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1.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 768-776, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001833

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To determine the clinical outcomes after exchange of diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) with monofocal IOLs for patients who complained of dysphotopsia after cataract surgery. @*Methods@#We exchanged the IOLs of patients who visited our clinic complaining that dysphotopsia had not improved after they underwent phacoemulsification and diffractive multifocal IOL implants in local eye clinics. We evaluated the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) before and after operation, the type of preoperative dysphotopsia, postoperative dysphotopsia status, patient satisfaction, and all complications. @*Results@#We enrolled 35 eyes of 27 patients and observed them for 5.7 ± 3.6 months. After 1 month, the CDVA significantly (p < 0.001) improved from 0.131 ± 0.131 logarithm of the minimal angle resolution (logMAR) preoperatively to 0.0328 ± 0.0900 logMAR postoperatively. Patient satisfaction graded on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (excellent) significantly (p < 0.001) increased from 1.17 ± 0.382 preoperatively to 4.09 ± 0.818 postoperatively. No vision-threatening complications developed. Postoperative cystoid macular edema developed in one eye but resolved after intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genetech, Inc, San Francisco, CA, USA) injections. @*Conclusions@#IOL exchange surgery relatively safely improves the vision of patients suffering from dysphotopsia attributable to the characteristics of diffractive multifocal IOLs.

2.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 694-699, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001765

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To compare the refractive outcomes of closed C-loop and C-loop intraocular lenses (IOLs) following phacovitrectomy with gas tamponade. @*Methods@#Medical records of 42 patients (43 eyes) who underwent phacovitrectomy with gas tamponade for idiopathic macular holes between January 2021 and June 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. Closed C-loop (26 eyes; Eyelike K-flex Aspheric®, Koryo Eyetech, Seoul, Korea) and C-loop (17 eyes; Tecnis® ZCB00, Johnson & Johnson Vision, Santa Ana, CA, USA) IOLs were surgically implanted. The main outcome measures were postoperative prediction error and absolute error. @*Results@#There was no significant difference in mean absolute error at 5 months postoperatively (0.34 ± 0.24 diopters [D] and 0.30 ± 0.25 D in the closed C-loop and C-loop IOL groups, respectively; p = 0.502). The mean prediction error at 5 months postoperatively also showed no significant difference between the groups (-0.28 ± 0.30 D and -0.16 ± 0.36 D, respectively; p = 0.242). Myopic shift was observed in both groups. @*Conclusions@#There was no significant difference in refractive outcomes between closed C-loop IOLs and C-loop IOLs. A myopic shift was observed in both groups; this should be taken into consideration when calculating IOL power following phacovitrectomy with gas tamponade.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e301-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001246

ABSTRACT

Background@#Tuberculosis (TB) exposure in congregate settings related to neonates is a serious medical and social issue. TB exposure happens during the neonatal period, but contact investigations for exposed infants are usually conducted after the neonatal period.Generally, recommendations for screening and managing close contact are different for neonates and children. Thus, there are challenges in contact investigations. We aimed to report contact investigations with a single tuberculin skin test (TST) on infants exposed to infectious TB in a postpartum care center. @*Methods@#The index case was a healthcare worker with active pulmonary TB: sputum acidfast bacilli smear negative, culture positive, and no cavitary lesion. All exposed infants underwent medical examinations and chest X-ray. After TB disease was ruled out, contacts received window period prophylaxis with isoniazid (INH) until three months after the last exposure. TST was performed only once after completing the prophylaxis. @*Results@#A total of 288 infants were selected as high-priority contacts. At the initial contact investigation, the age of infants ranged from 8 to 114 days. None of these exposed infants had TB disease. The prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) was 25.3% (73/288; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.7–30.7). There were no serious adverse events related to the window period prophylaxis or LTBI treatment with INH. During the 1-year follow-up period, no infants progressed to overt TB disease. The size of TST induration in infants vaccinated with percutaneous Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was significantly larger than that of infants vaccinated with intradermal BCG vaccine (median, 8 mm vs. 5 mm; P = 0.002). In multiple logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with TST positivity (≥ 10 mm induration) were male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.98; 95% CI, 1.6–5.64), percutaneous BCG vaccination (aOR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.75–6.48), TST reading between 60 and 72 hours after injecting purified protein derivative (aOR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.53–5.49), and INH prophylaxis more than four weeks (aOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.94). @*Conclusion@#A single TST at three months after the last TB exposure with INH prophylaxis could be used as a main protocol in contact investigations for infants exposed to infectious TB during the neonatal period in congregate settings in Korea.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 338-346, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000315

ABSTRACT

Background@#To determine whether baseline thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) bioassay or its early response upon treatment with an anti-thyroid drug (ATD) can predict prognosis of Graves’ disease (GD) in real-world practice. @*Methods@#This retrospective study enrolled GD patients who had previous ATD treatment with TSI bioassay checked at baseline and at follow-up from April 2010 to November 2019 in one referral hospital. The study population were divided into two groups: patients who experienced relapse or continued ATD (relapse/persistence), and patients who experienced no relapse after ATD discontinuation (remission). The slope and area under the curve at 1st year (AUC1yr) of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies including TSI bioassay and thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) were calculated as differences between baseline and second values divided by time duration (year). @*Results@#Among enrolled 156 study subjects, 74 (47.4%) had relapse/persistence. Baseline TSI bioassay values did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, the relapse/persistence group showed less decremental TSI bioassay in response to ATD than the remission group (–84.7 [TSI slope, –198.2 to 8.2] vs. –120.1 [TSI slope, –204.4 to –45.9], P=0.026), whereas the TBII slope was not significantly different between the two groups. The relapse/persistence group showed higher AUC1yr of TSI bioassay and TBII in the 1st year during ATD treatment than the remission group (AUC1yr for TSI bioassay, P=0.0125; AUC1yr for TBII, P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#Early changes in TSI bioassay can better predict prognosis of GD than TBII. Measurement of TSI bioassay at beginning and follow-up could help predict GD prognosis.

5.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 158-167, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977212

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to improve the clinical course of patients through rapid response by analyzing the characteristics of critically ill patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Busan between December 1, 2020, and December 31, 2021. @*Methods@#We divided patients diagnosed with COVID-19 into mild-to-moderate and critical groups based on their clinical severity. The critically ill patients were further sub-divided into delta and delta variant non-epidemic group. @*Results@#The following factors were significantly more frequent in critically ill patients than in patients with mild-tomoderate symptoms: male sex, age ≥60 years, symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and those with underlying diseases. The following factors were significantly more common in the non-delta variant epidemic group than in the delta variant epidemic group in critically ill patients: male sex, age ≥60 years, underlying diseases, and not being vaccinated. In the delta variant epidemic group, the duration between confirmation of disease and its progression to critically ill status was significantly shorter than that in the non-delta variant epidemic group. @*Conclusion@#COVID-19 is characterized by the emergence of new variants and repeated epidemics. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the characteristics of critically ill patients to efficiently distribute and manage medical resources.

6.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 24-28, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913902

ABSTRACT

Although nivolumab shows survival benefits for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), predictive biomarkers for nivolumab treatment in AGC remain unclear, especially in the case of peritoneal metastases. This study investigated the clinical significance of the prognostic nutrition index (PNI), reflecting the host nutritional status and immunity, in AGC patients undergoing nivolumab monotherapy. This study retrospectively analyzed 53 AGC patients who received nivolumab between October 2017 and February 2021. Among them, 35 patients with peritoneal metastases were reviewed to investigate the relationship between the PNI and oncological outcomes. The PNI was calculated as 10×serum albumin level (g/dl)+0.005×total lymphocyte count (per mm3 ) at the first administration of nivolumab. With a median follow-up duration of 2.0 (0.3-13.5) months, the median overall survival (OS) was 2.0 months. The overall response and disease-control rates were 0.0% and 20.0%, respectively. Among the 35 patients, 13 patients were identified as a high-PNI group. In the univariate analysis, the high-PNI group showed a significantly longer PFS and OS than the low-PNI group. In the multivariate analysis, the high-PNI was independently associated with a longer PFS (p=0.021) and OS (p=0.022). The PNI can be useful for predicting PFS and OS in AGC patients with peritoneal metastases. However, further studies are required to validate these results in AGC and new strategies are needed to improve the outcome for AGC patients with peritoneal metastases.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 53-62, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919205

