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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925893

ABSTRACT

Background@#Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure provides personal support to people living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWH). In addition, it has important implications for disease prevention and treatment. Research on disclosure has been conducted worldwide; however, data from South Korea are insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine whether certain demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors act as predictors of HIV serostatus non-disclosure among PLWH in South Korea. @*Methods@#Participants consisted of 147 PLWH who visited the outpatient infection clinic between June 2020 and January 2021. Demographics, medical factors, HIV-related stigma, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured. @*Results@#The overall disclosure rate among participants was 61.2%. Logistic regression analysis showed that lower depression (odds ratio [OR], 0.918; P = 0.021) and higher disclosure concerns (OR, 1.133; P = 0.004) were significant predictors of non-disclosure. Further, married state was a major predictor of non-disclosure when single referred (OR, 3.002; P = 0.024); however, divorce, separation, and widowed status had no significant consequences. @*Conclusion@#In South Korea, the rate of HIV disclosure is lower than in other countries.The higher disclosure concerns, lower depression and married state were suggested to be important predictors of HIV non-disclosure. High level of perceived stigma and experienced discrimination of PLWH may have affected the results. The social atmosphere linking sexual promiscuity and disease may also have influenced these results. Nationwide efforts should continue to reduce the overall stigma and create a social environment where PLWH can feel safe to disclose their disease conditions.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836418

ABSTRACT

Following the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatments, the mean lifespan of patients with an HIV infection has increased to a level comparable to the general population. Patients receiving HIV treatment can achieve viral suppression and perform routine activities without the risk of infection transmission. Recently, the quality of life (QoL) and mental health of patients are becoming the primary outcomes in HIV treatment. The objective of this review was to investigate psychiatric disorders in patients with an HIV infection and available treatment programs. A search for clinical studies and scientific publications was performed. Patients with an HIV infection had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders than the general population. The psychopathological factors in HIV infection included neurobiological changes of infection, side-effects of medications, negative social perception, and unresolved intrapsychic conflicts. Severe and unmanaged psychiatric disorders with HIV infection negatively impacted HIV infection transmission and treatment adherence. However, psychiatric treatment programs and referrals to a psychiatric professional were found to be insufficient in most countries. This review revealed a need for psychiatric interventions in clinical practice to improve patients’ mental health and HIV treatment adherence. Psychiatric interventions integrated with conventional HIV treatment can be efficacious to achieve this goal. In addition, clinicians need to investigate and recognize HIV-related stigma as the relationship between patients and clinicians has a significant role in the patient’s treatment adherence.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1079-1089, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832592

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The purpose of this study is to identify personality types that can influence breast cancer screening (BCS) compliance among Korean women with breast cancer using a mixed-method approach. @*Methods@#The participants consisted of 93 women who underwent surgery for breast cancer between July 2010 and March 2012. The demographic and medical characteristics of the participants were evaluated through structured interviews. To identify personality types, in-depth interviews were performed and the transcribed interviews were evaluated using interpretive phenomenological analysis. The participants were categorized into two groups (compliance and non-compliance) based on compliance with the Korean Breast Cancer Society recommendations for BCS. @*Results@#Five personality types were identified through phenomenological analysis. There were significant differences in the chi-square test results for the BCS compliance and non-compliance groups according to age (p=0.048), cancer stage (p<0.001), and personality types (p=0.018). Logistic regression showed that the odds ratio for compliance with BCS was 9.35 (p=0.01) for individuals with a cautious-organized personality type, 9.38 (p=0.02) for those with a cautious-dependent personality, and 10.58 (p=0.04) for those with a sensitive-downcast personality compared to those with a cautious personality type. @*Conclusion@#Participants with cautious-organized, cautious-dependent, and sensitive-downcast personality types were less likely to follow the BCS recommendations than those with a cautious personality type. This study provides a basis for the future development of an effective questionnaire to investigate the personality types of individuals with breast cancer in order to predict compliance with BCS.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831736

