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1.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 126-130, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002382

ABSTRACT

Acute pancreatitis caused by eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease, and little has been reported so far. Diagnosing eosinophilic gastroenteritis is difficult because the symptoms and laboratory findings are not specific. We report a rare case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis related to acute pancreatitis as a possible cause of idiopathic acute pancreatitis. A 61-year-old man visited the hospital complaining of epigastric pain. Although no pancreatic abnormalities were confirmed on imaging studies, the patient showed hyperamylasemia and hyperlipasemia. Serum eosinophil fractions were initially normal. However, they were elevated on follow-up examinations, and a large number of eosinophils were observed in the biopsies of the stomach and duodenum, which led to the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroduodenitis related to acute pancreatitis.

2.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e28-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967224

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated the prognostic value of complete metabolic response (CMR) on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) after 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). @*Methods@#PET/CT at baseline and after 3 cycles of NAC were performed; peak standardized uptakes were measured. PET parameters were compared with NAC parameter: cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) normalization before interval debulking surgery (IDS) and chemotherapy response score (CRS) to predict platinum-sensitivity. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine correlations between PET parameters and survival. Prognostic factors were obtained by multivariate Cox regression analysis. @*Results@#Between 2007 and 2020, 102 patients were recruited: 19 (18.6%) were designated as CMR group and 83 (81.4%) as non-CMR group. CMR after 3 cycles of NAC showed the highest accuracy in predicting platinum-sensitivity (area under the curve [AUC]=0.729; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.552–0.823; p=0.017), compared with CA-125 normalization before IDS (AUC=0.626; 95% CI=0.542–0.758; p=0.010) and CRS (AUC=0.613; 95% CI=0.490–0.735; p=0.080). CMR demonstrated better prognosis than non-CMR in progression-free survival (PFS) (median PFS, 23.9 months vs. 16.4 months; p=0.021) and overall survival (OS) (median OS, not reached vs. 69.7 months; p=0.025). In multivariate analysis, CMR was associated with a lower risk of recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.50; 95% CI=0.27–0.92; p=0.027) and death (aHR=0.23; 95% CI=0.05–0.99; p=0.048). @*Conclusion@#CMR after 3 cycles of NAC can be a prognostic factor for both recurrence and death in advanced HGSC.

3.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e44-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967213

ABSTRACT

The use of PARP inhibitors (PARPi) in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer is expanding, with the transition from use in recurrent disease to the first-line setting. This is accompanied with an increasing population of patients who develop acquired PARPi resistance. Coupled with those patients with primary PARPi resistance, there is an urgent need to better understand mechanisms of resistance and identify means to overcome this resistance. Combination therapy offers the potential to overcome innate and acquired resistance, by either working synergistically with PARPi or by restoring homologous recombination deficiency, targeting the homologous recombination repair pathway through an alternate strategy. We discuss mechanisms of PARPi resistance and data on novel combinations which may restore PARPi sensitivity.

4.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e45-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967205

