of induction chemotherapy (P=0.690) or the type of donor (P =0.102). @*Conclusion@#This study outlines the outcomes of pediatric AML patients with FLT3-ITD-mutations in one institution over a decade. Outcomes were significantly improved in this study compared to our previous report in 2004, where RFS and EFS were 0%. This study can provide baseline data for pediatric patients in the pre-FLT3 inhibitor era.

15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 182-190, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The staging work-up for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma includes bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Consistent results of both procedures can clarify the diagnosis. However, no clear guidelines have been established regarding positive results for bone marrow aspiration alone. The aim of this study was, therefore, to analyze the overall survival (OS) for the clinical diagnoses of these patients using morphological methods. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who were consecutively enrolled in the Korea University Lymphoma Registry from 1991 to 2016. OS was compared according to the bone marrow group: without bone marrow involvement (BMA−/BMBx−), with positive results for aspiration and negative results for biopsy (BMA+/BMBx−), and with bone marrow involvement in biopsy (BMBx+). OS was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of 1,735 patients, 1,326 were analyzed and 409 were excluded. In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, OS was significantly worse for patients in the BMBx+ group compared with those in the BMA−/BMBx− group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in OS between patients in the BMA+/BMBx− group and those in other groups (vs. BMA−/BMBx−, p = 0.163; BMBx+, p = 0.292). In multivariate analysis, by adjusting survival-related variables, the BMA+/BMBx− group showed marginal significance compared to the BMA−/BMBx− group (p = 0.081), and showed significance in the subgroup of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that even if there are positive results in bone marrow aspiration alone in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, attention to patient characteristics, involving significance as a poor prognosis for OS, is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Korea , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 182-190, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#The staging work-up for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma includes bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Consistent results of both procedures can clarify the diagnosis. However, no clear guidelines have been established regarding positive results for bone marrow aspiration alone. The aim of this study was, therefore, to analyze the overall survival (OS) for the clinical diagnoses of these patients using morphological methods.@*METHODS@#We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who were consecutively enrolled in the Korea University Lymphoma Registry from 1991 to 2016. OS was compared according to the bone marrow group: without bone marrow involvement (BMA−/BMBx−), with positive results for aspiration and negative results for biopsy (BMA+/BMBx−), and with bone marrow involvement in biopsy (BMBx+). OS was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#Of 1,735 patients, 1,326 were analyzed and 409 were excluded. In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, OS was significantly worse for patients in the BMBx+ group compared with those in the BMA−/BMBx− group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in OS between patients in the BMA+/BMBx− group and those in other groups (vs. BMA−/BMBx−, p = 0.163; BMBx+, p = 0.292). In multivariate analysis, by adjusting survival-related variables, the BMA+/BMBx− group showed marginal significance compared to the BMA−/BMBx− group (p = 0.081), and showed significance in the subgroup of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (p = 0.003).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study suggested that even if there are positive results in bone marrow aspiration alone in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, attention to patient characteristics, involving significance as a poor prognosis for OS, is required.

17.
Journal of Korean Burn Society ; : 17-21, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715481

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the thermal protective function of firefighter clothes and gloves through real scale fire simulations. METHODS: Firstly, the fire simulation by real scale flame was performed for firefighter clothes. A manikin equipped with firefighter clothes was directly exposed to flames which energy average is 84 Kw/m2. for 22 seconds. Heat flux gauges attached on the body measured surface temperature elevation. Secondly, we also performed the other fire simulation by hot plate exposure to firefighter gloves. Firefighter gloves with heat flux gauges exposed hot plate which temperature is 300℃ in both dry and moist conditions. Primary outcome was surface temperature change of manikin body (first simulation) and hand (second simulation) over times. RESULTS: In the first flame simulation, the surface temperature of face and shoulders elevated more rapidly comparing with the other body surface area when initial period of flame shutter open. After 18sec of shutter open, the surface temperature of upper trunk elevated rapildy. After shutter closure, high surface temperature kept continuously on right side of face and left shoulder. In the second hot plate simulation, fingers and palms showed higher surface temperature than the other areas of hands in the both dry and wet conditions. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the real scale flame enables firefighter clothes to lose their heat protective function suddenly after 18 seconds. Additionally, the protective function of firefighter gloves were relatively weaker in the palmar side of fingers than the other parts of hand. There should be additional study for evaluate thermal protection performance of firefighter clothes. And, further effort for reinforce palmar side of fingers of firefighter gloves should be done.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Surface Area , Clothing , Fingers , Firefighters , Fires , Hand , Hot Temperature , Manikins , Patient Simulation , Shoulder
18.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 88-93, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714973