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the impact of getting older than the mean marriage age on mental disorders and suicidality among never-married people. @*Methods@#We performed an epidemiological survey, a nationwide study of mental disorders, in 2016. In this study, a multi-stage cluster sampling was adopted. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was conducted with 5,102 respondents aged 18 years or above. The associations between never-married status, mental disorders, and suicidality were explored according to whether the mean age of first marriage (men = 32.8 years; women = 30.1 years) had passed. @*Results@#Never-married status over the mean marriage age was associated with agoraphobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and major depressive disorder after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Respondents with never-married status above the mean marriage age were associated with suicide attempts (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–7.60) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, while respondents with never-married status under the mean marriage age were not. Moreover, in respondents with never-married status, getting older than the mean marriage age was associated with suicidal ideations (aOR, 1.49;95% CI, 1.04–2.15) and suicide attempts (aOR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.46–7.84) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. @*Conclusion@#Never-married status above the mean first marriage age was associated with mental disorders and suicidality. These findings suggest the need for a national strategy to develop an environment where people with never-married status do not suffer even if their marriage is delayed.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between childhood bullying and adulthood mental disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria. We investigated the association of childhood peer bullying with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders and suicidality in adults. METHODS: A total of 5,102 respondents aged 18 or over completed the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and a questionnaire for suicidal ideas, plans, and attempts. We evaluated peer bullying using an item in the Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between victimization of peer bullying, adult psychiatric disorders, and suicidality. RESULTS: Around 8.8% of the general population in Korea reported the experience of being bullied when growing up. Bullying experience was associated with an increase in the adulthood prevalence of nicotine use disorders (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75–3.49), alcohol use disorders (aOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.49–2.51), mood disorders (aOR, 4.23; 95% CI, 3.01–5.94), and anxiety disorders (aOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.89–4.43) after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Among anxiety disorders, the OR for post-traumatic stress disorder (aOR, 9.95; 95% CI, 5.62–17.63) was notably high. Frequent victimization (many times) was significantly associated with suicidality even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders, whereas occasional victimization (once or a few times) was not. CONCLUSION: Childhood bullying experience was associated with adult psychiatric disorders and suicidality. The findings indicated the importance of the early detection and management of childhood peer bullying to reduce detrimental adulthood consequences.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anxiety Disorders , Bullying , Crime Victims , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Mental Disorders , Mood Disorders , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco Use Disorder
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Panic disorder (PD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) can occur concurrently, despite different clinical manifestations. Because MDD and PD patients tend to have more complicated conditions, understanding the co-occurrence and pattern of these conditions is important. Here, we investigated the influence of PD and MDD on each other, with respect to time interval. METHODS: Data from three national representative surveys were pooled (total 18,807 respondents), and the age of onset (AOO) of PD and MDD was analyzed. We performed Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate separate survival functions, using the AOO of MDD and PD as the outcome. To understand the temporal effect of other disorders, we used a Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the hazard ratios for the onset of MDD/PD with other comorbidities as time-dependent covariates. RESULTS: PD elevated the risk of subsequent MDD by 1.5-fold, whereas MDD elevated the risk of subsequent PD by 3.8-fold. The effect of such an elevation risk was significant for up to 2 years. CONCLUSION: The results revealed a bidirectional relationship between MDD and PD. Each disease represents a risk of a subsequent occurrence of the other, which lasts for a considerable duration.


