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1.
Korean Journal of Medical Education ; : 125-141, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977234

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In February 2020, the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Daegu, South Korea, and confirmed cases increased sharply, sparking intense anxiety among residents. This study analyzed the data of a mental health survey on students enrolled at a medical school located in Daegu in 2020. @*Methods@#An online survey was administered to 654 medical school students (pre-medical course: 220 students, medical course: 434 students) from August to October 2020, with 61.16% (n=400) valid responses. The questionnaire included items about COVID-19-related experiences, stress, stress resilience, anxiety, and depression. @*Results@#Of the survey participants, 15.5% had experienced unbearable stress, with the most significant stress factors (in descending order) being limited leisure activities, unusual experiences related to COVID-19, and limited social activities. Approximately 28.8% reported psychological distress, and their most experienced negative emotions were helplessness, depression, and anxiety (in descending order). The mean Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory-II scores were 2.44 and 6.08, respectively, both within normal ranges. Approximately 8.3% had mild or greater anxiety, and 15% had mild or greater depression. For students under psychological distress, the experience of unbearable stress before COVID-19 affected anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 0.198; p<0.05), and having an underlying condition affected depression (OR, 0.190; p<0.05). With respect to their psychological distress during August–October 2020 compared with that during February–March 2020 (2 months from the initial outbreak), anxiety stayed the same while depression increased and resilience decreased at a statistically significant level. @*Conclusion@#It was found that some medical students were suffering from psychological difficulties related to COVID-19, and there were several risk factors for them. This finding suggests that medical schools need to not only develop academic management systems but also provide programs that can help students manage their mental health and emotions in preparation for an infectious disease pandemic.

2.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 105-116, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hair follicles are among a handful of organs that exhibit immune privilege. Dysfunction of the hair follicle immune system underlies the development of inflammatory diseases, such as alopecia areata. @*METHODS@#Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunostaining was used to confirm the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I in human dermal papilla cells. Through transcriptomic analyses of human keratinocyte stem cells, major histocompatibility complex class I was identified as differentially expressed genes. Organ culture and patch assay were performed to assess the ability of WNT3a conditioned media to rescue immune privilege. Lastly, CD8? T cells were detected near the hair bulb in alopecia areata patients through immunohistochemistry. @*RESULTS@#Inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were verified to induce the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in dermal papilla cells. Additionally, loss of immune privilege of hair follicles was rescued following treatment with conditioned media from outer root sheath cells. Transcriptomic analyses found 58 up-regulated genes and 183 down-regulated genes related in MHC class I? cells. Using newborn hair patch assay, we demonstrated that WNT3a conditioned media with epidermal growth factor can restore hair growth. In alopecia areata patients, CD8? T cells were increased during the transition from mid-anagen to late catagen. @*CONCLUSION@#Identification of mechanisms governing epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the hair follicle facilitates an improved understanding of the regulation of hair follicle immune privilege.

