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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924926

ABSTRACT

Background@#We evaluated the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to up-to-date Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS), and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study collected electronic medical record data from patients with T2DM (≥20 years) managed by endocrinologists from 15 hospitals in Korea (January to December 2019). Patients were categorized according to guidelines to assess LDL-C target achievement. KDA (2019): Very High-I (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]) <70 mg/dL; Very High-II (target organ damage [TOD], or cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]) <70 mg/dL; high (others) <100 mg/dL. ESC/EAS (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD): <55 mg/dL; Very High-II (TOD or ≥3-CVRF) <55 mg/dL; high (diabetes ≥10 years without TOD plus any CVRF) <70 mg/dL; moderate (diabetes <10 years without CVRF) <100 mg/dL. ADA (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD); Very High-II (age ≥40+ TOD, or any CVRF), for high intensity statin or statin combined with ezetimibe. @*Results@#Among 2,000 T2DM patients (mean age 62.6 years; male 55.9%; mean glycosylated hemoglobin 7.2%) ASCVD prevalence was 24.7%. Of 1,455 (72.8%) patients treated with statins, 73.9% received monotherapy. According to KDA guidelines, LDL-C target achievement rates were 55.2% in Very High-I and 34.9% in Very High-II patients. With ESC/EAS guidelines, target attainment rates were 26.6% in Very High-I, 15.7% in Very High-II, and 25.9% in high risk patients. Based on ADA guidelines, most patients (78.9%) were very-high risk; however, only 15.5% received high-intensity statin or combination therapy. @*Conclusion@#According to current dyslipidemia management guidelines, LDL-C goal achievement remains suboptimal in Korean patients with T2DM.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918924

ABSTRACT

Stroke is one of the major complications of diabetes and increases morbidity and mortality. Hyperglycemia confers increased risk of stroke occurrence. Furthermore, cardiometabolic risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia frequently coexist in patients with diabetes and increase the risk of stroke. Some recent cardiovascular outcome trials of newer anti-diabetic medications have shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular complications. Prevention and improving outcomes of stroke in patients with diabetes requires proper management of hyperglycemia and additional risk factors. This review is an evidence-based approach to the epidemiology, glycemic control, effects of anti-diabetic medications on stoke, and risk factor management for prevention and improving outcomes of stroke for patients with diabetes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890450

ABSTRACT

Background@#Thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly common worldwide, but little is known about the epidemiology of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). This study investigated the current status of the incidence and treatment of MTC using Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data for the entire Korean population from 2004 to 2016. @*Methods@#This study included 1,790 MTC patients identified from the NHIS database. @*Results@#The age-standardized incidence rate showed a slightly decreasing or stationary trend during the period, from 0.25 per 100,000 persons in 2004 to 0.19 in 2016. The average proportion of MTC among all thyroid cancers was 0.5%. For initial surgical treatment, 65.4% of patients underwent total thyroidectomy. After surgery, external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was performed in 10% of patients, a proportion that increased from 6.7% in 2004 to 11.0% in 2016. Reoperations were performed in 2.7% of patients (n=49) at a median of 1.9 years of follow-up (interquartile range, 1.2 to 3.4). Since November 2015, 25 (1.4%) patients with MTC were prescribed vandetanib by December 2016. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of MTC decreased slightly with time, and the proportion of patients who underwent total thyroidectomy was about 65%. EBRT, reoperation, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are additional treatments after initial surgery for advanced MTC in Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890445

ABSTRACT

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) excess or deficiency. The GH study group of the Korean Endocrine Society aims to establish the Korean reference ranges of serum IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and assess the relationship between IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and clinical parameters. Fasting serum was collected from healthy Korean adults at health promotion centers of five hospitals nationwide. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured via an immunoradiometric assay using a DSL kit (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories). Serum samples from 354 subjects (180 male, 174 female) were analyzed based on sex at 10-year intervals from 21 to 70 years. IGF-I levels were inversely correlated with age. After adjustment of age, the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and free thyroxine and positively associated with weight, hemoglobin, creatinine, alanine transferase, fasting glucose, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Therefore, age- and sex-specific reference ranges of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 can be efficient in evaluating GH excess or deficiency in Korean population.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832372