Subject(s)
Age of Onset , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder, Major , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Korea , Panic Disorder , Panic , Proportional Hazards Models
7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763544

ABSTRACT

We report an extremely rare case of a patient with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury who recovered consciousness and motor and cognitive functions due to paradoxical response after zolpidem administration. A 32-year-old woman who had attempted suicide by hanging was admitted. The patient had stabilized in a state of drowsy mentality, quadriparesis, dysphagia, and impaired cognition. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of hypoxic ischemic brain injury and unilateral infarction in the right posterior cerebral artery territory. Due to sleep disturbance, zolpidem was administered, and paradoxically consciousness level and function returned to near-normal during the duration of the drug-effect. In addition to previous reports, our case characteristically showed remarkable motor and cognitive function recovery, not only consciousness level. The drug-effect time was gradually decreased after 18 months and absent after 3 years. We have reviewed related literature and discussed possible neuropharmacological and neurobiological mechanism.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain Injuries , Brain , Cognition , Consciousness , Deglutition Disorders , Female , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Infarction , Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Quadriplegia , Suicide, Attempted
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study intended to identify the deficits of cognitive control among patients with bipolar I disorder and their first-degree relatives, and identify the possibility of cognitive control as an endophenotype of bipolar disorder. METHODS: The study included three groups: euthymic states patients with bipolar I disorder (n = 55), unaffected first-degree relatives of probands with bipolar I disorder (n = 30), and a healthy control group (n = 51), that was matched on age, sex, and years of education. The AX version of the continuous performance test (CPT) was used to examine cognitive control. Error rate, correct response times of each subsets (AX, BX, AY, BY), and d' as an indication of accuracy sensitivity index were calculated. Psychopathology, intelligence, and psychomotor speed were also assessed. RESULTS: Patients with bipolar I disorder showed significantly worse error rates in the AX (p = 0.01) and BX (p = 0.02) subsets and d' (p = 0.05) than the others. They also showed more delayed correct response times than the healthy control group and first-degree relatives in all subsets (p < 0.01). But first-degree relatives showed neither high error rates nor delayed correct response times than healthy control group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that cognitive control is impaired in bipolar I disorder but less likely to be an endophynotype of bipolar I disorder.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Education , Endophenotypes , Humans , Intelligence , Psychopathology , Reaction Time
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychiatric manifestations like depression and cognitive dysfunction commonly occur in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the context of the brain-gut axis model, colitis can lead to alteration of brain function in a bottom-up manner. Here, the changes in the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation-related markers in the brain in colitis were studied. METHODS: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was used to generate a mouse model of colitis. Mice were treated with DSS for 3 or 7 days and sacrificed. We analyzed the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the expression of GFAP, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Additionally, the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol/corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Alteration of inflammatory-related markers varied depending on the brain region and exposure time. In the hippocampus, COX-2 mRNA, GFAP mRNA, and GFAP expression were upregulated during exposure to DSS. However, in the hypothalamus, COX-2 mRNA was upregulated only 3 days after treatment. In the amygdala, BDNF and COX-2 mRNAs were downregulated. CRP and corticosterone expression increased with DSS treatment at day 7. CONCLUSION: IBD could lead to neuroinflammation in a bottom-up manner, and this effect varied according to brain region. Stress-related hormones and serum inflammatory markers, such as CRP, were upregulated from the third day of DSS treatment. Therefore, early and active intervention is required to prevent psychological and behavioral changes caused by IBD, and region-specific studies can help understand the precise mechanisms by which IBD affects the brain.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , C-Reactive Protein , Colitis , Corticosterone , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Depression , Dextrans , Gene Expression , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Hippocampus , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 546-549, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714716

ABSTRACT

A 22-year-old man was admitted with gradually aggravating stereotypic head movement with hypomania. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large suprasellar arachnoid cyst extending into the third ventricle, with obstructive hydrocephalus, characteristic of bobble-head doll syndrome. Endoscopic fenestration of the suprasellar arachnoid cyst was performed. Stereotypic head movement stopped immediately after surgery and hypomanic symptoms gradually improved within a month. During 4 years of follow-up observation without medication, neuropsychiatric symptoms did not relapse. We report our experience of surgically treating stereotypy and hypomania in a case of bobble-head doll syndrome and discuss the possible neuropsychiatric mechanisms of this rare disease.


Subject(s)
Arachnoid , Arachnoid Cysts , Bipolar Disorder , Brain , Follow-Up Studies , Head Movements , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Rare Diseases , Recurrence , Third Ventricle , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The quality of life (QoL) of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is very poor, plausibly due to both psychosocial and medical factors. This study aimed to determine the relationship among psychosocial factors, medical factors, and QoL in patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD). METHODS: In total, 55 male and 47 female patients were evaluated (mean age, 57.1 ± 12.0 years). The QoL was evaluated using the Korean version of World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Abbreviated Version. The psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Zarit Burden Interview. The medical factors were assessed using laboratory examinations. Correlation and canonical correlation analyses were performed to investigate the association patterns. RESULTS: The QoL was significantly correlated with the psychosocial factors, and to a lesser extent with the medical factors. The medical and psychosocial factors were also correlated. The canonical correlation analysis indicated a correlation between QoL and psychosocial factors (1st canonical correlation = 0.696, P < 0.001; 2nd canonical correlation = 0.421, P = 0.191), but not medical factors (1st canonical correlation = 0.478, P = 0.475; 2nd canonical correlation = 0.419, P = 0.751). The medical and psychosocial factors were also correlated (1st canonical correlation = 0.689, P < 0.001; 2nd canonical correlation = 0.603, P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Psychosocial factors influence QoL in patients with ESRD, and should thus be carefully considered when caring for these patients in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Male , Psychology , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis , Statistics as Topic , World Health Organization
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 805-810, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify attachment insecurity as an associative factor with unresolved psychological distress 1 year after surgery in the early breast cancer (BC) population. METHODS: One-hundred fourteen participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Experiences in Close Relationship (ECR-M36) questionnaire within 1 week (baseline) and at 1-year post-surgery (follow-up). Participants were categorized into the distress and the non-distress groups based on a HADS-total score cut-off of 15. Logistic regression analysis revealed predictive factors of distress at follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, 53 (46.5%) participants were found to be in the distress group. The degree of distress decreased over 1 year (p= 0.003); however, 43 (37.7%) showed significant remaining distress at follow-up. Baseline scores of the ECR-M36 avoidance [odds ratio (OR)=1.045, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.002–1.090] and HADS-total (OR=1.138, 95% CI=1.043–1.241) were predictors of distress at follow-up. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of early BC patients suffer distress even one-year after surgery. Avoidant attachment appeared to be an influential factor on distress in early BC patients. Moreover, the finding that initial distress level could predict one at 1-year post-operation warrant a screening and management of distress along with BC treatment.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Depression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Logistic Models , Mass Screening
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152975

ABSTRACT

Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are useful in the treatments for schizophrenic patients with poor adherence due to their maintaining feature of therapeutic plasma level without daily administrations. However, their long-lasting property can cause complicated problems such as a long-lasting side effect. We report a patient who experienced LAI-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) for 5 months after a single injection. During that period, every trial to ameliorate this condition turned out to be a failure. The 3-month formulation of paliperidone palmitate is now close at hand. We have to be aware of possible long-lasting adverse events and confirm the tolerability to LAI before use.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Hand , Humans , Paliperidone Palmitate , Plasma , Schizophrenia
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13349