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) have low levels of branchedchain amino acids (BCAAs). There is accumulating evidence that BCAAs have anti- fibrotic effects in cirrhosis. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of BCAAs on the function and phenotype of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). @*Methods@#LX-2, an immortalized human stellate cell line, was used in in vitro experiments. LX-2 cells were exposed to transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and BCAAs or to valine, leucine, and isoleucine, which are components of BCAAs. Activation of the TGF-β signaling pathway in LX-2 cells was observed using real- time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. @*Results@#The increased expression of snail family transcriptional repressor 1 (SNAI1) was observed in LX-2 cells activated by TGF-β1. After BCAA treatment, its expression was significantly decreased at the mRNA level. The increased expression of Col1α1 and TIMP2 at the mRNA level and alpha smooth muscle actin at the protein level in activated LX-2 cells decreased after BCAA treatment. Among the BCAA components, leucine and valine significantly abrogated TGF-β-induced activation of LX-2 cells. BCAA treatment led to the decreased phosphorylation of Smad2 and p38 proteins, which are markers for Smad and Smad-independent p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, respectively. @*Conclusions@#BCAA treatment can improve hepatic fibrosis by directly affecting the activated state of hepatic stellate cells through inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Among BCAA components, leucine and valine mainly abrogated TGF-β-induced activation of HSCs. Our results suggest that BCAA may be used to attenuate the progression of liver fibrosis.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e133-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925957

ABSTRACT

Background@#The potential for a nosocomial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a fully vaccinated individual is largely unknown. @*Methods@#In October 2021, during the time when the delta variant was dominant, a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in two wards in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. We performed airflow investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the virus. @*Results@#The index patient developed symptoms 1 day after admission, and was diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 4 post-admission. He was fully vaccinated (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) 2 months before the diagnosis. Three inpatients and a caregiver in the same room, two inpatients in an adjacent room, two inpatients in rooms remote from the index room, and one nurse on the ward tested positive. Also, two resident doctors who stayed in an on-call room located on the same ward tested positive (although they had no close contact), as well as a caregiver who stayed on an adjacent ward, and a healthcare worker who had casual contact with this caregiver. Samples from five individuals were available for WGS, and all showed ≤ 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism difference. CCTV footage showed that the index case walked frequently in the corridors of two wards. An airflow study showed that the air from the corridor flowed into the resident on-call room, driven by an air circulator that was always turned on. @*Conclusion@#Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a fully vaccinated index occurred rapidly via the wards and on-call room. Care must be taken to not use equipment that can change the airflow.

9.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e296-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915449

ABSTRACT

Creation of guidelines and education on digital professionalism have been sluggish despite the ever-increasing use of social media by digitally native medical students, who are at risk of blurring the line between their professional and personal lives online. A qualitative thematic analysis was applied on 79 videos extracted from 70,154 YouTube videos uploaded by Korean medical students between March and April 2020. We found 20% contained at least one concerning behavior themed under ‘failure to engage,’ ‘disrespectful behaviors,’ or ‘poor selfawareness.’ Professional lapses identified were classified into seriousness levels. Mostly were “controversial’ or ‘concerning’ but some ‘highly concerning’ contents were also found. This is the first study on digital professionalism behavior on medical students' YouTube videos. The potential negative impact on the medical profession of the easily accessible public online videos cannot be ignored and thus we suggest the need for them to be taken more seriously.

10.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 332-341, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898602

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks occur in hospitals in many parts of the world. In hospital settings, the possibility of airborne transmission needs to be investigated thoroughly. @*Materials and Methods@#There was a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in a hematologic ward in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea. We found 11 patients and guardians with COVID-19 through vigorous contact tracing and closed-circuit television monitoring. We found one patient who probably had acquired COVID-19 through airborne-transmission. We performed airflow investigation with simulation software, whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Results@#Of the nine individuals with COVID-19 who had been in the hematologic ward, six stayed in one multi-patient room (Room 36), and other three stayed in different rooms (Room 1, 34, 35). Guardian in room 35 was close contact to cases in room 36, and patient in room 34 used the shared bathroom for teeth brushing 40 minutes after index used.Airflow simulation revealed that air was spread from the bathroom to the adjacent room 1 while patient in room 1 did not used the shared bathroom. Airflow was associated with poor ventilation in shared bathroom due to dysfunctioning air-exhaust, grill on the door of shared bathroom and the unintended negative pressure of adjacent room. @*Conclusion@#Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hematologic ward occurred rapidly in the multi-patient room and shared bathroom settings. In addition, there was a case of possible airborne transmission due to unexpected airflow.