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Management of heavily pre-treated platinum-resistant ovarian cancer remains a therapeutic challenge. Outcomes are poor with non-platinum, single-agent chemotherapy (CT); however, molecularly targeted anticancer therapies provide new options. @*Methods@#This open-label, investigator-initiated, phase 2 umbrella trial (NCT03699449) enrolled patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (at least 2 prior lines of CT and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0/1) to receive combination therapy based on homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status determined by archival tumour sample assessment. HRD-positive patients were randomised to either olaparib 200mg bid tablet + cediranib 30mg qd (arm 1) or olaparib 300mg bid tablet + durvalumab 1,500mg q4w (arm 2). HRD-negative patients were allocated to either durvalumab 1,500 mg q4w + pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) or topotecan or weekly paclitaxel (6 cycles; arm 3, those with PD-L1 expression) or durvalumab 1,500 mg q4w + tremelimumab 75mg q4w (4 doses) + PLD or topotecan or weekly paclitaxel (4 cycles; arm 4, those without PD-L1 expression). Arm 5 (durvalumab 1,500 mg q4w + tremelimumab 300mg [1 dose] + weekly paclitaxel [60 mg/m2 D1,8,15 q4w for 4 cycles] was initiated after arm 4 completed. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR; Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours 1.1). @*Results@#Between Dec 2018 and Oct 2020, 70 patients (median 57 years; median 3 prior treatment lines [range 2–10]) were treated (n=16, 14, 5, 18, and 17, respectively). Overall ORR was 37.1% (26/70, 95% confidence interval=25.9, 49.5); 2 achieved complete response. ORR was 50%, 42.9%, 20%, 33.3%, and 29.4%, respectively. Grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were reported in 37.5%, 35.7%, 20%, 66.7%, and 35.3% of patients, respectively. No TRAEs leading to treatment discontinuation and no grade 5 TRAEs were observed. @*Conclusion@#This study, the first biomarker-driven umbrella trial in platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer, suggests clinical utility with biomarker-driven targeted therapy. All treatment combinations were manageable, and without unexpected toxicities.

5.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 223-225, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938917

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To demonstrate near-infrared fluorescence image-guided inguinal sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in patients with vulvar cancer. @*Methods@#A 40-year-old woman with a 3-cm-sized palpable left vulvar mass was diagnosed with vulvar cancer on biopsy with protrusion into the vaginal cavity. Pelvic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography-computed tomography showed a small ulcerative enhancing lesion confined to the left vulva without distant metastasis. The patient was scheduled for radical vulvectomy with a left inguinal SLN biopsy. Indocyanine green was injected directly into the vulvar mass to map lymphatic drainage. A 4-cm-sized linear incision was made on the left inguinal crease, and the lymphatic channels of the left inguinal area were dissected under fluorescent image guidance using a 1588 Advanced Imaging Modalities Platform laparoscopic camera (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA). @*Results@#Fluorescence image-guided left inguinal SLN biopsy and radical vulvectomy were performed. The pathologic diagnosis confirmed vulvar adenoid cystic carcinoma with metastasis to the left inguinal lymph node (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA). The patient was discharged without complications and received adjuvant radiotherapy. @*Conclusion@#This video demonstrates a successful ICG fluorescence image-guided left inguinal SLN biopsy in a vulvar cancer patient using a laparoscopic camera. Mapping of inguinal SLNs in patients with vulvar cancer may help in retaining surgical radicality while minimizing operative complications.

6.
Journal of Menopausal Medicine ; : 168-174, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915701

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study compared serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in endometriotic cysts (ECs) with those in non-ECs and analyzed changes thereof after single-port laparoscopic (SPL) ovarian cyst enucleation using vasopressin injection. @*Methods@#In total, 180 patients (EC group, n = 112; non-EC group, n = 68) who underwent SPL ovarian cyst enucleation were retrospectively reviewed. Their AMH levels were checked preoperatively, on postoperative day 10 (POD10), and on postoperative month 3 (POM3). Changes in AMH levels were analyzed according to tumor type and vasopressin use. @*Results@#The median initial and postoperative serum AMH levels in the EC group were significantly lower than those in the nonEC group (preoperation: 2.0 vs 3.8 ng/mL, P < 0.001; POD10: 1.0 vs 3.2 ng/mL, P < 0.001; POM3: 1.2 vs 3.6 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The postoperative decrease in AMH levels was higher in the EC group than the non-EC group on POD10 (0.8 vs 0.5 ng/mL, P = 0.011) but not on POM3 (0.7 vs 0.5 ng/mL, P = 0.164). Vasopressin injection during EC enucleation had no significant effect on the decrease in AMH levels on POD10 (vasopressin group vs non-vasopressin group: 1.0 vs 0.8 ng/mL, P = 0.253) and POM3 (vasopressin group vs nonvasopressin group: 1.4 vs 1.1 ng/mL, P = 0.242). @*Conclusions@#AMH levels were lower at baseline and had higher decreasing rates after SPL surgery in the EC group relative to the nonEC group. Vasopressin injection might not protect the ovary from the postoperative decrease in AMH levels.

7.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e31-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915073

ABSTRACT

Background@#The optimal treatment of BRCA wild-type patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer remains unknown. Recently, there is an increase in the evidence to support the role of the combination of a poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, anti-angiogenic agents, and immunotherapy as maintenance therapy in BRCA wild-type patients with platinum-sensitive recurrence. We hypothesized that adding pembrolizumab and bevacizumab to olaparib maintenance can increase progression-free survival (PFS) in BRCA wild-type patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer. @*Methods@#BRCA wild-type patients who received two previous courses of platinum-containing therapy, achieved complete or partial response to last treatment, and the treatment-free interval is >6 months after the penultimate platinum-based chemotherapy offered olaparib maintenance with pembrolizumab and bevacizumab. Forty-four patients will be included from 4 sites across Singapore and Korea. The primary endpoint of the study is 6-month PFS rate.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1481-1489, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902508

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To construct a CT-based Fagotti scoring system by analyzing the correlations between laparoscopic findings and CT features in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included patients diagnosed with stage III/IV ovarian cancer who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and debulking surgery between January 2010 and June 2018. Two radiologists independently reviewed preoperative CT scans and assessed ten CT features known as predictors of suboptimal cytoreduction. Correlation analysis between ten CT features and seven laparoscopic parameters based on the Fagotti scoring system was performed using Spearman’s correlation. Variable selection and model construction were performed by logistic regression with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method using a predictive index value (PIV) ≥ 8 as an indicator of suboptimal cytoreduction. The final CT-based scoring system was internally validated using 5-fold cross-validation. @*Results@#A total of 157 patients (median age, 56 years; range, 27–79 years) were evaluated. Among 120 (76.4%) patients with a PIV ≥ 8, 105 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery, and the optimal cytoreduction rate was 90.5% (95 of 105). Among 37 (23.6%) patients with PIV < 8, 29 patients underwent primary debulking surgery, and the optimal cytoreduction rate was 93.1% (27 of 29). CT features showing significant correlations with PIV ≥ 8 were mesenteric involvement, gastro-transverse mesocolon-splenic space involvement, diaphragmatic involvement, and para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The area under the receiver operating curve of the final model for prediction of PIV ≥ 8 was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.62–0.82). @*Conclusion@#Central tumor burden and upper abdominal spread features on preoperative CT were identified as distinct predictive factors for high PIV on diagnostic laparoscopy. The CT-based PIV prediction model might be useful for patient stratification before cytoreduction surgery for advanced ovarian cancer.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1481-1489, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894804

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To construct a CT-based Fagotti scoring system by analyzing the correlations between laparoscopic findings and CT features in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included patients diagnosed with stage III/IV ovarian cancer who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and debulking surgery between January 2010 and June 2018. Two radiologists independently reviewed preoperative CT scans and assessed ten CT features known as predictors of suboptimal cytoreduction. Correlation analysis between ten CT features and seven laparoscopic parameters based on the Fagotti scoring system was performed using Spearman’s correlation. Variable selection and model construction were performed by logistic regression with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method using a predictive index value (PIV) ≥ 8 as an indicator of suboptimal cytoreduction. The final CT-based scoring system was internally validated using 5-fold cross-validation. @*Results@#A total of 157 patients (median age, 56 years; range, 27–79 years) were evaluated. Among 120 (76.4%) patients with a PIV ≥ 8, 105 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery, and the optimal cytoreduction rate was 90.5% (95 of 105). Among 37 (23.6%) patients with PIV < 8, 29 patients underwent primary debulking surgery, and the optimal cytoreduction rate was 93.1% (27 of 29). CT features showing significant correlations with PIV ≥ 8 were mesenteric involvement, gastro-transverse mesocolon-splenic space involvement, diaphragmatic involvement, and para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The area under the receiver operating curve of the final model for prediction of PIV ≥ 8 was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.62–0.82). @*Conclusion@#Central tumor burden and upper abdominal spread features on preoperative CT were identified as distinct predictive factors for high PIV on diagnostic laparoscopy. The CT-based PIV prediction model might be useful for patient stratification before cytoreduction surgery for advanced ovarian cancer.