ABSTRACT

The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) was developed to overcome the limitations of existing instruments and reflect the current view of negative symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (K-CAINS). Inpatients (n = 49) and outpatients (n = 70) with schizophrenia were recruited from three institutions. The confirmative factor analysis, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity were assessed. The study group consisted of 71 males (59.7%) and 48 females (40.3%). Their mean age was 42.15 years (SD = 12.2). The K-CAINS was confirmed to be divided into two subscales of 9 items related to "motivation/pleasure" and 4 items related to "expression" in concordance with the original version of the CAINS. The results showed that the K-CAINS had a good inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.84-0.94), test-retest reliability (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). Convergent validity was proven by demonstrating a significant correlation with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale, and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Discriminant validity was proven by the lack of a significant correlation with the PANSS positive subscale, the Korean version of the Beck depression inventory (BDI), the Korean version of the Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia (K-CDSS), and the Modified Simpson Angus scale (MSAS). The K-CAINS could be a reliable and valid tool to assess the negative symptoms of Korean schizophrenia patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians , Discriminant Analysis , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Republic of Korea , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Translating
15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 483-490, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Modified Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-M36) scale was developed for medically ill, older individuals in 2008 (Toronto, Canada, department of psychosocial oncology and palliative care, Princess Margaret Hospital). The scale has displayed satisfactory reliability and validity. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Modified Experiences in Close Relationships (K-ECR-M36) questionnaire in female patients with breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 199 post-operative breast cancer patients completed the K-ECR-M36 as well as other psychological measures including the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The reliability and validity of the K-ECR-M36 were evaluated. Explorative factor analysis was conducted to identify the factor structure of the K-ECR-M36. RESULTS: The K-ECR-M36 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.87) and reasonable test-retest reliability (r=0.752, p<0.001). The total as well as avoidance and anxiety subscales demonstrated construct validity with the RAAS, the HADS, and the WHOQOL-BREF. Factor analysis revealed four-factor structure which was originally proposed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998). CONCLUSION: These findings support that the K-ECR-M36 has satisfactory reliability, validity and factor structure among patients with breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anxiety , Breast Neoplasms , Canada , Depression , Female , Humans , Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Reproducibility of Results , World Health Organization
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47712

ABSTRACT

Psychosocial problems increase the risk for mental health problems and increase the need for health care services in children and adolescents. Primary care practice is a valuable avenue for identifying the need for more specialized mental health care. We hypothesized that Korean version of the pediatric symptom checklist (PSC) would be a useful tool for early detection of psychosocial problems in children and adolescents in Korea and we aimed to suggest cut-off scores for detecting meaningful psychosocial problems. A total of 397 children with their parents and 97 child patients with their parents were asked to complete the PSC Korean version and the child behavior checklist (CBCL). The internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the PSC as well as the cut-off score of the PSC was determined via receiver operating characteristic analysis of the CBCL score, clinical group scores and non-clinical group scores. The internal consistency of the PSC-Korean version was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.95). The test-retest reliability was r = 0.73 (P or = 60) and presence of clinical diagnosis, the recommended cut-off score of the PSC was 14. Using 494 Korean children aged 7-12 yr, the current study assessed the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the PSC and suggested a cut-off for recommending further clinical assessment. The present results suggest that the Korean version of the PSC has good internal consistency and validity using the standard of CBCL scores.


Subject(s)
Checklist/methods , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/standards , Pediatrics/standards , Population , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea , Sensitivity and Specificity , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Symptom Assessment/methods , Translating , United States
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of attachment security, social support and health-related burden in the prediction of psychological distress and the mediation effects of social support and health-related burden in relationship between attachment security and psychological distress. METHODS: Finally, 161 patients were included for the analysis. Chi-square test and independent samples t-test were used for comparing differences between depressive/anxious group and non-depressive/non-anxious group. For evaluating the relationship among attachment security, social support, psychological distress and health-related burden, structural equation modeling analysis were performed. RESULTS: 40.7% and 32.0% of the patients have significant depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms, respectively. In the analysis for testing the differences between groups who have psychological distress and who have not, there were no significant differences of sociodemographic factors and medical characteristics between groups, except for association between depressive symptoms and type of surgery (p = 0.01). Contrary to sociodemographic and medical characteristics, there were significant differences of health-related burden and two coping resources (attachment security and social support) between groups (all p < 0.01), except for the support from medical team in between anxious group and non-anxious group (p = 0.20). In the structural equation model analysis (Model fit : chi-square/df ratio = 0.8, root mean square error of approximation = 0.000, comparative fit index = 1.000, non-normed fit index =0.991), attachment security and social support emerged as an important predictor of psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Attachment security and social support are important factors affecting the psychological distress. We suggest that individual attachment style and the social support state must be considered to approach the newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with psychological distress.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Breast Neoplasms , Depression , Humans , Negotiating , Psychopathology , Social Security
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55541