3.
Korean Journal of Family Practice ; (6): 10-16, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Terminally ill cancer patients suffer from refractory symptoms, and the last option of treatment is to consider sedatives. However, due to concerns that sedation may shorten survival time, some people prefer not to take sedatives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sedative administration on survival time among terminally ill cancer patients.METHODS: Two hundreds and thirty-seven patients who were hospitalized to the hospice care unit of public hospitals in Seoul from January, 2015 to March, 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. The univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazard regression model was used to determine independent factors related to survival time.RESULTS: The usage of sedation was necessary because the incidence of insomnia was 61.4% in the lorazepam only group, and the incidence of delirium was highest in the haloperidol group and the haloperidol with lorazepam group. Interestingly, multivariate analysis showed that male (HR, 1.766; P < 0.001), decreased consciousness (HR, 1.803; P=0.003), anorexia (HR, 1.506; P=0.012), resting dyspnea (HR, 1.757; P < 0.001), elevated serum bilirubin (HR, 1.657; P=0.001), and the haloperidol with lorazepam group (HR, 0.535, P < 0.001) were each significantly associated with survival time. Furthermore, patients in the haloperidol with lorazepam group survived longer than patients with no such medications.CONCLUSION: There is no evidence that treatment with sedative medication shortens the survival time of patients with terminally ill cancer with refractory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anorexia , Bilirubin , Consciousness , Delirium , Dyspnea , Haloperidol , Hospice Care , Hospices , Hospitals, Public , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Incidence , Lorazepam , Multivariate Analysis , Palliative Care , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Terminally Ill
4.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 427-432, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sonication technique for microbiological diagnosis and the sterility of the recycled autoclaved femoral components from infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a sonication method. METHODS: Nineteen femoral implants explanted from patients with infected TKA were sterilized with a standard autoclave method. Standard culture of the fluid before and after sonication of the sterilized implants was performed to detect pathogenic microorganisms. Additional experiments were performed to evaluate the sterility of the recycled implant by inducing artificial biofilm formation. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was inoculated into 10 implants and sterilization in a standard autoclave was performed, and then the fluid was cultured before and after sonication. RESULTS: Two of the 19 sterilized implants were positive for growth of bacteria after sonication, whereas no growth was detected in the cultured fluid from the sterilized implants before sonication. The bacteria were Staphylococcus species in all two cases. In one of 10 implants inoculated with MRSA, the culture was positive for growth of bacteria both before and after sonication. However, Staphylococcus epidermidis was cultured from both occasions and thus this implant was thought to be contaminated. CONCLUSIONS: We found sonication for identification of pathogens could be helpful, but this finding should be interpreted carefully because of the possibility of contamination. Sterilization of an infected femoral implant with an autoclave method could be a good method for using the temporary articulating antibiotic spacer in two-stage revision arthroplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Bacteria , Biofilms , Diagnosis , Infertility , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Methods , Sonication , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Sterilization
5.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 34-41, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713604

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The South Korean government introduced the universal long-term care insurance program in 2008 that created a new employment category of “paid family-care worker” to assist the elderly with chronic illnesses including dementia. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of paid family-care workers of people with dementia in South Korea. METHODS: The study was a qualitative research design underpinned by interpretive description principles involving eight paid family-care workers. The participants were recruited by attaching the advertisement flyer in a notice board of an educational facility for paid family-care workers. RESULTS: Paid family-care workers struggled to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of their care recipients. Their workloads created physical, emotional, social, and financial burdens. However, the care-giving activities were encouraged through their sense of responsibility, filial piety, and personal religious beliefs. Financial subsidies from the government and help received from others were also identified as encouragements. The education course provided to them assisted them to improve their dementia-care capabilities. CONCLUSION: Understanding paid family-care workers' lived experience in dementia care in South Korea assists with the identification of their educational needs and level of support they require to improve dementia care in the home care environment. A number of suggestions are made to increase paid family-care workers' knowledge, clinical skills, and job satisfaction to reduce their burdens and work-related incidents, such as challenging behaviors from those being cared for.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Chronic Disease , Clinical Competence , Dementia , Education , Employment , Health Personnel , Home Care Services , Insurance, Long-Term Care , Job Satisfaction , Korea , Long-Term Care , Qualitative Research , Religion , Republic of Korea
6.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 854-863, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of cause-and-effect relationship, which used the 7th year data of the Panel Study on Korean Children, to investigate the effects of parenting stress, depression, and family interactions of the parents of early school-age children on children's subjective happiness. METHODS: The present study included data of 1419 pairs of parents who participated in the mother and father survey of the Panel Study on Korean Children. The effects of parenting stress, depression, and parental family interactions on children's subjective happiness were analyzed as actor and partner effects using path analysis. RESULTS: Parenting stress had an actor effect on depression; maternal parenting stress (β=−.21, p < .001) and depression (β=−.30, p < .001) had an actor effect on maternal family interaction; and paternal parenting stress (β=−.18, p < .001) and depression (β=−.17, p < .001) had a partner effect on maternal family interaction. Paternal parenting stress was found to have an actor effect on paternal family interaction (β=−.30, p < .001), and parental depression was found to have actor effect (β=−.23, p < .001) and maternal depression had a partner effect on paternal family interactions (β=−.22, p < .001). Children's subjective happiness was found to have a statistically significant relationship with maternal family interaction (β=.40, p < .001). CONCLUSION: The significance of the study is in its provision of basic data for adjusting parents' family interactions that are closely related to the growth and development of children by confirming the effect of parents' parenting stress, depression, and family interaction on children's subjective happiness.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Fathers , Growth and Development , Happiness , Mothers , Parenting , Parents
7.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 135-141, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174373