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients who developed thyroid dysfunction and evaluated the risk factors for hypothyroidism following radiotherapy and chemotherapy in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). METHODS: The medical records of 66 patients (42 males) treated for medulloblastoma (n=56) or PNET (n=10) in childhood between January 2000 and December 2014 at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 21 patients (18 high-risk medulloblastoma and 3 PNET) underwent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) RESULTS: During the median 7.6 years of follow-up, 49 patients (74%) developed transient (n=12) or permanent (n=37) hypothyroidism at a median 3.8 years of follow-up (2.9–4.6 years). Younger age ( < 5 years) at radiation exposure (P=0.014 vs. ≥9 years) and HDCT (P=0.042) were significantly predictive for hypothyroidism based on log-rank test. However, sex, type of tumor, and dose of craniospinal irradiation (less vs. more than 23.4 Gy) were not significant predictors. Cox proportional hazard model showed that both younger age (< 5 years) at radiation exposure (hazard ratio [HR], 3.1; vs. ≥9 years; P=0.004) and HDCT (HR, 2.4; P=0.010) were significant predictors of hypothyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: Three-quarters of patients with pediatric medulloblastoma or PNET showed thyroid dysfunction, and over half had permanent thyroid dysfunction. Thus, frequent monitoring of thyroid function is mandatory in all patients treated for medulloblastoma or PNET, especially, in very young patients and/or high-risk patients recommended for HDCT/ASCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Craniospinal Irradiation , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Hypothyroidism , Medical Records , Medulloblastoma , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Pediatrics , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiation Exposure , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seoul , Stem Cells , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones
19.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 149-153, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a very rare disease and patients who do not receive timely treatment suffer from bleeding, infection, and malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been recognized as an effective treatment, but the standard transplantation protocol has not been established. We report the outcomes of WAS patients who underwent HSCT in our institution. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients who underwent HSCT at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from 2005 to 2018. Busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning regimen was used, and an intensive daily therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for busulfan dosing was started for effective myeloablation and to reduce toxicity since 2008. We collected and analyzed data regarding symptoms, engraftment, transplantation-related toxicities, and survival. RESULTS: Six WAS patients who received HSCT were evaluated. The median age of the patients at diagnosis was 5 years (range, 1–11). There were 2 matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantations, 3 matched unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantations (PBSCT), and 1 haploidentical PBSCT. No patient experienced engraftment failure. Three patients developed grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Two patients had veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Two patients died (due to VOD and acute GVHD). The 5-year overall survival was 66.7% with 8 years of median follow-up. Particularly, a patient who underwent haploidentical PBSCT using targeted busulfan is alive with a follow-up duration of 3 years after HSCT. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, WAS patients may be cured with HSCT with targeted busulfan-based myeloablative conditioning. But, long-term and multi-center studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Marrow , Busulfan , Diagnosis , Drug Monitoring , Follow-Up Studies , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Hemorrhage , Rare Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Stem Cell Transplantation , Unrelated Donors , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
20.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 202-207, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717632

ABSTRACT

The treatment outcomes of relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma have been unsatisfactory till date. We reported two cases of adoptive immunotherapy using cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma. CIK cell production was attempted in three patients, out of which two patients exhibited adequate levels of CIK cell production. Two patients completed full term of CIK cell infusions (weekly for 6 weeks and then biweekly for 8 wk) without serious adverse events. The progression-free survivals for the two patients were 1.9 and 4.1 months. Their overall survivals were 16.7 and 28.7 months. Although the efficacy was unclear, CIK cell infusion combined with other treatment strategies may have prolonged overall survival in refractory neuroblastoma patients. Further studies are needed to determine the exact role of CIK cell-based immunotherapy in relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells , Disease-Free Survival , Immunotherapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Neuroblastoma
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL