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1.
Korean Journal of Dermatology ; : 82-90, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926613

ABSTRACT

Background@#Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder characterized by the destruction of melanocytes via an autoimmune-mediated process. Treatments can be categorized into nonsurgical and surgical methods. Prognostic factors of surgical management in vitiligo have not been widely studied in the Korean population. @*Objective@#To investigate the prognostic factors of tissue grafts in vitiligo. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent tissue grafting for vitiligo between January 2010 and December 2020. Medical records and clinical photographs were reviewed, and demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment outcomes were collected. @*Results@#A total of 195 cases were evaluated, and among them, 86 (44.1%) showed 75% improvement, and 49 (25.1%) showed 50% to 74% improvements 3 months after surgery. Statistical analyses showed that the prognosis of tissue grafting was significantly different according to vitiligo subtype, recipient site, and grafting method. The focal and segmental type, head and neck sites, and suction blister grafting showed favorable results compared with the non-segmental type, sites other than the head and neck, and punch grafting. Age and adjuvant phototherapy did not affect the clinical outcomes. @*Conclusion@#This study proposes several clinical factors that affect the outcomes of skin grafting in vitiligo.

2.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e13-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902556

ABSTRACT

Mammalian reovirus (MRV) causes respiratory and intestinal disease in mammals. Although MRV isolates have been reported to circulate in several animals, there are no reports on Korean MRV isolates from wildlife. We investigated the biological and molecular characteristics of Korean MRV isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of the segment 1 gene. In total, 144 swabs from wild animals were prepared for virus isolation. Based on virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, indirect fluorescence assays, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, one isolate was confirmed to be MRV. The isolate exhibited a hemagglutination activity level of 16 units with pig erythrocytes and had a maximum viral titer of 105.7 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL in Vero cells at 5 days after inoculation. The nucleotide and amino-acid sequences of the partial segment S1 of the MReo2045 isolate were determined and compared with those of other MRV strains. The MReo2045 isolate had nucleotide sequences similar to MRV-3 and was most similar (96.1%) to the T3/Bat/Germany/342/08 strain, which was isolated in Germany in 2008. The MReo2045 isolate will be useful as an antigen for sero-epidemiological studies and developing diagnostic tools.

3.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e19-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902551

ABSTRACT

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) causes leukopenia and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, killing 50% of naturally infected cats. Although intact FPV can serve as an antigen in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, accidental laboratory-mediated infection a concern. A non-infectious diagnostic reagent is required for the HI test. Here, we expressed the viral protein 2 (VP2) gene of the FPV strain currently prevalent in South Korea in a baculovirus expression system; VP2 protein was identified by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, electron microscopy (EM), Western blotting (WB), and a hemagglutination assay (HA). EM showed that the recombinant VP2 protein self-assembled to form virus-like particles. WB revealed that the recombinant VP2 was 65 kDa in size. The HA activity of the recombinant VP2 protein was very high at 1:215. A total of 143 cat serum samples were tested using FPV (HI-FPV test) and the recombinant VP2 protein (HI-VP2 test) as HI antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the HI-VP2 test were 99.3%, 88.9%, and 99.3%, respectively, compared to the HI-FPV test. The HI-VP2 and HI-FPV results correlated significantly (r = 0.978). Thus, recombinant VP2 can substitute for intact FPV as the serological diagnostic reagent of the HI test for FPV.

4.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e56-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901426

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is a standard assay for quantifying rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) in serum. However, a safer rabies virus (RABV) should be used in the FAVN assay. There is a need for a new method that is economical and time-saving by eliminating the immunostaining step. @*Objectives@#We aimed to improve the traditional FAVN method by rescuing and characterizing a new recombinant RABV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). @*Methods@#A new recombinant RABV expressing GFP designated as ERAGS-GFP was rescued using a reverse genetic system. Immuno-fluorescence assay, peroxidase-linked assay, electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to confirm the recombinant ERAGS-GFP virus as a RABV expressing the GFP gene. The safety of ERAGS-GFP was evaluated in 4-week-old mice. The rabies VNA titers were measured and compared with conventional FAVN and FAVN-GFP tests using VERO cells. @*Results@#The virus propagated in VERO cells was confirmed as RABV expressing GFP.The ERAGS-GFP showed the highest titer (108.0TCID50/mL) in VERO cells at 5 days postinoculation, and GFP expression persisted until passage 30. The body weight of 4-week-old mice inoculated intracranially with ERAGS-GFP continued to increase and the survival rate was 100%. In 62 dog sera, the FAVN-GFP result was significantly correlated with that of conventional FAVN (r = 0.95). @*Conclusions@#We constructed ERAGS-GFP, which could replace the challenge virus standard-11 strain used in FAVN test.

5.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e13-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894852

ABSTRACT

Mammalian reovirus (MRV) causes respiratory and intestinal disease in mammals. Although MRV isolates have been reported to circulate in several animals, there are no reports on Korean MRV isolates from wildlife. We investigated the biological and molecular characteristics of Korean MRV isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of the segment 1 gene. In total, 144 swabs from wild animals were prepared for virus isolation. Based on virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, indirect fluorescence assays, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, one isolate was confirmed to be MRV. The isolate exhibited a hemagglutination activity level of 16 units with pig erythrocytes and had a maximum viral titer of 105.7 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL in Vero cells at 5 days after inoculation. The nucleotide and amino-acid sequences of the partial segment S1 of the MReo2045 isolate were determined and compared with those of other MRV strains. The MReo2045 isolate had nucleotide sequences similar to MRV-3 and was most similar (96.1%) to the T3/Bat/Germany/342/08 strain, which was isolated in Germany in 2008. The MReo2045 isolate will be useful as an antigen for sero-epidemiological studies and developing diagnostic tools.

6.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e19-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894847

ABSTRACT

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) causes leukopenia and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, killing 50% of naturally infected cats. Although intact FPV can serve as an antigen in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, accidental laboratory-mediated infection a concern. A non-infectious diagnostic reagent is required for the HI test. Here, we expressed the viral protein 2 (VP2) gene of the FPV strain currently prevalent in South Korea in a baculovirus expression system; VP2 protein was identified by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, electron microscopy (EM), Western blotting (WB), and a hemagglutination assay (HA). EM showed that the recombinant VP2 protein self-assembled to form virus-like particles. WB revealed that the recombinant VP2 was 65 kDa in size. The HA activity of the recombinant VP2 protein was very high at 1:215. A total of 143 cat serum samples were tested using FPV (HI-FPV test) and the recombinant VP2 protein (HI-VP2 test) as HI antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the HI-VP2 test were 99.3%, 88.9%, and 99.3%, respectively, compared to the HI-FPV test. The HI-VP2 and HI-FPV results correlated significantly (r = 0.978). Thus, recombinant VP2 can substitute for intact FPV as the serological diagnostic reagent of the HI test for FPV.

7.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e56-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893722

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is a standard assay for quantifying rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) in serum. However, a safer rabies virus (RABV) should be used in the FAVN assay. There is a need for a new method that is economical and time-saving by eliminating the immunostaining step. @*Objectives@#We aimed to improve the traditional FAVN method by rescuing and characterizing a new recombinant RABV expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). @*Methods@#A new recombinant RABV expressing GFP designated as ERAGS-GFP was rescued using a reverse genetic system. Immuno-fluorescence assay, peroxidase-linked assay, electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to confirm the recombinant ERAGS-GFP virus as a RABV expressing the GFP gene. The safety of ERAGS-GFP was evaluated in 4-week-old mice. The rabies VNA titers were measured and compared with conventional FAVN and FAVN-GFP tests using VERO cells. @*Results@#The virus propagated in VERO cells was confirmed as RABV expressing GFP.The ERAGS-GFP showed the highest titer (108.0TCID50/mL) in VERO cells at 5 days postinoculation, and GFP expression persisted until passage 30. The body weight of 4-week-old mice inoculated intracranially with ERAGS-GFP continued to increase and the survival rate was 100%. In 62 dog sera, the FAVN-GFP result was significantly correlated with that of conventional FAVN (r = 0.95). @*Conclusions@#We constructed ERAGS-GFP, which could replace the challenge virus standard-11 strain used in FAVN test.

8.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 263-272, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898904

ABSTRACT

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) causes respiratory and ocular disease in cats.Although isolates of FHV-1 circulating in cats have been reported worldwide, Korean FHV-1 isolates and their features have not been reported thus far. We aimed to investigate the biological and molecular characterization of two FHV-1 isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) gene. In total, 48 samples from 12 cats were prepared for virus isolation.For the diagnosis, virus isolation, indirect fluorescence assay (IFA), electron microscopy (EM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the molecular characterization, cloning and sequencing were used. Based on many methods such as virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, IFA, EM, and PCR, two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they showed the highest viral titer (108.3 to 108.5 TCID50 /mL) in the Crandell–Rees Feline Kidney cells at 48 h after inoculation, but did not grow in MDCK and Vero cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the full TK and gB gene of FHV191071 and FHV191072 isolates were determined and compared with those of other herpesvirus strains. Two isolates possessed the same nucleotide sequences belonging to FHV-1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the KANS-02 strain, which was isolated from shelter in USA in 2016. Two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they will be a useful basic resource for evaluating current FHV-1 vaccine and developing diagnostic tools.

9.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 195-202, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902549

ABSTRACT

Feline calicivirus (FCV) infection results in a common upper respiratory disease associated with oral ulceration in cats.Although FCV infection has been reported in cats worldwide, the biologic and genetic features of South Korean FCV are unclear. We aimed to investigate the biological and genetic features of South Korean FCV isolates. Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells were used to isolate FCV from 58 organ homogenate samples. The FCV isolates were confirmed by cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Viral genetic analysis was carried out with VP2 gene and complete genomes of FCVs. Five viruses propagated in CRFK cells were confirmed to be FCVs. The FCV17D283 isolate showed the highest viral titer of 107.2TCID50 /mL at 36 h post-inoculation. Korean FCV isolates did not grow well in Vero, BHK-21, A72, or Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The FCV17D03 and FCV17D283 isolates had the highest genetic similarity (80.1% and 86.9%) with the UTCVM-H1 and 14Q315 strains, which were isolated in the United States and South Korea in 1995 and 2014, respectively. We isolated five FCVs from cats and detected important genetic differences among them. FCV isolates did not show any virulent effects in mice.

10.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e64-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833751

ABSTRACT

Background@#Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection results in high morbidity and mortality in dogs. There has been no report about Isolation of Korean CDV since 1980 in Korea. @*Objectives@#To investigate the biological properties and the genetic characterization of Korean CDV. @*Methods@#Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (dSLAM) gene named as Vero/dSLAM were used to isolate CDV using 17 samples. Diagnostic methods such as cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence assay, peroxidase linked assay, electron microscopy, rapid immunodiagnostic assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to confirm the Korean CDV isolate as a CDV. The genetic analysis was performed through cloning and sequencing of hemagglutinin gene of CDV isolate. @*Results@#A virus propagated in Vero/dSLAM cell was confirmed as CDV (CD1901 strain) based on the above methods. The CD1901 strain showed the highest viral titer (10 5.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose [TCID 50 ]/mL) in the Vero/dSLAM cells at 4 days post inoculation, but did not form a fork on chorioallantoic membrane of 7-day-old egg. Ribavirin, a nucleotide analogue anti-viral agent, inhibits moderately the Korean CDV propagation in the Vero/dSLAM cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the H gene of CD1901 strain were compared with those of other CDV strains. The CD1901 strain belonged to Asia 1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the BA134 strain, which was isolated in China in 2008. @*Conclusions@#We constructed successfully Vero/dSLAM and isolated one Korean CDV isolate (CD1901 strain) from a naturally infected dog. The CD1901 strain belonged to Asia 1 genotype.