10.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 90-98, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938863

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of single-port laparoscopic surgical staging (SPLS) in early ovarian cancer and to compare the surgical outcomes of SPLS with those of staging laparotomy. @*Methods@#Between January 2014 and December 2018, 40 patients underwent SPLS and 41 patients underwent staging laparotomy at Yonsei Cancer Center. The patients were diagnosed with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I ovarian cancer. Variables such as patient age, body mass index (BMI), tumor size, FIGO stage, and perioperative surgical outcomes and survival outcomes of SPLS and laparotomy were compared. @*Results@#The total operation time was similar between the 2 groups (SPLS: 201.4 vs. laparotomy: 203.0 minutes, P=0.806). The median tumor diameters in the SPLS and laparotomy groups were 11.0 (2.5–28 cm) and 15.4 (6–40 cm), respectively (P=0.001). The SPLS group had lower tumor spillage rate (5.0% vs. 19.5%, P=0.047), less intraoperative blood loss (102.0 vs. 371.5 mL, P<0.001), less postoperative pain, and shorter postoperative hospital stay (5 vs. 9.5 days, P<0.001). The intraoperative major complication rate was similar between groups (2.5% vs. 4.9%, P=0.571). There was no significant difference in progression-free survival between the 2 groups (P=0.945). There were no deaths in either group. @*Conclusion@#SPLS is feasible in early ovarian cancer and has better perioperative surgical outcomes, in some aspects, than staging laparotomy without compromising survival outcomes. SPLS could be performed in patients suspected to have early ovarian cancer.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 243-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874342

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The objective of this study was to define the learning curve required to attain satisfactory oncologic outcomes of cervical cancer patients who were undergoing open or minimally invasive surgery for radical hysterectomy, and to analyze the correlation between the learning curve and tumor size. @*Materials and Methods@#Cervical cancer patients (stage IA-IIA) who underwent open radical hysterectomy (n=280) or minimal invasive radical hysterectomy (n=282) were retrospectively reviewed. The learning curve was evaluated using cumulative sum of 5-year recurrence rates. Survival outcomes were analyzed based on the operation period (“learning period,” P1 vs. “skilled period,” P2), operation mode, and tumor size. @*Results@#The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates between open and minimally invasive groups were 91.8% and 89.0% (p=0.098) and 96.1% and 97.2% (p=0.944), respectively. The number of surgeries for learning period was 30 and 60 in open and minimally invasive group, respectively. P2 had better 5-year disease-free survival than P1 after adjusting for risk factors (hazard ratio, 0.392; 95% confidence interval, 0.210 to 0.734; p=0.003). All patients with tumors < 2 cm had similar 5-year disease-free survival regardless of operation mode or learning curve. Minimally invasive group presented lower survival rates than open group when tumors ≥ 2 cm in P2. Preoperative conization improved disease-free survival in patients with tumors ≥ 2 cm, especially in minimally invasive group. @*Conclusion@#Minimally invasive radical hysterectomy required more cases than open group to achieve acceptable 5-year disease-free survival. When tumors ≥ 2 cm, the surgeon’s proficiency affected survival outcomes in both groups.