ABSTRACT

Propionibacterium acnes, a gram-positive, anaerobic, and aerotolerant bacterium that is found frequently in the skin as part of the human microbiome causes inflammatory acne, shoulder infection, and the contamination of medical devices. The study goals were the antibiotic resistant and molecular epidemiological characterization of the P. acnes isolates in Korea. A total of 22 P. acnes isolates originated from diverse patients were obtained from three National Culture Collections for Pathogens in South Korea. The hemolytic properties and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of five antibiotics (tetracycline, doxycycline, clindamycin, erythromycin, and minocycline) were determined. Only one isolate showed high MIC values and resistance to all five antibiotics. Genotypic characterization was achieved by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for eight loci (aroE, guaA, tly, camp2, atpD, gmk, lepA, and sodA) and repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) analysis using the DiversiLab kit. MLST revealed four phylogroups that were type IA₁ (27.3%), type IA₂ (18.2%), type IB (13.6%), and type II (40.9%). Rep-PCR results demonstrated three clusters that were cluster I (39.1%), cluster II (45.5%), and cluster III (13.6%). The isolates of cluster I were part of phylogroup type IA (both IA₁ and IA₂), and the isolates of cluster II belonged to phylogroup type II. All isolates of phylogroup type IB were hemolytic and belonged to cluster III. The results of rep-PCR clustering analysis showed a good correlation with those of MLST phylogroups, suggesting that rep-PCR could be an alternative method to track P. acnes subtype lineages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acne Vulgaris , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Clindamycin , Doxycycline , Erythromycin , Korea , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microbiota , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Propionibacterium acnes , Propionibacterium , Shoulder , Skin
8.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 364-371, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218811

ABSTRACT

The goal of this research was to determine the relationship between the stage of chronic periodontitis and the presence of six bacterial pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: AA, Fusobacterium nucleatum: FN, Porphyromonas gingivalis: PG, Prevotella intermedia: PI, Enterococcus faecalis: EF, and Parvimonas micra: PM). Forty-six chronic periodontitis patients visiting a dental hospital were included in this investigation. They were classified into four chronic periodontitis stages based on the sulcus bleeding index value and the probing depth. The tissue samples from the periodontal surgery were used for a direct PCR detection assay. A total of 49 samples from 46 patients were collected and classified into four chronic periodontitis groups (N: 6, P1: 13, P2: 18, P3: 12). The PCR assay showed that FN, PI, and PM were involved from the beginning of chronic periodontitis (P1), while AA and PG existed regardless of the disease stages. EF was strongly linked to the P3 stage of the disease. In order to assess the effect of dental treatments on patients with chronic periodontitis, EF should be a critical marker for P3 patients, while FN, PI, and PM would be good indicators for chronic periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chronic Periodontitis , Enterococcus faecalis , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Hemorrhage , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia
9.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 728-732, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35128

ABSTRACT

Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has received considerable attention in recent years as the cause of infections in individuals in the community who do not have traditional risk factors for MRSA infection, such as hospitalization or contact with healthcare services. CA-MRSA strains have different molecular and antimicrobial susceptibilities, as compared to hospital-associated MRSA. Although CA-MRSA strains are primarily associated with skin and soft tissue infections, they can cause more invasive infections, such as severe community-acquired pneumonia. Reports on CA-MRSA pneumonia in Korea are sparse. Therefore, we report a case of CA-MRSA pneumonia with molecular typing of the MRSA isolate.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Delivery of Health Care , Hospitalization , Korea , Methicillin Resistance , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Molecular Typing , Pneumonia , Risk Factors , Skin , Soft Tissue Infections
10.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 186-194, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68536