ABSTRACT

Background@#Big data reports related to diseases and health care for the Korean population have been published since the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) and the Health Insurance Review & Assessment (HIRA) Service provided limited open access to their databases. Here, we reviewed the structure, content, and means of using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers and presented the latest publication trends in Korean healthcare data procured from the NHI and HIRA databases. @*Methods@#Since 2013, researchers have been able to obtain nationwide population-based studies using the NHI and HIRA databases of the insured. We searched publications using the NHI and the HIRA databases between 2013 and 2019 retrieved from PubMed. @*Results@#The NHI and HIRA databases provide nationwide population-based data. The total number of publications from 2014 to 2019 using NHI and HIRA databases is 2,541 and 655, respectively. A total of 5,465 endocrinology-related studies were performed during 2014 to 2019. @*Conclusion@#The NHIS and HIRA databases have provided tools for guidelines to approach world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832357

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has been associated with more severe outcomes and higher mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients compare to morbidity and mortality in patients without diabetes. Several mechanisms may play a role in this greater morbidity and mortality, especially uncontrolled hyperglycemia, an impaired immune system, pre-existing proinflammatory states, multiple comorbidities, and dysregulated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 signaling. Thus, the diabetes medical community emergently needs to know about COVID-19 and its effects on patients with diabetes, as they must take precautions to carefully manage these patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Korean Diabetes Association provides some guidance and practical recommendations for the management of diabetes during the pandemic. This report provides insight into the association between diabetes and COVID-19, proper management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19 and an official suggestion by the Korean Diabetes Association for managing the COVID-19 outbreak.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898154

ABSTRACT

Background@#Thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly common worldwide, but little is known about the epidemiology of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). This study investigated the current status of the incidence and treatment of MTC using Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data for the entire Korean population from 2004 to 2016. @*Methods@#This study included 1,790 MTC patients identified from the NHIS database. @*Results@#The age-standardized incidence rate showed a slightly decreasing or stationary trend during the period, from 0.25 per 100,000 persons in 2004 to 0.19 in 2016. The average proportion of MTC among all thyroid cancers was 0.5%. For initial surgical treatment, 65.4% of patients underwent total thyroidectomy. After surgery, external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was performed in 10% of patients, a proportion that increased from 6.7% in 2004 to 11.0% in 2016. Reoperations were performed in 2.7% of patients (n=49) at a median of 1.9 years of follow-up (interquartile range, 1.2 to 3.4). Since November 2015, 25 (1.4%) patients with MTC were prescribed vandetanib by December 2016. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of MTC decreased slightly with time, and the proportion of patients who underwent total thyroidectomy was about 65%. EBRT, reoperation, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are additional treatments after initial surgery for advanced MTC in Korea.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898149

ABSTRACT

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) excess or deficiency. The GH study group of the Korean Endocrine Society aims to establish the Korean reference ranges of serum IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and assess the relationship between IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and clinical parameters. Fasting serum was collected from healthy Korean adults at health promotion centers of five hospitals nationwide. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured via an immunoradiometric assay using a DSL kit (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories). Serum samples from 354 subjects (180 male, 174 female) were analyzed based on sex at 10-year intervals from 21 to 70 years. IGF-I levels were inversely correlated with age. After adjustment of age, the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was significantly negatively associated with blood pressure and free thyroxine and positively associated with weight, hemoglobin, creatinine, alanine transferase, fasting glucose, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Therefore, age- and sex-specific reference ranges of serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 can be efficient in evaluating GH excess or deficiency in Korean population.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from chromaffin cells. PPGLs are associated with a high mortality rate and several complications. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on PPGLs in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and prognosis of PPGLs in Korea using nationwide data.METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service Database, subjects with a principal diagnosis of PPGLs on two or more occasions between 2003 and 2014 who satisfied the operational definition of PPGLs were included. Incidence, prevalence, complications, metastasis, and mortality were investigated.RESULTS: In total, 1048 subjects with a mean age of 47.6±16.1 years were included. There was no sex preponderance. The overall prevalence of PPGLs was 2.13 per 100,000 persons, and the overall age-standardized incidence rate was 0.18 per 100,000 person-years. Malignant PPGLs accounted for 17.7% (185 of 1,048) of cases, and 94 subjects exhibited metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Among initially non-metastatic PPGLs, 9.5% (nine of 954) eventually metastasized after a mean duration of 78.1±41.4 months. The 5-year survival rates for non-metastatic and metastatic PPGLs at diagnosis were 97% and 84%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for covariates showed that metastatic PPGLs were associated with a 2.40-fold higher risk of mortality than non-metastatic PPGLs (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.17; P=0.002).CONCLUSION: PPGLs are rare in Korea, and the prognosis of these endocrine tumors varies depending on whether they are benign or malignant. This epidemiological study paves the way for further research on PPGLs.