12.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : 23-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and toxicity of dose-dense weekly paclitaxel and 3-weekly carboplatin (ddPC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with the standard 3-weekly regimen.METHODS: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with stage IIIc and IV ovarian cancer who received at least one cycle of NAC followed by interval debulking surgery between August 2015 and January 2018 was conducted. Patient characteristics, clinical and pathological response to NAC, surgical and survival outcome, and adverse event were compared.RESULTS: A total of 23 patients in the ddPC group and 50 patients in the standard group received a median of 3 cycles of NAC. Rate of grade ≥3 neutropenia was significantly higher in the ddPC group than the standard (82.6% vs. 22.0%, p<0.001). Patients in the ddPC group underwent dose-reduction more frequently (34.8% vs. 4.00%, p=0.001). Normalization of cancer antigen-125 post-NAC occurred more frequently in the ddPC group (73.9% vs. 46.0%, p=0.030). No residual disease rate (43.5% vs. 60.0%, p=0.188) and chemotherapy response score of 3 (34.8% vs. 26.0%, p=0.441) were not statistically different between two groups. There was no statistical difference in progression free survival (PFS) at 2 years (36.3% vs. 28.4%, p=0.454). Cox proportional hazard model showed that ddPC was not a significant determinant of PFS (p=0.816).CONCLUSION: There was no difference between both regimens in terms of NAC response and survival outcomes. However, ddPC group showed higher hematologic toxicity requiring dose reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carboplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neutropenia , Ovarian Neoplasms , Paclitaxel , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
13.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 538-542, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902901

ABSTRACT

Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous, inflammatory disease generally manifesting as ulcers of the urogenital tract, especially in the bladder, but it can occur in any part of the body. Because of its varied clinical presentations, malakoplakia is considered for differential diagnosis upon suspicion. The final diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. We report a case of pelvic malakoplakia accompanied by left lower quadrant pain that was misdiagnosed as endometrial cancer with pelvic mass based on imaging studies. The patient underwent dilatation and curettage, and the pathology report revealed no malignancy. Because of persistent pain and septic shock, she underwent a debulking operation to remove the mass. Histopathologic examination revealed malakoplakia. For postoperative management, she received broad-spectrum antibiotics, but abdominal pelvic computerized tomography performed on postoperative day 9 revealed pelvic mass recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only rare case report of pelvic malakoplakia mimicking endometrial cancer.

14.
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science ; : 538-542, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895197

ABSTRACT

Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous, inflammatory disease generally manifesting as ulcers of the urogenital tract, especially in the bladder, but it can occur in any part of the body. Because of its varied clinical presentations, malakoplakia is considered for differential diagnosis upon suspicion. The final diagnosis is confirmed by the presence of Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. We report a case of pelvic malakoplakia accompanied by left lower quadrant pain that was misdiagnosed as endometrial cancer with pelvic mass based on imaging studies. The patient underwent dilatation and curettage, and the pathology report revealed no malignancy. Because of persistent pain and septic shock, she underwent a debulking operation to remove the mass. Histopathologic examination revealed malakoplakia. For postoperative management, she received broad-spectrum antibiotics, but abdominal pelvic computerized tomography performed on postoperative day 9 revealed pelvic mass recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only rare case report of pelvic malakoplakia mimicking endometrial cancer.

15.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e23-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the efficacy and toxicity of dose-dense weekly paclitaxel and 3-weekly carboplatin (ddPC) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with the standard 3-weekly regimen.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with stage IIIc and IV ovarian cancer who received at least one cycle of NAC followed by interval debulking surgery between August 2015 and January 2018 was conducted. Patient characteristics, clinical and pathological response to NAC, surgical and survival outcome, and adverse event were compared.@*RESULTS@#A total of 23 patients in the ddPC group and 50 patients in the standard group received a median of 3 cycles of NAC. Rate of grade ≥3 neutropenia was significantly higher in the ddPC group than the standard (82.6% vs. 22.0%, p<0.001). Patients in the ddPC group underwent dose-reduction more frequently (34.8% vs. 4.00%, p=0.001). Normalization of cancer antigen-125 post-NAC occurred more frequently in the ddPC group (73.9% vs. 46.0%, p=0.030). No residual disease rate (43.5% vs. 60.0%, p=0.188) and chemotherapy response score of 3 (34.8% vs. 26.0%, p=0.441) were not statistically different between two groups. There was no statistical difference in progression free survival (PFS) at 2 years (36.3% vs. 28.4%, p=0.454). Cox proportional hazard model showed that ddPC was not a significant determinant of PFS (p=0.816).@*CONCLUSION@#There was no difference between both regimens in terms of NAC response and survival outcomes. However, ddPC group showed higher hematologic toxicity requiring dose reduction.