11.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 195-202, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894845

ABSTRACT

Feline calicivirus (FCV) infection results in a common upper respiratory disease associated with oral ulceration in cats.Although FCV infection has been reported in cats worldwide, the biologic and genetic features of South Korean FCV are unclear. We aimed to investigate the biological and genetic features of South Korean FCV isolates. Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells were used to isolate FCV from 58 organ homogenate samples. The FCV isolates were confirmed by cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Viral genetic analysis was carried out with VP2 gene and complete genomes of FCVs. Five viruses propagated in CRFK cells were confirmed to be FCVs. The FCV17D283 isolate showed the highest viral titer of 107.2TCID50 /mL at 36 h post-inoculation. Korean FCV isolates did not grow well in Vero, BHK-21, A72, or Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The FCV17D03 and FCV17D283 isolates had the highest genetic similarity (80.1% and 86.9%) with the UTCVM-H1 and 14Q315 strains, which were isolated in the United States and South Korea in 1995 and 2014, respectively. We isolated five FCVs from cats and detected important genetic differences among them. FCV isolates did not show any virulent effects in mice.

12.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 263-272, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891200

ABSTRACT

Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) causes respiratory and ocular disease in cats.Although isolates of FHV-1 circulating in cats have been reported worldwide, Korean FHV-1 isolates and their features have not been reported thus far. We aimed to investigate the biological and molecular characterization of two FHV-1 isolates based on the nucleotide sequence of thymidine kinase (TK) and glycoprotein B (gB) gene. In total, 48 samples from 12 cats were prepared for virus isolation.For the diagnosis, virus isolation, indirect fluorescence assay (IFA), electron microscopy (EM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the molecular characterization, cloning and sequencing were used. Based on many methods such as virus isolation with specific cytopathic effects, IFA, EM, and PCR, two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they showed the highest viral titer (108.3 to 108.5 TCID50 /mL) in the Crandell–Rees Feline Kidney cells at 48 h after inoculation, but did not grow in MDCK and Vero cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the full TK and gB gene of FHV191071 and FHV191072 isolates were determined and compared with those of other herpesvirus strains. Two isolates possessed the same nucleotide sequences belonging to FHV-1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the KANS-02 strain, which was isolated from shelter in USA in 2016. Two isolates were confirmed as FHV-1 and they will be a useful basic resource for evaluating current FHV-1 vaccine and developing diagnostic tools.

13.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 124-132, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764239

ABSTRACT

Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) infection results in hepatitis in dogs. In this study, we investigated the biologic and genetic characteristics of the CAV-1 vaccine strain (CAV1V) to improve quality control about CAV vaccine. The identity of CAV1V as CAV-1 was confirmed based on its cytopathic effects and the results of hemagglutination (HA) and immunofluorescence assays, and electron microscopy. The CAV1V strain reached 10(7.5) TCID(50)/mL in MDCK cells at 4 days post-inoculation and exhibited hemmagglutination activity of 256 U using guinea pig erythrocytes. Intranuclear fluorescence in the infected cells was observed and typical adenoviruses were observed in electon microscope. CAV1V strain was identified as a CAV-1 strain by nucleotide sequence analysis. In a comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the fiber genes of several CAV strains, CAV1V showed the highest similarity (99.8%) with the GLAXO strain, which was isolated in Canada. Our biological characterization of CAV1V will facilitate quality control of the canine hepatitis vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Adenoviridae , Adenoviruses, Canine , Base Sequence , Canada , Erythrocytes , Fluorescence , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Guinea Pigs , Hemagglutination , Hepatitis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Microscopy, Electron , Quality Control
14.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 8-13, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Urocanase domain containing 1 (UROC1) has never been studied in prior studies on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). UROC1 causes urocanic aciduria, one of the symptoms of which is mental retardation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the UROC1 gene and ASDs in a Korean population. METHODS: A total of 258 control and 214 patients with ASD were used as subjects of this study. SNPs selected from UROC1 were genotyped using Illumina Golden-Gate Genotyping assay with VeraCode(R) technology. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS and Plink software. RESULTS: We found no association of the 12 SNPs in the UROC1 gene with ASDs in a Korean population. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the 12 SNPs (11 SNPs and 1 SNP in the intron and 3'UTR region, respectively) in the UROC1 were not associated with ASDs in a Korean population. Further study on the exon region of UROC1 is needed.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , 3' Untranslated Regions , Autistic Disorder , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Exons , Intellectual Disability , Introns , Phenothiazines , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Urocanate Hydratase
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