11.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 268-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889608

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 100 million confirmed cases of human infectious disease (COVID-19) since December 2019 to paralyze our global community. However, only limited access has been allowed to COVID-19 vaccines and antiviral treatment options. Here, we report the efficacy of the anticancer drug pralatrexate against SARS-CoV-2. In Vero and human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells, pralatrexate reduced viral RNA copies of SARS-CoV-2 without detectable cytotoxicity, and viral replication was successfully inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. In a time-to-addition assay, pralatrexate treatment at almost half a day after infection also exhibited inhibitory effects on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Calu-3 cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of pralatrexate as a drug repurposing COVID-19 remedy.

12.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 516-523, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901010

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To observe if obesity is a representative risk factor for vision-threatening proliferative diabetes retinopathy and end stage renal disease, which are major chronic microvascular complications in Korean Type 2 diabetes patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective data analysis was conducted on 2,524,431 adults over the age of 30 years diagnosed with type 2 diabetes using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening database from January 2009 to December 2012. The association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference with the occurrence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy and end-stage renal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed. @*Results@#Multivariable Cox regression analysis was carried out on the potential risk factors related to microvascular complications, including vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy and end-stage renal disease. BMI and microvascular complications showed a reverse linear relationship, but a larger waist circumference was associated with a greater risk of microvascular complications (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.049, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.021-1.078; IRR = 1.087, 95% CI = 1.05-1.125, and IRR = 1.234, 95% CI = 1.182-1.289) after adjusting other risk factors. @*Conclusions@#In our study, the results showed that type 2 diabetic patients with a larger waist circumference were at greater risk for microvascular complications. Thus, in addition to the BMI, the waist circumference should be used as the obesity parameter in microvascular complication risk assessment among type 2 diabetic patients.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e233-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899880

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

14.
Child Health Nursing Research ; : 256-265, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913859

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study presents a translation, cultural adaptation, and psychometric evaluation of two instruments of the Fertility Awareness and Attitudes Towards Parenthood (FAAP) questionnaire (Conditions and Life changes) for use in South Korea. @*Methods@#This methodological study included 166 university students for psychometric evaluation in the sixth step. The first five steps included forward translation, backward translation, committee review, assessment of content validity, and a pre-test. In the sixth step, psychometric properties, including internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion validity, were evaluated. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to identify the structure of the tool and to assess its validity. @*Results@#The Korean version showed acceptable internal consistency. Cronbach's ⍺ was .73 for FAAPC-conditions and .83 for FAAP-Life changes. FAAP-Conditions showed a four-factor structure (social conditions, relationship with partner, external environment, and child-rearing support) and FAAP-Life changes had a two-factor structure (reward and burden). In the confirmatory analysis, CMIN/DF, TLI, IFI, SRMR, CFI, and RMSEA were satisfactory. @*Conclusion@#This study provided preliminary evidence of the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the Korean version of the FAAP questionnaire in university students in South Korea. Nonetheless, further evaluation among Korean young adults is warranted to validate this instrument.

15.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 268-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897312

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 100 million confirmed cases of human infectious disease (COVID-19) since December 2019 to paralyze our global community. However, only limited access has been allowed to COVID-19 vaccines and antiviral treatment options. Here, we report the efficacy of the anticancer drug pralatrexate against SARS-CoV-2. In Vero and human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells, pralatrexate reduced viral RNA copies of SARS-CoV-2 without detectable cytotoxicity, and viral replication was successfully inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. In a time-to-addition assay, pralatrexate treatment at almost half a day after infection also exhibited inhibitory effects on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Calu-3 cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of pralatrexate as a drug repurposing COVID-19 remedy.