16.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e48-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834456

ABSTRACT

In 2019, 12 topics were selected as the major research advances in gynecologic oncology. Herein, we first opted to introduce the significant clinical activity of pembrolizumab in women with advanced cervical cancer based on the results of the phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 trial. Thereafter, we reviewed 5 topics, including systemic lymphadenectomy in the advanced stage with no gross residual tumor, secondary cytoreductive surgery in recurrent ovarian cancer according to the results of Gynecologic Oncology Group-213 trial, dose-dense weekly paclitaxel scheduling as first-line chemotherapy, the utility of intraperitoneal therapy in the advanced stage, and an update on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Additionally, we conducted a thorough review of emerging data from several clinical trials on PARP inhibitors according to drug, target population, and combined usage. For uterine corpus cancer, we reviewed adjuvant therapy for high-risk disease and chemotherapy in advanced/recurrent disease. For the field of radiation oncology, we discussed the utility of neoadjuvant chemotherapy added to chemoradiotherapy and the treatment of radiation-induced cystitis using hyperbaric oxygen. Finally, we discussed the use of individualized therapy with humanized monoclonal antibodies (trastuzumab emtansine and sacituzumab govitecan-hziy) and combination therapy (fulvestrant plus alpesilib, fulvestrant plus anastrozole, and ribociclib plus endocrine therapy) for women with advanced breast cancer.

17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1211-1218, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831148

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of sequential 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) after one cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to predict chemotherapy response before interval debulking surgery (IDS) in advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Forty consecutive patients underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT at baseline and after one cycle of NAC. Metabolic responses were assessed by quantitative decrease in the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) with PET/CT. Decreases in SUVmax were compared with cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) level before IDS, response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria before IDS, residual tumor at IDS, and I chemotherapy response score (CRS) at IDS. @*Results@#A 40% cut-off for the decrease in SUVmax provided the best performance to predict CRS 3 (compete or near-complete pathologic response), with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 81.8%, 72.4%, and 72.4%, respectively. According to this 40% cut-off, there were 17 (42.5%) metabolic responders (≥ 40%) and 23 (57.5%) metabolic non-responders (< 40%). Metabolic responders had higher rate of CRS 3 (52.9% vs. 8.7%, p=0.003), CA-125 normalization (< 35 U/mL) before IDS (76.5% vs. 39.1%, p=0.019), and no residual tumor at IDS (70.6% vs. 31.8%, p=0.025) compared with metabolic non-responders. There were significant associations with progression-free survival (p=0.021) between metabolic responders and non-responders, but not overall survival (p=0.335). @*Conclusion@#Early assessment with 18F-FDG-PET/CT after one cycle of NAC can be useful to predic response to chemotherapy before IDS in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer.

18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 284-290, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816707