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the major food borne pathogens. Utilizing lytic bacteriophages against this pathogen can be a new and effective approach for the prevention of food-contamination and food-borne infection. In this study, we isolated and characterized a Salmonella Enteritidis specific lytic bacteriophage (phage SE2). The bacteriolytic activity of planktonic and biofilmed cells against an antibiotic resistant strain of Salmonella Enteritidis was also evaluated. Phage SE2 revealed an efficient bacteriolytic effect with biofilm dispersing ability and could maintain its virulence even at extreme pH and temperature. It can be a potential biotherapeutic agent against Salmonella Enteritidis.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , Biofilms , Drug Resistance , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Plankton , Salmonella , Salmonella enterica , Salmonella enteritidis , Sprains and Strains
11.
Korean Journal of Schizophrenia Research ; : 62-68, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate continuously on how a short-term family psychoeducation program for schizophrenia would change the emotional stress and the knowledge of the family members. METHODS: Subjects were the family members who participated in the short-term family psychoeducation program for schizophrenia. The participants were asked to fill out self-reporting forms for 3 times-before commencing the 6-week family education, immediately after completing the program, and 3 months after completing the program respectively. RESULTS: A total of 46 subjects participated, and 20 of them responded to all questionnaires. Three months after the completion of psychoeducation, depression and anxiety subscale score among the General Health Questionnaire-28 decreased by 2.60 (p=0.04) and 2.20 (p=0.04) respectively. In caregiver burden criterion, the score decreased by 9.45 (p=0.04) in 3 months after completing the education. In knowledge about schizophrenia test, the score increased by 2.60 score (p<0.001), and this result was maintained after 3 months. CONCLUSION: It was found that a short-term family education program for schizophrenia was effective not only in improving the knowledge on the disease but also in reducing anxiety and depression, and this effect was maintained immediately after the psychoeducation and so was it as time passed as well.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Caregivers , Depression , Education , Surveys and Questionnaires , Schizophrenia , Stress, Psychological
12.
Archives of Plastic Surgery ; : 435-437, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47759

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.

13.
Archives of Plastic Surgery ; : 528-533, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue are useful for reconstruction of the chest wall, and abdominal, vaginal, and perianal defects. Thus, preoperative evaluation of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue is important. This is a retrospective study that measured the thickness of rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue using computed tomography (CT) and analyzed the correlation with the patients' age, gestational history, history of laparotomy, and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A total of 545 adult women were studied. Rectus abdominis muscle and abdominal subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured with abdominopelvic CT. The results were analyzed to determine if the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle or subcutaneous fat tissue was significantly correlated with age, number of pregnancies, history of laparotomy, and BMI. RESULTS: Rectus abdominis muscle thicknesses were 9.58 mm (right) and 9.73 mm (left) at the xiphoid level and 10.26 mm (right) and 10.26 mm (left) at the umbilicus level. Subcutaneous fat thicknesses were 24.31 mm (right) and 23.39 mm (left). Rectus abdominismuscle thickness decreased with age and pregnancy. History of laparotomy had a significant negative correlation with rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the xiphoid level. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness had no correlation with age, number of pregnancies, or history of laparotomy. CONCLUSIONS: Age, gestational history, and history of laparotomy influenced rectus abdominis muscle thickness but did not influence abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness. These results are clinically valuable for planning a rectus abdominis muscle flap and safe elevation of muscle flap.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Body Mass Index , Gestational Age , Laparotomy , Muscles , Rectus Abdominis , Retrospective Studies , Subcutaneous Fat , Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal , Thoracic Wall , Umbilicus
14.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 173-182, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166179

ABSTRACT

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes: qnr, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA were investigated among 153 armA and 51 rmtB-positive transconjugants and their 204 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, qnrB4 and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were identified in 52.3% (63 K. pneumoniae, 10 E. coli, 4 E. cloacae, and 3 E. aerogenes) and 24.8% (16 K. pneumoniae, 8 E. coli, 6 S. marcescens, 4 E. cloacae, 3 C. freundii and 1 K. oxytoca) of 153 armA-positive isolates, respectively. Four isolates of K. pneumoniae and two isolates of E. coli positive for armA co-harbored both qnrB4 and aac(6')-Ib-cr. The qepA gene was detected in 11.8% (5 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae) of 51 rmtB-positive clinical isolates and their transconjugants. Southern hybridization confirmed the co-localization of qepA and rmtB on a large conjugative plasmid of size between 90 to 170 kb. Inc replicon typing showed that qnrB4/6, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA genes were principally disseminated by IncFIIAs, IncL/M, and IncF plasmids, respectively. This study constitutes the first report of the three known PMQR genes among the 16S rRNA methylase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates of human origin from Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chimera , Cloaca , Enterobacteriaceae , Korea , Methyltransferases , Plasmids , Pneumonia , Replicon
15.
The Korean Journal of Nutrition ; : 505-515, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-652177