16.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 516-523, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893306

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To observe if obesity is a representative risk factor for vision-threatening proliferative diabetes retinopathy and end stage renal disease, which are major chronic microvascular complications in Korean Type 2 diabetes patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective data analysis was conducted on 2,524,431 adults over the age of 30 years diagnosed with type 2 diabetes using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening database from January 2009 to December 2012. The association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference with the occurrence of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy and end-stage renal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed. @*Results@#Multivariable Cox regression analysis was carried out on the potential risk factors related to microvascular complications, including vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy and end-stage renal disease. BMI and microvascular complications showed a reverse linear relationship, but a larger waist circumference was associated with a greater risk of microvascular complications (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.049, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.021-1.078; IRR = 1.087, 95% CI = 1.05-1.125, and IRR = 1.234, 95% CI = 1.182-1.289) after adjusting other risk factors. @*Conclusions@#In our study, the results showed that type 2 diabetic patients with a larger waist circumference were at greater risk for microvascular complications. Thus, in addition to the BMI, the waist circumference should be used as the obesity parameter in microvascular complication risk assessment among type 2 diabetic patients.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e233-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892176

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

18.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 332-341, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890898

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks occur in hospitals in many parts of the world. In hospital settings, the possibility of airborne transmission needs to be investigated thoroughly. @*Materials and Methods@#There was a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in a hematologic ward in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea. We found 11 patients and guardians with COVID-19 through vigorous contact tracing and closed-circuit television monitoring. We found one patient who probably had acquired COVID-19 through airborne-transmission. We performed airflow investigation with simulation software, whole-genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Results@#Of the nine individuals with COVID-19 who had been in the hematologic ward, six stayed in one multi-patient room (Room 36), and other three stayed in different rooms (Room 1, 34, 35). Guardian in room 35 was close contact to cases in room 36, and patient in room 34 used the shared bathroom for teeth brushing 40 minutes after index used.Airflow simulation revealed that air was spread from the bathroom to the adjacent room 1 while patient in room 1 did not used the shared bathroom. Airflow was associated with poor ventilation in shared bathroom due to dysfunctioning air-exhaust, grill on the door of shared bathroom and the unintended negative pressure of adjacent room. @*Conclusion@#Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the hematologic ward occurred rapidly in the multi-patient room and shared bathroom settings. In addition, there was a case of possible airborne transmission due to unexpected airflow.

19.
Child Health Nursing Research ; : 43-55, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874377

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was (a) to synthesize studies of condom use among South Korean college students, and (b) to appraise the quality of each article using Gough's weight of evidence. @*Methods@#Studies published in English and Korean were searched in electronic databases using the terms "student or college student or university student or undergraduate", "condom", and "Korea*". @*Results@#Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria, showed appropriate quality, and were therefore selected for review. The variables related to condom use were measured in terms of condom-related factors, factors related to non-condom-related knowledge and attitudes, and other factors. Knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy were associated with condom use, and there were differences in condom-related factors among men and women. @*Conclusion@#Based on these findings, it was confirmed that sexual education is needed for both men and women to promote condom use. Education on condom use should not only focus directly on condoms, but should also address other aspects of knowledge and attitudes to influence health beliefs. In addition, developing educational programs targeting adolescents and parents will have a positive effect on college students' condom use.

20.
Child Health Nursing Research ; : 65-74, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874375

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to gain insights into empathy, cyberbullying, and cybervictimization among Filipino adolescents. @*Methods@#The participants were 168 junior high school students in the 7th to 10th grades at a public high school in Cavite Province, Philippines. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, the Basic Empathy Scale, and Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory-II scores. The data were analyzed in SPSS using descriptive statistics (frequency and mean), the independent t-test, bivariate correlation, and one-way analysis of variance. @*Results@#The degree of empathy did not show a statistically significant relationship with cyberbullying (r=-.07, p=.359) but did show a significant relationship with cybervictimization (r=.18, p=.025). Furthermore, cyberbullying had a statistically significant association with cybervictimization (r=.60, p<.001). @*Conclusion@#Although empathy does not necessarily affect cyberbullying, higher levels of empathy were found among cyberbullying victims. However, an alarming result of this study is the possibility that victims may become cyberbullies. Therefore, we should highlight empathy as part of efforts to prevent cyberbullying and to solve various cyber-related problems. Since cyberbullying and cybervictimization are closely related, it is important to focus on this relationship and to make multilateral efforts to ensure that cyberbullying does not lead to other negative issues.

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