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated whether adding bevacizumab to current platinum-based chemotherapy could improve clinical outcomes without affecting safety.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with pathologically confirmed ovarian cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) at Yonsei Cancer Hospital. We divided the patients into groups based on the use of bevacizumab for NAC (CP group: carboplatin+paclitaxel vs. BCP group: bevacizumab+carboplatin+paclitaxel) and compared patient characteristics, responses to NAC, and surgical and survival outcomes between the two groups. Overall, 88 patients in the CP group and 16 patients in the BCP group received NAC. The primary endpoint was survival outcomes. Complete resection rate after interval debulking surgery (IDS), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) normalization after NAC, and chemotherapy response score were secondary endpoints.RESULTS: After NAC treatment, all patients underwent IDS. There were no significant differences in adverse events during NAC or postoperative complications between the two groups (p=0.293 and p=0.485, respectively). There were also no significant differences in CA-125 normalization after NAC (42.0% vs. 43.8%, p=0.899) or complete resection rate after IDS (47.7% vs. 56.3%, p=0.530). However, although the BCP group did not show longer overall survival (OS) (log-rank p=0.854), they had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) than the CP group (log-rank p=0.048).CONCLUSION: Bevacizumab-containing NAC might be safe and provide longer PFS than chemotherapy alone in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. However, further study is necessary to investigate the impact of bevacizumab-containing NAC on OS.

19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 914-923, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762041

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Few efforts have been made to integrate a next generation sequencing (NGS) panel into standard clinical treatment of ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical utility of NGS and to identify clinically impactful information beyond targetable alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 84 patients with ovarian cancer who underwent NGS between March 1, 2017, and July 31, 2018, at the Yonsei Cancer Hospital. We extracted DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of ovarian cancer. The TruSight Tumor 170 gene panel was used to prepare libraries, and the MiSeq instrument was used for NGS. RESULTS: Of the 84 patients, 55 (65.1%) had high-grade serous carcinomas. Seventy-three (86.7%) patients underwent NGS at the time of diagnosis, and 11 (13.3%) underwent NGS upon relapse. The most common genetic alterations were in TP53 (64%), PIK3CA (15%), and BRCA1/2 (13%), arising as single nucleotide variants and indels. MYC amplification (27%) was the most common copy number variation and fusion. Fifty-seven (67.9%) patients had more than one actionable alteration other than TP53. Seven (8.3%) cases received matched-target therapy based on the following sequencing results: BRCA1 or 2 mutation, poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor (n=5); PIK3CA mutation, AKT inhibitor (n=1); and MLH1 mutation, PD-1 inhibitor (n=1). Fifty-three (63.0%) patients had a possibility of treatment change, and 8 (9.5%) patients received genetic counseling. CONCLUSION: Implementation of NGS may help in identifying patients who might benefit from targeted treatment therapies and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cancer Care Facilities , Diagnosis , DNA , Genetic Counseling , Ovarian Neoplasms , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1117-1127, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763168

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recurrence and chemoresistance (CR) are the leading causes of death in patients with high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) of the ovary. The aim of this study was to identify genetic changes associated with CR mechanisms using a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model and genetic sequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To generate a CR HGSC PDX tumor, mice bearing subcutaneously implanted HGSC PDX tumors were treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin. We compared gene expression and mutations between chemosensitive (CS) and CR PDX tumors with whole exome and RNA sequencing and selected candidate genes. Correlations between candidate gene expression and clinicopathological variables were explored using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the Human Protein Atlas (THPA). RESULTS: Three CR and four CS HGSC PDX tumor models were successfully established. RNA sequencing analysis of the PDX tumors revealed that 146 genes were significantly up-regulated and 54 genes down-regulated in the CR group compared with the CS group. Whole exome sequencing analysis showed 39 mutation sites were identified which only occurred in CR group. Differential expression of SAP25,HLA-DPA1, AKT3, and PIK3R5 genes and mutation of TMEM205 and POLR2A may have important functions in the progression of ovarian cancer chemoresistance. According to TCGA data analysis, patients with high HLA-DPA1 expression were more resistant to initial chemotherapy (p=0.030; odds ratio, 1.845). CONCLUSION: We successfully established CR ovarian cancer PDX mouse models. PDX-based genetic profiling study could be used to select some candidate genes that could be targeted to overcome chemoresistance of ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Carboplatin , Cause of Death , Drug Therapy , Exome , Gene Expression , Genome , Heterografts , Odds Ratio , Ovarian Neoplasms , Ovary , Paclitaxel , Recurrence , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Statistics as Topic
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