ABSTRACT

Collagen is the major matrix protein in dermis and consists of proline and lysine, which are hydroxylated by prolyl hydroxylase (PH) and lysyl hydroxylase (LH) with cofactors such as vitamin C, oxygen, iron (Fe2+), ketoglutarate and silicon. The collagen degradation is regulated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), of which is the major collagen-degrading proteinase whereas tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) bind to MMP-1 thereby inhibiting MMP-1 activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, silicon and iron on mRNA, protein expressions of PH, LH, MMP-1 and TIMP-1. The physiological concentrations of vitamin C (0-100 micrometer), silicon (0-50 micrometer) and iron (Fe2+:0-50 micrometer) were treated to human dermal fibroblast cells (HS27 cells) for 3 or 5days. The expression level of mRNA and protein was increased in not only PH but also LH when cells were incubated with vitamin C. A similar increase in LH mRNA or protein expression occurred when cells were incubated with silicon. Our results suggest that treatment of vitamin C and silicon increased mRNA and protein expression of PH and LH in human dermal fibroblast.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascorbic Acid , Collagen , Dermis , Fibroblasts , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Iron , Lysine , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 , Oxygen , Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase , Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase , Proline , RNA, Messenger , Silicon , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Vitamins
16.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 19-27, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43955

ABSTRACT

A total of 58 vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) was isolated from 3 hospitals located in Daegu, Korea. The VREF isolates were evaluated for the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and resistance determinants against vancomcin, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. The multilocus sequence types (MLST) were determined to characterize the clonal diversity of the VREF isolates. The VREF isolates were highly resistance to teicoplanin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and streptomycin, whereas quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid were the most susceptible drugs. All isolates carried the vanA gene. The aac6'-aph2" (n=53) and aadE (n=27) genes were detected in the high-level aminoglycoside resistant (HLAR) isolates. The aac6'-aph2" gene was located in the conjugally transferable plasmids. The ermB and ermA genes were detected in the 54 and 3 VREF isolates, respectively. The VREF isolates showed 11 different sequence types (ST). The VREF isolates belonging to ST192 was the most prevalent (n=19), but detected in one hospital, whereas the isolates belonging to ST203 (n=11) were detected in 3 hospitals. These results suggest that the VREF isolates resistant to aminoglycosides and erythromycin are originated from different clones and specific VREF clones are spread in the study hospitals.


Subject(s)
Acetamides , Aminoglycosides , Ciprofloxacin , Clone Cells , Enterococcus , Enterococcus faecium , Erythromycin , Gentamicins , Korea , Linezolid , Macrolides , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Oxazolidinones , Plasmids , Streptomycin , Teicoplanin , Virginiamycin
17.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 79-89, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-148593

ABSTRACT

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multi-drug resistant pathogen that has been isolated with increasing frequency from the hospitalized patients. A total of 202 S. maltophilia was isolated from three university hospitals and analysed by molecular typing for an epidemiologic investigation. All isolates were tested by antimicrobial susceptibility, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The RAPD and PFGE patterns were recorded and analysed by the unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic average method. Two or more isolates were considered to be clonally related if their PFGE pattern exhibited > or =80% similarity. Trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin were the most active antimicrobial agents tested. The majority of the isolates found to be genetically unrelated by PFGE. The genetically related isolates were recovered from the same patient. The result demonstrates a high genetic diversity of S. maltophilia isolates from clinical specimens. The clonal diversity of S. maltophilia from the hospitalized patients is partly due to the strains originated from the hospital environments, but not horizontal transfer between the patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents , Ciprofloxacin , DNA , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genetic Variation , Hospitals, University , Molecular Typing , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Stenotrophomonas , Sulfamethoxazole
18.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 133-139, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118405