ABSTRACT

Acamprosate reduces the craving for alcohol by decreasing glutamate activity and increasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) action in patients with alcohol dependence. Acamprosate has tolerable side effects that include diarrhea, headache, dizziness and pruritus. In this study, we report acamprosate-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in an elderly patient with no history of neurologic disease. Severe extrapyramidal symptoms developed two days after the administration of acamprosate and improved over one week after the acamprosate was stopped. Extrapyramidal symptoms are commonly associated with dopamine receptor antagonists. However, there have been several reports of extrapyramidal symptoms occurring with drugs targeting other systems, including GABA, glutamate and serotonin. Acamprosate may decrease dopamine levels in the ventral tegmental area mediated by glutamatergic action and thus cause extrapyramidal symptoms. We suggest that acamprosate carries the risk of causing extrapyramidal symptoms.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alcoholism , Diarrhea , Dizziness , Dopamine , Dopamine Antagonists , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glutamic Acid , Headache , Humans , Pruritus , Serotonin , Ventral Tegmental Area
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer has been the most prevalent female cancer in South Korea since 2001. Early detection of this disease is the most effective strategy for reducing mortality. The objective of this study was to identify factors which could predict advanced stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. METHODS: Participants who were initially diagnosed with breast cancer and referred to the Stress Clinic of the Breast Cancer Center at Kyungpook National University Hospital were included. Through a semi-structured interview, the authors investigated psychosocial variables such as the extent of marital and family functioning and emotional-economic family burden as well as sociodemographic and health behavior-, health characteristic- and cancer-related variables. RESULTS: Data were collected from 219 participants. One hundred and twenty(54.8%) subjects were diagnosed with advanced-stage breast cancer. Variables that were significantly different between the advanced-stage and early-stage groups included : monthly breast self examination(p<0.000), annual mammographic screening(p< 0.000), mode of tumor detection(p<0.000), nature of the first symptoms(p<0.000), time to treatment after di-agnosis(p<0.000), overloaded economic and family burden(p=0.018), marital functioning(p<0.000) and family functioning(p<0.00). Logistic regression analysis indicated that irregular annual mammography screening(OR=7.431 ; 95% CI 2.407-22.944) or a lack of screening(OR=25.299 ; 95% CI 7.855-81.482) and a dysfunctional marital relationship(OR=4.772 ; 95% CI 2.244-10.145) were significantly associated with advanced stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We reconfirmed screening behavior to be a risk factor for delayed diagnosis of breast cancer. Our findings also emphasized the importance of psychosocial factors such as marital functioning in early detection of breast cancer. Psychiatric consultation in the area of martial functioning could be beneficial for increasing early detection in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Mammography , Marriage , Mass Screening , Mortality , Psychology , Risk Factors , Time-to-Treatment
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between rs6280 and rs905568 genetic polymorphism of DRD3 gene and the treatment response of amisulpride. METHODS: After six weeks treatment of amisulpride, 125 schizophrenia patients were interviewed based on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S). The genotyping for rs6280 and rs905568 was performed using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the frequency of genotype and allele of rs6280 between the responders and non-responders based on the total, positive, and general score of PANSS and CGI-S score. However, there was a significant association between this SNP and treatment response in the negative score of PANSS (chi2 = 5.23, p = 0.022). There was no significant association between rs905568 and the response in positive, negative, general, and total PANSS score and CGI-S score. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first positive association study between DRD3 gene and the treatment response of negative symptoms to amisulpride in Korean schizophrenia patients. A larger scale research on more SNP of the DRD3 gene will make a progress in the study of pharmacogenetics on the treatment response of the amisulpride.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Dopamine , Genotype , Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Dopamine D3 , Schizophrenia
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