Subject(s)
Asia , Chromaffin Cells , Diagnosis , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , National Health Programs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Prevalence , Prognosis , Survival Rate
14.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 225-232, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786604

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is expected to increase in the geriatric group with increasing incidence of diabetes with aging and improved life expectancy. Therefore, effective and safe treatment of older T2DM patients is becoming more important in clinical practice. The elderly show heterogeneous individual functional status, and some may have physical handicaps, visual defects, cognitive dysfunction, or psychological disorders such as depression. Therefore, individual approaches depending on presence and progression of geriatric syndromes, comorbidities, and risk of hypoglycemia are important in pharmacological treatment of T2DM in older patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Cognition Disorders , Comorbidity , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Incidence , Life Expectancy , Prevalence
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763670

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Korea , Obesity , Overweight
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714109

ABSTRACT

Korea's National Healthcare Program, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), a government-affiliated agency under the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, covers the entire Korean population. The NHIS supervises all medical services in Korea and establishes a systematic National Health Information database (DB). A health information DB system including all of the claims, medications, death information, and health check-ups, both in the general population and in patients with various diseases, is not common worldwide. On June 9, 2014, the NHIS signed a memorandum of understanding with the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) to provide limited open access to its DB. By October 31, 2017, seven papers had been published through this collaborative research project. These studies were conducted to investigate the past and current status of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications and management in Korea. This review is a brief summary of the collaborative projects between the KDA and the NHIS over the last 3 years. According to the analysis, the national health check-up DB or claim DB were used, and the age category or study period were differentially applied.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Delivery of Health Care , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Retinopathy , Humans , Korea , National Health Programs
17.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 169-176, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727032

ABSTRACT

Whereas most people with diabetes mellitus have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, there are other inherited forms of diabetes, including single-gene forms of diabetes and rare genetic syndromes. Monogenic forms of pancreatic beta cell dysfunction include maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and neonatal diabetes, with MODY being the most common form of inherited diabetes. Mitochondrial diabetes and monogenic severe insulin resistance are also inherited forms of diabetes. In addition, more than 100 genetic diseases are known to be associated with diabetes mellitus. Diagnosis of inherited diabetes has important implications for patients, allowing personalized management and screening of their relatives. This review briefly presents genetic diseases associated with diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diagnosis , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Mass Screening
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117331

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems, and has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. According to data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), about 2.7 million Koreans (8.0%) aged 30 years or older had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2013. The prevalence of T2DM increased with age and rose from 5.6% in 2006 to 8.0% in 2013. Using data based on The Health Screening Service of the NHIS, 25% of Korean adults were reported to have prediabetes in 2013. The prevalence of an impaired fasting glucose tended to increase over time from 21.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013. Even though nationwide health screening has been regularly conducted as a public service, the proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes was still reported to be on the higher side in the latest study. Based on the results of these epidemic studies, further actions will be needed to effectively implement lifestyle changes on a social level and increase measures for the early detection of diabetes to stem the tide of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Epidemiology , Fasting , Glucose , Humans , Korea , Life Style , Mass Screening , Mortality , National Health Programs , Prediabetic State , Prevalence , Public Health
19.
Korean Journal of Obesity ; : 184-187, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761680

ABSTRACT

Obesity increases the risk for heart diseases, including cardiovascular disease and heart failure. This is caused by the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, obesity itself is an independent risk factor of heart disease. However, many studies and meta-analyses have shown that higher BMI correlates with better survival among patients with heart disease, known as the obesity paradox. In this review, the complex and disparate effects of obesity on heart disease and the evidence regarding pathophysiologic mechanisms of obesity-related heart disease will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Glucose Intolerance , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Heart , Humans , Hypertension , Obesity , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Factors
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761654

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Vitamin D , Vitamins
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