ABSTRACT

The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance among the pathogenic and commensal Enterobacteriaceae are of great concern worldwide. We characterized the antimicrobial resistance and integrons found in commensal Escherichia coli from healthy humans in the community. Class 1 integrase (intl1) and class 2 integrase (intl2) genes were identified in 22 (13.3%) and 2 (1.2%) of 165 E. coli isolates, respectively. dfrA17-aadA5 and dfrA1-aadA2 were the most common class 1 integrons. The prevalence of each type of class 1 integron among commensal E. coli isolates during 2001~2003 was similar to that of clinical E. coli isolates from hospital-acquired infections during 1994~1999. The resistant rates of commensal E. coli isolates carrying intl1 to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline were significantly higher than those of intl1-negative E. coli isolates (p<0.05). Integrons were directly associated with multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli isolates. It is hypothesized that multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from hospital-acquired infections are a potential reservoir for integrons associated with resistance genes found in commensal E. coli isolates in the community


Subject(s)
Humans , Ampicillin , Chloramphenicol , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Gentamicins , Integrases , Integrons , Prevalence , Streptomycin , Sulfamethoxazole , Tetracycline , Trimethoprim
19.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 41-49, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49012

ABSTRACT

Shigellosis is an acute diarrheal disease caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella. Following the occurrence of a large outbreak of shigellosis as well as sporadic cases since 1998, shigellosis has been a major health problem in Korea. There have been major changes in epidemiology during the last five decades concerning shigellosis in terms of total incidence of shigellosis, prevalence of certain serogroups, selection of specific clones, and introduction of new Shigella clones. S. dysenteriae was the most prevalent species until the early twentieth century, S. flexneri was the most prevalent until the late 1980s, and S. sonnei has been the most prevalent since 1990. Diverse serotypes of S. dysenteriae (4 serotypes), S. flexneri (8 serotypes), and S. boydii (4 serotypes) were found during the Korean War and many of these Korean endemic Shigella strains circulated in the community until the late 1970s. However, the endemic strains of S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, and S. sonnei disappeared in the late 1980s. A new clone of S. sonnei that was introduced between the late 1980s and the early 1990s was responsible for a large proportion of shigellosis in recent years. S. flexneri serotype 4a was the most frequently found during the Korean War and then the incidence of S. flexneri 2a gradually increased with time. S. flexneri isolates detected from 1991 to 1997 were all serotype 2a. However, the diverse clones of S. flexneri reemerged in Korea since 1999. It has not been determined whether the S. flexneri strains from the 2000s were the descendants of the Korean endemic strains or imported new strains, but the PFGE patterns were different between S. flexneri strains from the 1980s and 2000s. The widespread of new S. sonnei strains and the persistence of S. flexneri strains are responsible for the endemicity of shigellosis in Korea.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Clone Cells , Dysentery, Bacillary , Epidemiology , Incidence , Korea , Korean War , Prevalence , Shigella
20.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 95-99, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181110

ABSTRACT

Ceramides are the main lipids in the stratum corneum and are generated during cellular stress and apoptosis by de novo synthesis or by the action of sphingomyelinase. In addition, they are lipid second messengers produced by sphingolipid metabolism and trigger important cell responses, including protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) activation and the stimulation of signal transduction pathways with apoptosis and stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK), such as c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Thus, ceramides have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. This study measured the changes in the levels of epidermal ceramides and ceramide-related apoptotic signaling molecules in psoriasis patients. Samples from lesional and non-lesional epidermis were obtained from psoriasis patients. Total ceramides were fractionated using thin-layer chromatography, and the levels of PKC-alpha and JNK expression were measured using Western blot analysis with specific antibodies. The ceramide level was reduced significantly, and this was associated with the downregulation of apoptotic signaling molecules, such as PKC-alpha and JNK, in the lesional epidermis of psoriasis patients. These results suggest that the decreased level of ceramides downregulates the apoptotic pathway, leading to epidermal proliferation in psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Apoptosis/physiology , Blotting, Western , Ceramides/metabolism , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Epidermis/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Protein Kinase C-alpha/metabolism , Psoriasis/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/physiology
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